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Parish 2018

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Talk on Samuel Bonsall and William Fletcher Parish.

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Parish 2018

  1. 1. © Project SOUND Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2018 (our 14th year)
  2. 2. © Project SOUND S.B. Parish & W.F. Parish: amateur botanists in S. California C.M. Vadheim, K. Dawdy (and T. Drake) CSUDH (emeritus), CSUDH & City of Torrance Madrona Marsh Preserve May 5 & 10, 2018
  3. 3. 2018 Season – Gardens that sooth © Project SOUND Gardens that heal by telling an interesting story
  4. 4. Important CA plantspersons we have ‘met’ © Project SOUND Kate Sessions (1857-1940) Blanche Trask (1865-1916) Lester Rountree (1879 -1979) Theodore Payne (1872-1963) Alice Eastwood (1859-1951) Leroy Abrams (1874-1956) Katharine Brandegee (1844-1920) Beatrice F. Howitt (1891-1981) Parish brothers (1838/40-1918/28)
  5. 5. Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838-1928) and William Fletcher Parish (1840-1918)  Born in Paterson/Newark, NJ  Paterson, founded in 1792  Ushered in the American Industrial Revolution  Many types of manufacturing, but particularly the textiles (particularly silk) and heavy manufacturing  Father: Rev. Daniel Parish (Methodist Episcopal)  Nothing really known of their childhood. Had at least one half-sister © Project SOUNDhttp://citiesforcitizenship.com/paterson-nj/
  6. 6.  Elementary/high school?  Wesleyan University (Middletown CT) – 1854-56  Founded 1831; one of oldest Methodist Univ. – all male  Taught natural sciences from beginning  Member of Psi Upsilon fraternity  New York University – 1856-58; BA in 1858  Founded 1831; non-sectarian  Equal emphasis on Arts/ Sciences and Business  <150 students in 1850’s © Project SOUND Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838 - 1928) http://www.boweryboyshistory.com/2012/08/new-york-university- noble-idea-takes.html Hogwarts of Washington Square: The beautiful and supremely ostentatious University Hall at the northeast corner of the park, circa 1850. http://www.wesleyan.edu/libr/schome/ https://www.pinterest.com/pin/367958 232034146353/?lp=true
  7. 7. Washington Square East  The University building (begun 1835) – housed everything  By 1850’s, tensions rising over the issue of slavery © Project SOUND
  8. 8.  Became a high school teacher; subject ??  Ottowa (?St. Xavier) Academy (Ottowa, IL) – 1858-60  Barton Academy, Mobile AL – 1860-61  Became a public school in 1852 – AL oldest public school (still)  1860-65 – closed for Civil War © Project SOUND Samuel Bonsall Parish (1838 - 1928) https://www.pinterest.com/hometownconnect/ottawa-illinois-lasalle/?lp=true https://www.bartonacademy.org/history http://www.flickriver.com/groups/historicalmarkers/pool/interesting/
  9. 9. Both brothers fought in the American Civil War: 1862-1865  Samuel - 1st sergeant;  William – sergeant and later sergeant-major  Samuel: Company K, 2nd Kansas Volunteer Cavalry  William: Company C, 15th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry © Project SOUND https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6th_Regiment_Kansas_Volunteer_Cavalry
  10. 10. After the Civil War, both brothers moved west, with idea of getting into mining © Project SOUND  In the 1860’s, mining was booming all over the West, including California  Attracted adventurous young men from around the world http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist383/GoldRush.html http://www.miningartifacts.org/Arizona-Mines.html http://strayngerranger.com/salt-creek-hills-acec/
  11. 11. The Parish brothers ended up buying a ranch in San Bernardino, CA (1872)  I could find virtually nothing on the location, details of the ‘ranch’ © Project SOUND http://mojavehistory.com/lane11.html
  12. 12. San Bernardino area already had a rich history by the 1870’s  1820’s – Old Spanish Trail first ran through area (through Cajon Pass)  1842 – Rancho San Bernardino created  1842-43 – first colonists from New Mexico  1851 – Rancho sold to LDS Church (Mormons); remained until 1857 (most returned to Salt Lake)  1854 – City of San Bernardino incorporated © Project SOUND https://www.pinterest.com/pin/228065168601015638/ Old San Bernardino County Courthouse building, 1874. http://desertgazette.com/blog/cate gory/historical/page/2/
  13. 13. San Bernardino: 1860-80’s – time of change  1857 – first orange trees planted  1860 – gold first discovered in San Bernardino Mtns  1870’s - several large stores and two hotels  By 1880’s, bustling center of commerce  First railroad (it was a stagecoach stop before then); became a rail hub  Commercial center for booming citrus industry  Cultural amenities: opera house (1882); Court House; schools © Project SOUND http://theancestorfiles.blogspot.com/2014/06/a-picture-of-samuel- shepherd-and.html San Bernardino - 1875 http://landispublications.com/aboutus.html
  14. 14. FARMING IN SAN BERNARDINO - 1874 Land is Cheap ‘The neighborhood of San Bernardino appears to me an admirable country for thrifty farmers. Land is cheaper than near Los Angeles; water is abundant; there is still much valuable Congress and railroad land; there is a good market for all products; the soil is almost universally excellent, and I do not doubt that a thrifty New England or New York farmer would have raise a large family in comfort and independence on forty or at most eighty acres of land; and if he planted ten or twelve acres in oranges and walnuts, would, in ten years, have a handsome income with trifling labor for the rest of his life. By the time the valley is settled, the Southern Pacific Railroad, whose engineers are already working this way, will run through or near it, and the Arizona trade, which it already possesses, it will not lose.’ © Project SOUND "CALIFORNIA: A BOOK FOR TRAVELLERS AND SETTLERS" by Charles Nordhoff -1874 https://www.pinterest.com/pin/18718092 8236606755/
  15. 15. The Parish brothers were ‘fruit growers’  ‘Unimproved farming land near the town, with water easily accessible, is sold for from three to ten dollars per acre, in tracts of from fifty to one hundred sixty acres.’  Presumably they made a good enough living that they could pursue their other interests.  And among those interests was plant collecting – something that could be done in ‘off-times’ and might bring in a little money besides. © Project SOUND http://caviews.com/EarlyCalPhoto.html http://www.orangecountyhistory.org/history/grimshaw-anaheim.html
  16. 16. The Parish brothers also described themselves as ‘botanical collectors’  The ranch was well-suited for day and weeks-long trips, by horse and wagon, around S. California.  Samuel in particular became very interested in the flora of his area, which had not been studied extensively at the time.  Fortunately, they collected all sorts of plants, including the common ones © Project SOUND
  17. 17. © Project SOUND *Burrobush – Ambrosia dumosa
  18. 18. © Project SOUND *Burrobush/White bursage – Ambrosia dumosa http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_displa y.php?tid=823 ©1998 Larry Blakely ©2004 Steven Perkins  Mojave and Sonoran Deserts from CA to UT, AZ and NM  Gentle slopes, bajadas, dunes to 3000 ft. in Creosote Bush Scrub, Joshua Tree Woodland  Collected by Parishes, 1880 (Hesperia; Palm Springs; Agua Caliente); also by LeRoy Abrams, the Brandegees, Alice Eastwood, Roxana S. Ferris, W. L. Jepson, Philip A. Munz, many others
  19. 19. © Project SOUND Burrobush is a common desert sub-shrub  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-3 ft wide; spreading with age  Growth form:  Mounded sub-shrub  Drought-deciduous  Covered in white hairs; silvery  Foliage:  Small, leaves; densely packed along branches in wet season  Pale to medium green; resinous  Roots: spread via rhizomes & rooted branches ©2004 Heath McAllister
  20. 20. © Project SOUND Flowers understated  Blooms: In spring - usually Mar- May; may bloom again in Dec.  Flowers:  Separate male and female flowers on same plant  Flowers in small ‘heads’  Flowers small, yellow-green and not particularly noticeable  Wind-pollinated; hay-fever potential  Seeds: dried floral bracts form prickly, protective bur for seeds ©2008 Steve Matson
  21. 21. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained; best planted on slope or berm  pH: any local  Light: full sun; fine with heat  Water:  Winter: most years will be fine with rains  Summer: none to occasional – Water Zone 1 or 1-2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Inorganic or no mulch  Lightly shear in fall to shape (like a nibbling rabbit) ©1995 Saint Mary's College of California ©2010 Neal Kramer
  22. 22. © Project SOUND Burrowbush  Most often used as filler plant in desert-themed gardens; important desert species that evokes the desert  Fine in dry rock gardens or other dry plantings  Very tough, hardy ©2012 Jean Pawek ©2016 John Doyen
  23. 23. The Parish brothers first explored areas near their ranch  Became (esp. Samuel) important Southern California desert botanists.  Some plants they collected were new to science © Project SOUND Oreocarya confertiflora Greene – holotype Cushenberry Springs, Mojave Desert, May 1882
  24. 24. But the Parish brothers didn’t just collect plants of interest only to botanists © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Perhaps you need the look of a stately grass, but want something authentic © Project SOUNDhttps://gardenerdy.com/pampas-grass-maintenance
  26. 26. © Project SOUND If you come from Argentina, Pampas grass brings memories of home https://www.pinterest.com/pin/447826756672443901/
  27. 27. © Project SOUND *Parry’s nolina (Bear grass) – Nolina parryi https://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/3401--nolina-parryii
  28. 28. © Project SOUND *Parry’s nolina (Bear grass) – Nolina parryi http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=34682 Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences  First collected San Jacinto Mtns, S. B. Parish, 1879  Desert side, San Bernardino/San Jacinto Mtns.; foothills, Mojave and Sonoran (Colorado) Deserts  Dry slopes < 3000 ft., in Chaparral, Coastal Sage Scrub, Pinyon-Juniper Woodland, Joshua Tree Woodland communities.
  29. 29. © Project SOUND Parry’s nolina: look of yucca or grass  Size:  3-6+ ft tall  spreading colony to 8 ft wide  Growth form:  Mounded evergreen perennial with superficial appearance of yucca  Slow-growing, succulent  Largest and showiest Nolina  Foliage:  Strap-like gray-green leaves to 30 inches long ©2007 Neal Kramer
  30. 30. © Project SOUND Dramatic flowers  Blooms: mature plants bloom in spring (usually May-June)  Flowers:  Dioecious: separate male/ female plants  Flowers on both are cream- colored  Tiny flowers, densely packed on stout flowering stem  Good pollinator plant  Really dramatic!  Vegetative reproduction: produces ‘pups’ around base ©2016 Aaron Schusteff
  31. 31. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained (or plant on slope/berm)  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun  Good heat tolerance  Water:  Winter: probably OK most winters with rainwater  Summer: best with occasional water (once a month/Water Zone 1-2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic or no mulch; prune out old stalks as needed; easy plant to grow Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences
  32. 32. © Project SOUND Nolinas: accent plants  Accent plants in desert, chaparral or other water-wise gardens  Dramatic massed habitat plant: insects and birds  Stalks for food; fiber for coiled basketry  Link to past: Nolina parryi S. Watson ©2017 Jean Pawek http://www.thedangergarden.com/2018/01/rancho-santa-ana-botanic-garden.html
  33. 33. As they continued to collect, S.B. Parish began to interact with some of the important botanists of the day © Project SOUND https://oneidacountyhistory.wordpress.com/tag/asa-gray/ Dr. Asa Gray - Harvard Dr. Sereno Watson - Harvard http://botlib.huh.harvard.edu/libraries/Gray_Bicent/grayherbarium.htm Many specimens ended up at the Gray Herbarium: 128 specimens of Asteraceae alone in current collection Nolina parryi
  34. 34. Sereno Watson never made it to CA…  Dr. Asa Gray and Mrs. Gray visited California after traveling to the south and into Mexico by train.  Visited the Parishes at their ranch in 1885 (Gray was 75 then) © Project SOUNDhttp://botlib.huh.harvard.edu/libraries/Gray_Bicent/graybio.htm http://botlib.huh.harvard.edu/libr aries/Gray_Bicent/gray_west_co ast.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asa_Gray
  35. 35. Charles Christopher Parry (1823-1890)  Born in England; migrated to U.S. at age 9  M.D. from Columbia; practiced one year in Iowa  Joined the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (1848–1855) as surgeon and botanist.  First botanist in the United States Department of Agriculture (1869-1871);  Made extensive plant collections along the U.S.- Mexico border in California, and later in Colorado, Utah and other western states, many of which proved to be new species.  Discovered the Torrey pine and Engelmann spruce, which he named in honor of his mentors. © Project SOUND https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Charles_Christ opher_Parry
  36. 36. Parry became a good friend of S.B. Parish  Several plants are named after him, including the Parry Pinyon, Parry's Lily and Parry's Penstemon and Parry’s Nolina  Was an early collector in the Inland Empire – 1876-1880’s  Parry, wintering nearby at Colton, was a frequent visitor and companion of the Parish’s on many collecting expeditions.  PARRY AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BOTANY - S. B. Parish, The Plant World Vol. 12, No. 7 (JULY, 1909), pp. 158-162 © Project SOUND https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Char les_Christopher_Parry
  37. 37. Many of the early California botanists were really ‘naturalists’ (early ecologists)… © Project SOUND https://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/items/368920 …or they associated with those interested in insects, geology, etc. https://www.slv.vic.gov.au/contribute-create/vicfix/field-naturalists-club-victoria
  38. 38. The regional collections of Parry, the Parish’s and others have importance for today’s gardeners © Project SOUND https://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/1229--asclepias-californica
  39. 39. Pollinator gardens are becoming more popular every year © Project SOUND https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/553590979165579722 /?lp=true http://showcase830.rssing.com/chan-11676836/all_p9.html
  40. 40. Lot’s of interest in Monarch habitat © Project SOUND http://uphamengineering.com/milkweed/ Non-native milkweeds don’t provide the highest quality habitat for native Monarchs and Queens
  41. 41. Native milkweeds are pretty – they also provide a sense of place © Project SOUND Asclepias speciosa Asclepias sublata Asclepias eriocarpa Use sunflowers for yellow Asclepias fascicularis
  42. 42. © Project SOUND *California milkweed – Asclepias californica ©2005 Brent Miller
  43. 43.  Central California and south, excluding Central Valley; locally in Transverse Rnge, Santa Monicas  Collected by: Leroy Abrams, Anstruther Davidson, Alice Eastwood, W.L. Jepson, P.A. Munz  Collected by the Parish brothers in 1885, San Bernardino Mtns (first collected there by Daniel Cleveland, 1880) © Project SOUND *California milkweed – Asclepias californica http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=14357 J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan © California Academy of Sciences ©2011 Jean Pawek
  44. 44. © Project SOUND California milkweed: silvery folliage  Size:  1-3 ft tall  1-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial  Stems succulent; either upright or more sprawling  Foliage:  Simple, opposite leaves are succulent  Color: pale to blue-green; all of foliage covered with silvery hairs  Very attractive; nice contrast  Roots: taproot; difficult to move once established http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Asclepias_californica.htm
  45. 45. © Project SOUND Flowers: dark pinks  Blooms: in spring – usually April to July; flowering season dependent on timing of rains, temperatures  Flowers:  Typical modified milkweed shape, but:  Larger than most native  On longer flower stems  Darker color: bright medium pink to dark red-magenta – really striking  Seeds: typical fluffy seeds in rather large, stout pod  Vegetative reproduction: more stems each year Beatrice F. Howitt © California Academy of Sciences Charles Webber © California Academy of Sciences http://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Asclepias_californica.htm
  46. 46. © Project SOUND Drought-tolerant  Soils:  Texture: any local, sandy to clay – good for gardens  pH: any local  Light: full sun best; tolerates heat just fine  Water:  Winter: decent rains/ irrigation  Summer: drought-tolerant to occasional (1-2 times/month) – Water Zone 1-2 to 2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; light fertilize if grown in containers  Other: cut back old stems in fall. That’s about it.©2009 Barry Breckling
  47. 47. © Project SOUND Great contrasting local milkweed  In water-wise flower gardens for both flowers & foliage  For Monarch/Queen habitat: combine with other CA native species in homage to early naturalists  In a desert-themed garden  As an attractive pot plant ©2011 Neal Kramer ©2015 Debra L. Cook http://socalbutterflies.com/plants_html/asclepias_californica.htm
  48. 48. Wooly bluecurls is a spectacular native © Project SOUND But it’s not the only native shrubby Trichostema
  49. 49. © Project SOUND *Parish's bluecurls – Trichostema parishii ©2005 Aaron Schusteff
  50. 50. © Project SOUND *Parish's bluecurls – Trichostema parishii http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_dis play.php?tid=46996  Coastal Scrub, Chaparral, Joshua Tree Woodland - 1,800'-6,000'  One of only 2 perennial native Bluecurls – the rest are annuals  Collected by Parish brothers from Mojave Desert foothills, 1880-1895
  51. 51. Trichostema parishii Vasey: who is Vasey?  Botanical Gazette 6(2): 173. 1881  George S. Vasey, M.D. (1822 – 1893)  Collected with C.C. Parry, including in CA; knew (or at least knew of) the Parish brothers  1868 Chief Botanist of the USDA and curator of the greatly expanded National Herbarium.  Eight published works – mostly on grasses, (including 1890-91: Grasses of the Southwest (2 volumes)) © Project SOUND https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Vasey_(botanist)
  52. 52. © Project SOUND Parish’s romero: a smaller Wooly bluecurls  Size: (about half as big)  2-3 ft tall  2-4 ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen shrub; mounded form – looks garden-like  Glandular; aromatic  Moderate growth rate  Foliage:  Narrow, water-conserving leaves  Very attractive; not as hairy as wooly bluecurls ©2009 Neal Kramer
  53. 53. © Project SOUND Flowers: fantastic!  Blooms: spring to summer (usually April to June); may bloom over several months  Flowers:  Unusual shape – like Wooly bluecurls but not so fuzzy  Color: lavender-blue and magenta - really striking plant in bloom  Attracts insect pollinators and hummingbirds  Sweet scent – nice cut flower  Seeds: can propagate from seed; treat with GA3
  54. 54. © Project SOUND Hardy, drought- tolerant shrub  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained soil best; berm/slope if slow-draining  pH: any local  Light: best with afternoon shade in most gardens; full sun along immediate coast.  Water:  Winter: adequate (desert mountain plant)  Summer: little to none once established (3 summers); Water Zone 1 or 1-2  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Inorganic mulch only  Tip-prune when growing for best shape
  55. 55. © Project SOUND When you want a bluecurls but don’t have the space  As an accent plant in summer-dry beds or planters  In herb garden with the Mediterranean herbs  In scent and pollinator gardens; a tribute to the Parish brothers http://www.flickriver.com/photos/aking1/17060276929/
  56. 56. The Parish ranch: a haven for botanists for 48 years  Among the notables: Asa Gray, Edward Palmer, C.C. Parry, E.L. Greene, Cyrus Guernsey Pringle, John Gill Lemmon and George Engelmann  In later days Charles Sprague Sargent, Michael Schuck Bebb, Volney Spaulding, Hugo de Vries, Ellsworth Huntington, Joseph Nelson Rose, Harvey Monroe Hall and his wife Carlotta, William Skinner Cooper, Willis Linn Jepson, and many others were made welcome.  Many of these joined Parish in collecting trips.  Parish's wife Mary Eliza always had a visitor log of the famous botanical guests at their ranch. © Project SOUND http://www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pb io/usda/fnach7.html
  57. 57. Parish had built a specially strong wagon, with a low-hung body and broad tires adequate to hold hay, barley, water, food, and camping gear, and used it for collecting west to the sea beaches, east in the San Jacinto and San Bernardino mountains, and into the deserts both north and east. © Project SOUND https://www.pinterest.com/pin/29906784999027648/?lp=true http://www.westboundstage.com/museum.html Collecting was serious business
  58. 58. © Project SOUND *Sierra currant – Ribes nevadense © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  59. 59.  Sierras, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular and Desert Mtn. Ranges  Locally: San Gabriels  Leroy Abrams and the Parish brothers collected from San Gabriels and San Bernadinos  Lots of taxonomic debate: Ribes ascendens Eastw.; Ribes glaucescens Eastw.; Ribes grantii A. Heller; Ribes hittellianum Eastw.; Ribes nevadense var. glaucescens (Eastw.) A. Berger; Ribes nevadense var. jaegeri A. Berger; Ribes nevadense var. nevadense Kellogg ; © Project SOUND *Sierra currant – Ribes nevadense http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=41432 © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College
  60. 60. © Project SOUND Sierra currant: like Pink currant but smaller  Size:  4-6 ft tall  4-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Drought-deciduous woody shrub  Mounted to semi-upright; good shape for background shrub  Currant: no prickles  Foliage:  Typical shape leaves for currant; leaves slightly larger than Ribes sanguineum  Nice color; fragrant foliage (use for tea) ©2009 Barry Breckling ©2010 Jean Pawek
  61. 61. © Project SOUND Flowers and fruits  Blooms: in spring: Feb-Mar in lowlands, May-Jun at elevation  Flowers:  Typical pretty pink flowers of the native currants  Not quite as showy as Pink currant, but still pretty and fragrant  Excellent pollinator/butterfly/ hummingbird plant  Fruits: edible currant (fresh, baked, dried) for anything you’d use currant/gooseberry for. Birds will eat any you don’t use. ©2009 Barry Breckling ©2010 Jean Pawek
  62. 62. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any well-drained  pH: slightly acidic best; use acid fertilizer  Light: part-shade to quite shady. This is typically an understory plant in the wilds.  Water:  Winter: adequate  Summer: best with occasional summer water (1-2 times a month – Water Zone 2 best)  Fertilizer: fine with occasional light fertilizer (fertilize if grown in containers)  Other: prune dormant plants to shape; don’t plant near white pines (White pine blister rust) ©2016 Jean Pawek
  63. 63. © Project SOUND Currants in gardens  Make nice foundation, background shrubs  Great under trees; other shady spots  Can be grown in planters or large containers  Good habitat and edibles plant  Historic tie to Leroy Abrams, Parish http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of- california/plants/582--ribes-nevadense https://www.sevenoaksnativenursery.com/native- plants/shrubs/ribes-nevadense/ http://truckeeriverguide.org/exploring-truckee-river-trails-farad-to-floriston/
  64. 64. More ideas for using native currants © Project SOUND https://www.pinterest.com/pin/102316222757 062322/?lp=true Espalier along wall or fence As a screen or hedge Raised beds/edible gardenhttp://www.realmensow.co.uk/?p=3168
  65. 65. © Project SOUND https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/151000#page/15/mode/1up George Engelmann https://www.ranker.com/list/famous-botanists-from- germany/reference?page=5 Did the Parish brothers sell collected materials?
  66. 66. Eastwood was an avid conservationist.  She succeeded in getting most of Mount Tamalpais declared a state park.  She also helped form the “Save the Redwoods” League.  Worked to save a redwood grove in Humboldt County (which was named Alice Eastwood Memorial Grove). © Project SOUND http://islapedia.com/index.php?title=EASTWOOD,_Alice
  67. 67. Ways in which Lester Rowntree promoted conservation of California endemics  By providing seeds (not only to the public, but to gardens and preserves)  By writing about the importance of conservation – and teaching people how to grow the natives through her writings  By urging garden clubs and other groups to take action to:  Set aside protected Preserves  Use CA natives for re-vegetation  Educate others about Ca natives © Project SOUND
  68. 68. The Parish brothers collected: documenting the depth and breadth of S. California flora ‘Like many other amateur naturalists before him who have done things well, Samuel B. Parish carried on his botanical explorations of the native vegetation in Southern California because of the intellectual pleasures derived from field studies, and because of his love of the high mountains and the stark deserts’ W.L Jepson, 1929 © Project SOUND http://www.desertwildflower.com/early-botanists/samuel-bonsall-parish
  69. 69. The Parish’s also collected in western L.A. County, documenting some local rare species and plant communities © Project SOUND https://www.kcet.org/shows/lost-la/the-demise-of-dead-mans- island-lost-landmark-of-las-harbor  Ballona  Playa del Rey  Catalina  Long Beach  Santa Monica  Wilmington salt marshes https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Playa_del_Rey_lagoon_ showing_Del_Rey_Hotel,_Playa_Del_Rey_Pavilion_and_pier,_L os_Angeles,_ca.1908_(CHS-5380).jpg
  70. 70. Amassed a large personal herbarium  Collected 1870’s to 1920 (last trip)  Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey, Riverside (1879-1920), San Bernardino (1879-1919), San Diego, Santa Barbara counties.  > 30,000 specimens in U.S. herbaria, including Harvard (Gray herbarium); CA Acad of Sci; UC Jepson Herbarium; RSABG; San Diego Nat. Hist. Museum; Santa Barbara Bot. Garden; NY Botanic Garden.  S.B. Parish’s personal herbarium sold to Stanford U. in 1917. © Project SOUND In a league with Eastwood, Greene and other major collectors
  71. 71. Rare native plants in gardens: a way to protect our natural heritage © Project SOUND Nevin’s barberry – Berberis nevinii https://camissonia.blogspot.com/2010/05/treks-on-santa-rosa-plateau-vernal-pool.html
  72. 72. We’re already acquainted with some of California’s showy Brodiaeas © Project SOUND Brodiaea californica Brodiaea elegans
  73. 73. © Project SOUND Threadleaf brodiaea – Brodiaea filifolia https://camissonia.blogspot.com/2010/05/treks-on-santa-rosa-plateau-vernal-pool.html
  74. 74. © Project SOUND Threadleaf brodiaea – Brodiaea filifolia http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=16144 ©2008 Halleh Paymard©2004 Vince Scheidt  L.A., Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino & San Diego Counties. Locally: western flank of San Gabriels  Valley Grassland, Foothill Woodland, Coastal Sage Scrub, Freshwater Marsh, Wetland-riparian  AKA Hookera filifolia (S. Watson) Greene  First collected 1880 (by the Parishes); rare: listed by CA, US & CNPS
  75. 75. S.B. Parish was not a trained botanist, but he had opinions (and dared to debate) © Project SOUND https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/3/34/GreeneEL10.jpg Edward L. Greene
  76. 76. © Project SOUND Threadleaf brodiaea: perennial from corm Image by Jordan Zylstra http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/images/Brodiaea_filifolia_b.jpg  Size: petite  ~ 1 ft tall  < 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Perennial wildflower from a corm  Thin, strap-like leaves emerge in winter  Dies back after/during blooming  Foliage: several simple leaves  Corm: typical for brodiaea (to ~ 1 inch); rough covering
  77. 77. © Project SOUND Delicate flowers  Blooms: in spring – Mar-June depending on rains, temperatures  Flowers:  Sweet and petite; loose cluster of flowers atop a flowering stalk  Usually purple, lilac or pink- purple; occasionally white  Trumpet-shaped; petals most often slender  Common pollinators: native Halictid bees (and others) and tumbling flower beetles  Seeds: need at least 3 plants small, dark seeds in capsule; let re-seed naturally or collect, propagate ©2001 Salvatore Zimmitti ©2003 Vince Scheidt https://camissonia.blogspot.com/2010/05/treks-on-santa-rosa-plateau-vernal-pool.html
  78. 78. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: best in clay or clay- loam  pH: any local  Light: full sun to part-shade. At least 4 hours sun for best flowering.  Water:  Winter: moist soils through winter  Summer: let soils dry out when flowering commences  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; ½ strength dose in spring for container-grown  Other: dig up every 3-4 years; replant larger corms in another part of garden ©2004 Vince Scheidt
  79. 79. © Project SOUND S. CA endemic geophyte  Along walkways; around seating areas; in a rock garden  With local native grasses, wildflowers, shrubs  Bulbs & corms always make a great container plants https://www.sandiegoreader.com/photos/1988/aug/25/98052/  As a remembrance plant: to remember (and continue) the efforts of California’s pioneer plants-persons
  80. 80. Samuel B. Parish : the later years (1920 - 1928)  Spent much of the later years (1910-28) writing a wide range of articles – lay and professional  In 1920, Samuel and Eliza Parish moved to Berkeley, which had better access to libraries and herbaria (including his own)  Samuel was appointed Honorary Curator of the University of California Herbarium.  He also served as a lecturer at Stanford (finally became a professor) © Project SOUND http://www.desertwildflower.com/early-botanists/samuel-bonsall-parish
  81. 81. © Project SOUND Padre’s shooting star – Primula clevelandii ©2013 Steven Thorsted
  82. 82.  Santa Monica Mtns. south to N. Baja  Open, grassy, summer-dry areas in costal sage scrub, chaparral, valley grassland and woodland  Previous name: Dodecatheon clevelandii  Collected by S. B. Brewer, 2/19/1861, Santa Susana Mtns. Collected by Brandegees, S.B. Parish; © Project SOUND Padre’s shooting star – Primula clevelandii http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=98404 https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/5047188https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/891403
  83. 83. © Project SOUND Charming little perennial wildflower  Size:  1-2 ft tall  Spreads with time, producing clump of new plants  Growth form:  Herbaceous perennial; low, mounded form  Dies back to fleshy roots in spring  Foliage:  Basal rosette of rounded, blue-green leaves  Roots: fleshy; brittle ©2013 Margo Bors
  84. 84. © Project SOUND Charming flowers  Blooms: winter or early spring – often Jan-Feb. but may be later depending on rains, temperature.  Flowers:  Unusual form with swept-back petals  Usually mostly magenta or lavender, with white, yellow and dark purple.  Very decorative  Buzz-pollinated by bumblebees  Seeds: tan seeds in dry capsule  Vegetative reproduction: produces new plants (offsets) ©2013 Steven Thorsted
  85. 85. Starting Shooting stars from seed  Best from fresh seed  Plant in fall; very lightly cover  Good germination rates  Keep seedlings watered through Feb-Mar; then let die back  Ready to flower in 3-4 years  Plants will naturalize from seed in garden © Project SOUND http://pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Dodecatheon
  86. 86. © Project SOUND Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: most local soils, if summer dry. Clays OK  pH: not for alkali soils (pH > 8.0)  Light:  Best with afternoon shade or dappled shade.  Water:  Winter: needs moist soils in winter (like in local mtn/foothills)  Summer: infrequent or dry (Water Zones 1 or 1-2)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils; dose of ½ strength fertilizer in containers when plants start growing.  Other: light leaf mulch; not heavy, deep bark mulch©1995 Saint Mary's College of California
  87. 87. © Project SOUND A touch of nature  Does great in containers  Pretty in fronts of dry beds, around shrubs  Lovely under trees, especially winter-deciduous species  Magical when massed – really give a sense of season, place ©2013 Steven Thorsted https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/1293122
  88. 88. S.B. Parish: more than 100 scientific papers, notes, and reviews  Trees of southern California. Parish, S. B. (1894)  Little or Little-Known Plants of Southern California. (1898-99)  A group of western American Solanums. Parish, S. B. (1901)  Sketch of the Flora of Southern California. Parish, S. B. (1903)  A contribution toward a knowledge of the genus Washingtonia. - Parish, S. B., (1907)  A catalogue of plants collected in the Salton Sink. Parish, S. B. (1913)  Plant ecology and floristics of Salton Sink. Parish, S. B. (1914)  Observations in the Colorado Desert. Parish, S. B. (1915)  An enumeration of the pteridophytes and spermatophytes of the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Parish, S. B. (1917)  The immigrant plants of southern California. Parish, S. B. (1920)  It is unfortunate that the Parish manuscript on the Mojave flora was destroyed in the Berkeley fire in 1923. © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Important source for Leroy Abrams © Project SOUND https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044106364441;view=2up;seq=4
  90. 90. A sketch of the Flora of Southern California: insightful © Project SOUND The Parishes were excellent naturalists – good observers and recorders
  91. 91. The Southern California Juncaceae-I, Muhlenbergia, v.6, pp. 113-120(1910) © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Interests range from agriculture to plant anatomy/physiology © Project SOUND https://www.pittmandavis.com/tiny-tim-navels/p/ttn/
  93. 93. © Project SOUND *Catchfly prairie gentian – Eustoma exaltatum ©2009 Robert Sivinski
  94. 94. The genus Eustoma  Commonly known as lisianthus or prairie gentian; widely used in gardens, floristry trade  Small genus – 2-3 species; herbaceous annuals/perennials, 1-3 ft tall  Native to warm regions of S. United States, Mexico, Caribbean and n. South America - typically found in grasslands or in disturbed ground.  Bluish green, slightly succulent leaves and large, showy funnel-shaped flowers in all shades of pink, purple, white, and blue.  Eustoma flowers are either single- flowered or double-flowered. © Project SOUND
  95. 95. © Project SOUND *Catchfly prairie gentian – Eustoma exaltatum http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=80520  Widespread from CA to southeastern United States, Central America, West Indies  In CA, along Colorado, Santa Ana, other rivers in LA, Riverside, San Bernardino, Imperial & San Diego Cos.  Collected by the Parishes, Leroy Abrams (first collected by Dr. C.C. Parry) https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=EUEX5 http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=3642
  96. 96. © Project SOUND Catchfly prairie gentian: annual/perennial wildflower  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Herbaceous annual or short- lived perennial  Upright stems  Foliage:  Blue-green leaves; mostly below flowers  Simple, pleasant-looking leaves with waxy coat  Looks like a garden plant ©2009 Robert Sivinski
  97. 97. © Project SOUND Gardener’s dream  Blooms: off and on in warm season – usually May-Oct, maybe longer.  Flowers:  Flowers worthy of a garden  2-3 inches across  Five petals usually pink- lavender with white, yellow, darker purple accents (nectar guides)  Attracts insect pollinators, particularly native bees  Seeds: small tan seeds; will reseed on bare ground or collect seed and start in pots ©2006 Michael Charters https://www.wildflower.or g/plants/result.php?id_pl ant=EUEX5
  98. 98. © Project SOUND Catchflies need water  Soils:  Texture: any  pH: any local  Light: sun to part-shade; fine in dapple sun under trees or for east- facing exposures  Water:  Winter: needs moist soils  Summer: likes moist soils;  Regular water to keep it going through summer  Taper off water late summer  Fertilizer: fine with garden fertilizer applications  Other: cut back to 2-3 inches after seed production; will likely re-sprout©2006 Michael Charters
  99. 99. © Project SOUND Prairie catchfly  Cottage gardens; around vegetable garden or splashy fountain  Any part of garden that gets regular water  Fantastic in containers http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/taxa/index.php?taxon=3642 http://www.kswildflower.org/largePhotos.php?imageID=2326&aCategory=f&lastModifie d=2008-02-10 https://centerofthewebb.ecrater.com/p/29878796/mixed-lisianthus-eustoma- grandiflorum-20-seeds#
  100. 100. Eustoma exaltatum ssp. russellianum (Texas Bluebell)  The large flowers have an intense hue and keep blooming when many other plants are looking crispy and brown in the summer.  The blue-gray foliage is almost succulent.  Combines well with grasses and garden perennials, especially in larger gardens.  Great cut flower – can last 1-2 weeks  Often sold as Lisianthus exaltatum © Project SOUND https://plantsofthesouthwest.com/products/eustoma-exaltatum-ssp- russellianum?variant=11501384901
  101. 101. Lots of Lisianthus cultivars – readily available as seeds or plants (on-line or nursery) © Project SOUND https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lisianthus_aka_Eustoma_7217.JPG
  102. 102. Samuel Bonsall Parish : the later years (1920 - 1928)  In his late 80’s, Parish was working on his final large manuscript – a Flora of the Mojave Desert  Alas, their house, as well as Parish's unpublished manuscripts and papers, was lost in the Berkeley fire of September 17, 1923.  Samuel B. Parish passed away in Berkeley on June 15, 1928 at the age of 91.  William passed away in 1918 at the Wadsworth VA (‘Soldier’s Home’), after moving to Redondo/Hermosa Beach © Project SOUND http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/kt8n39r10m/?brand=oac4 http://berkeleyplaques.org/plaque/berkeley-fire/
  103. 103. The legacy of the Parish brothers lives on  Plants named in their honor  Their collections (herbaria; library and field notes)  Samuel B. Parish’s writings © Project SOUND https://www.amazon.com/Contribution-Toward-Knowledge-Genus- Washingtonia/dp/1166404986
  104. 104. Numerous plant names honor the Parish’s  Of all the taxa with the name parishii, the majority were collected by S.B. Parish and the rest are listed with both brothers as co-collectors. Therefore it would seem as though most taxa are named for the elder brother  A number of plants were named in his honor, including Acanthoschyphus parishii, Allium parishii, Atriplex parishii, Boechera parishii, Chaenactis parishii, Cheilanthes parishii, Delphinium parishii ssp. pallidum, Delphinium parishii ssp. parishii, Ericameria parishii, Erigeron parishii, Eriogonum parishii, Eschscholzia parishii, Euphorbia parishii, Galium parishii, Grusonia parishii, Heuchera parishii, Lycium parishii, Malacothamnus parishii, Mimulus parishii, Orobanche parishii ssp. brachyloba, Orobanche parishii ssp. parishii, Perideridia parishii, Phacelia parishii, Plagiobothrys parishii, Puccinellia parishii, Silene parishii, Solanum parishii, Stipa parishii, Symphoricarpos parishii, Tauschia parishii, Trichostema parishii, Viguiera parishii, and others. © Project SOUND When you see a species name ‘parishii’ think of the Parish brothers and their adventures
  105. 105. The Parish collections: resources for scientists throughout the world © Project SOUND  S.B. Parish was careful to document his herbarium specimens; his large herbarium was sold to Stanford University in 1917. The Parish collection is now part of CA Academy of Sciences herbarium  S. B. Parish’s extensive library was purchased by Pomona College in 1920. It now resides at Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden https://www.calacademy.org/scientists/academy-fellows
  106. 106. Some of the writings of Samuel B. Parish © Project SOUND  Volume 2. Addition to the Flora of Southern California, Zoe v.4:2, pp. 160-167(1893) -- New or Little-Known Plants fo Southern California - I, Erythea v.6:9, pp. 85-92(1898) -- New or Little-Known Plants of Southern California - II, Erythea, v.7:10, pp. 89-95(1Some of the writings of Samuel B.899) -- A New California Rose, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.1:7, pp. 87(1902) -- Contributions to Southern California Botany I, Zoe v.5:4 & 5), pp. 71-76(1900) -- Additions to the Southern California Flora, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.8, p.7(1909) -- Southern Extension of the Range of Polypodium Scouleri, Fern Bull. v.9:2, pp. 40- 42(1901) -- Some Plants Erroneously or Questionably Attributed to Southern California, Muhlenbergia, v.3, pp. 1-7(1907) -- The Southern California Species of Calochortus, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.1:8 & 9(1902) -- The Fern Bulletin, v.13:1, pp. 1- 32(1904) -- Teratological Notes, Torreya, v.6:2, pp. 32-34(1906) -- Bibliography of the Southern California Flora, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v. 8, pp. 1-4(1909) -- A Bibliography of the Southern California Flora. II., Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.9:1, pp. 57-62(1910) -- Recent Additions to the Flora of Southern California, Muhlenbergia, v.3, pp. 57-62(1907) -- Some Plants Erroneously or Questionably Attributed to Southern California, Muhlenbergia, v.3, pp. 1-7(1907) -- Notes on the Flora of Palm Springs, Muhlenbergia, v.3, pp. 121-128(1907) -- Other Teratological Notes, Torreya, v.8:7, pp. 164-167(1908) -- Parry and Southern California Botany, The Plant World, v.12:7, pp. 3-7(1909) -- Notes on Some Introduced Plants of Southern California - I, Muhlenbergia, v.5, pp. 109-115(1909) -- Notes on Some Introduced Plants of Southern California - II, Mulenbergia, v.5, pp. 121-128(1909) -- Roezl and the Type of Washingtonia, Bot. Gaz., v.48, pp. 262-263(1909) -- The Flowers of Washingtonia, Bot. Gaz., v.46, pp. 144-157(1908) -- Shorter Notes - The Weeping Willow in Winter, Torreya, v.10:2, pp. 38-39(1910) -- Recent Literature - Landmarks of Botanical History, Muhlenbergia, v.6, pp. 558, (1910) -- Reviews - The Origin of the Coco Palm, Torreya, v.10:12, pp. 269-237(1910) -- The Southern California Juncaceae-I, Muhlenbergia, v.6, pp. 113-120(1910) -- The Southern California Juncaceae-II, Muhlenbergia, v.6, pp. 121-128(1910) -- Recent Literature, Cone- Bearing Trees of the California Mountains, A Phytogeographic and Taxonomic Study of the Southern California Trees and Shrubs, A Flora of Western Middle California - Book Reviews, Muhlenbergia, v.2, pp. 55-57(1911) -- Additions and Emendations, Muhlenbergia, v.7, pp. 73-82(1911) -- Coreopsis Gigantea (Kellogg) Hall, Muhlenbergia, v.8, pp. 133-134(1913) -- Plants Introduced into a Desert Valley as a Result of Irrigation, The Plant World, v.16:10, pp. 275-280(1931) -- Notes on Some Southern California Plants -- The Southern California Ferns, American Fern Journal, v.5:4, pp. 97-104(1915) -- Teratology of the Navel Orange -- The Tecate Cypress, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.8, pp. 11-13(1914) -- The Whitewater Sands, Muhlenbergia, v.9, pp. 133-139(1915) -- Notes of Some Southern California Plants, The Botanical Gazette, v.65:4, pp 334- 343(1918) -- Cleomella Obtusifolia, Torr. & Frem., Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.22:1, pp. 12-14(1923) -- Additions to the Known Flora of Southern California, Muhlenbergia, v.9, pp. 57-59(1915) -- On the Distibution of Certain Trees in California, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.20:1, pp. 31-33(1921) -- A Supplementary Bibliography of the Southern California Flora, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.19:1, pp. 24-29(1920) -- The lmmigrant Plants of Southern California, Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., v.19:4, pp. 3- 30(1920) -- Vegetation of the Mohave and Colorado Deserts of Southern California, Ecology, v.11:3, pp. 481- 499(1930).
  107. 107. Perhaps the greatest legacy of the Parish brothers Was facilitating and working with a number of important botanists – at a time and place well-suited to documenting the unique flora of S. California © Project SOUND Ellsworth Huntington
  108. 108. ‘The well-worn path that lead to the door of the rose-covered Parish cottage in the San Bernardino valley has been trod by scores of botanists, beginning with the early visits of Asa Gray and George Engelmann and coming on down to the later ones of Hugo deVries and J.N. Rose. All these men and others who knew this quiet, earnest worker, had feelings akin to Dr. Huntington. Wise in foresight, thoughtful and considerate, generous of his store of botanical knowledge, unfailing in his dry and emollient humor, men were warmed by the wholesome personality of Samuel Bonsall Parish. In him the Wise Mother seemed in an unusual degree to have mixed harmoniously the ingredients of human nature.’ © Project SOUND http://www.desertwildflower.com/early-botanists/samuel- bonsall-parish
  109. 109. S.B. Parish, without question, was a major figure not only in southern California botany but throughout the state It may truly be said that Samuel Parish was much beloved. His happy wit, his irresistible good humor and sound sense, his appreciative sympathy with common joys and sorrows engaged deeply the affections of all botanists who knew him. In him and for him Californians have only prideful and happy memories. Jepson 1932. Samuel Bonsall Parish. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 16:427-444. © Project SOUND
  110. 110. Get out in nature this May; learn something about the plants you see and their connenctions to natural and human history © Project SOUND
  111. 111. 2018 Season – Gardens that sooth © Project SOUND Look for plants that heal by telling an interesting story
  112. 112. Learn something new about the history of Southern California – or of botany © Project SOUND
  113. 113. And come back next month to learn about Boulders, Art and Other Large Hardscape © Project SOUND http://rwadamslaw.info/outdoor-landscaping-with-native-grasses.html

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