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Peace Care

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Presentation of Peace Care: a proposed collaboration between US Peace Corps and Primary Care Residency Programs to improve the health of global communities

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Peace Care

  1. 2. Peace Care a World of a Difference Andrew Dykens MD, MPH cand. Department of Family Medicine UIC SPH Health Policy and Administration
  2. 3. Peace Care A Proposed Collaboration between US Primary Care Residency Programs and the US Peace Corps to Improve the Health of Global Communities
  3. 4. The Problem <ul><li>Global Health Disparities </li></ul><ul><li>Global Burden of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Shortage of Health Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Primary Care Proficiency in LMIC </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Community Health Research in LMIC </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient US Global View </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Global Health Training for Resident Physicians </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of US active role in Global Health Initiatives </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Problem-Global Health Disparities <ul><li>Global Burden of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Shortage of Health Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Primary Care Proficiency in LMIC </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Community Health Research in LMIC </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Problem-Global Health Disparities <ul><li>Global Burden of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Shortage of Health Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Primary Care Proficiency in LMIC </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Community Health Research in LMIC </li></ul>
  6. 8. The Problem-Global Health Disparities <ul><li>Global Burden of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Shortage of Health Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Primary Care Proficiency in Low Income Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Community Health Research in LMIC </li></ul>
  7. 9. The Problem-Global Health Disparities <ul><li>Global Burden of Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Shortage of Health Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Primary Care Proficiency in LMIC </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Community Health Research in Low Income Countries </li></ul>
  8. 10. The Problem-Deficient US Global View <ul><li>Need for Global Health Training for Resident Physicians </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of US active role in Global Health Initiatives </li></ul>
  9. 11. The Problem-Deficient US Global View <ul><li>Need for Global Health Training for Resident Physicians </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of US active role in Global Health Initiatives </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Vision <ul><li>Utilize… </li></ul><ul><li>The Idealism of Peace Corps </li></ul><ul><li>The Effectiveness of Primary Care </li></ul><ul><li>The Thirst for Knowledge of Public Health schools </li></ul><ul><li>To… </li></ul><ul><li>Positively Impact Global Health Disparities </li></ul>
  11. 13. Peace Care a World of a Difference
  12. 14. The Proposal <ul><li>Establishment of Peace Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the Office of Domestic Programs within Peace Corps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace Corps – through Masters International Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US Primary Care Residency Programs </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. The Players <ul><li>Peace Corps Masters International Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace Corps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US Schools of Public Health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Primary Care Residency Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pediatrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OB/Gyne </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. The Process
  15. 21. The Process
  16. 28. Review of Proposed Policies <ul><li>S. 850 [109th]: Global Health Corps Act of 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sen. William Frist [R-TN] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H.R. 2266: United States Commitment to Global Child Survival Act of 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rep . Betty McCollum [D-MN] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H.R. 1302: Global Poverty Act of 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA] </li></ul></ul>
  17. 29. Prior Proposals <ul><li>S. 2609: Global Service Fellowship Program Act of 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sen . Russell Feingold [D-WI ] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S. 2731: Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sen . Joseph Biden [D-DE] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H.R. 3605 [109th]: Global Poverty Act of 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rep. Adam Smith [D-WA] </li></ul></ul>
  18. 30. Global Health Corps Act of 2005 <ul><li>Called for the establishment of an Office of the Global Health Corps within the Department of Health and Human Services </li></ul>
  19. 31. The Corps would have been comprised of <ul><li>Non-federal Volunteers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through the Health Care for Peace initiative coordinated by the Volunteers for Prosperity program (USA Freedom Corps initiative) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including National Health Service Corps members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace Corps Volunteers </li></ul>
  20. 32. Disadvantages of Global Health Corps Act of 2005 <ul><li>Administratively Large </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Relies on long term commitment and/ or volunteerism from professionals in great debt </li></ul><ul><li>Does not take full advantage of existing entities / structures </li></ul>
  21. 33. Advantages of Peace Care <ul><li>Direct partnership between Respected and Well-Established institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Community Needs Driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Institutions play a consultant role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimal Funding is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Expandable </li></ul>
  22. 34. Peace Corps <ul><li>Established by John F. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 10924 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>March 1, 1961 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized by Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Law 87-293, September 22, 1961 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 35. The Three Goals of Peace Corps <ul><li>The three goals of Peace Corps </li></ul><ul><li>First goal: Helping the people of interested countries in meeting their need for trained men and women. </li></ul><ul><li>Second goal: Helping promote a better understanding of Americans on the part of the peoples served. </li></ul><ul><li>Third goal: Helping promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans. </li></ul>
  24. 36. Potential Reach <ul><li>Peace Care has the potential to reach the 75 corners of the globe where Peace Corps is well established. </li></ul>
  25. 37. <ul><li>Sahel Cape Verde, The Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal West and Central Africa Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Togo </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Africa Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Africa Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia </li></ul>
  26. 38. <ul><li>Balkans and North Africa Albania, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Morocco </li></ul><ul><li>Central and Eastern Europe Moldova, Romania, Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East and the Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Jordan </li></ul><ul><li>Central Asia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan </li></ul><ul><li>Asia Cambodia, China, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand </li></ul>
  27. 39. <ul><li>Central America Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Dominican Republic, Eastern Caribbean (Antigua/Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada/Carriacou, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St Vincent/Grenadines), Jamaica </li></ul><ul><li>South America Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Federated States of Micronesia and Palau, Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands (suspended in 2000), Tonga, Vanuatu </li></ul>
  28. 40. Strategic Plan <ul><li>Establishment of Peace Care as a Non-profit </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Project with a Peace Corps Post </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of Peace Care within Peace Corps as a Domestic Program </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Health Workforce Alliance </li></ul>
  29. 41. Challenges <ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of administrative collaboration that would effectively preserve the mission of each collaborating institution </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of US Institutions as consulting organizations / avoidance of paternalistic program development </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Reliable Information Technology to assist in Intra-organizational communication in order to assure sustainability </li></ul>
  30. 42. Evaluation <ul><li>Adhere to the SMART principles (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time bound) for data collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate existing strategic objectives for each collaborative body (Peace Corps, Residency Programs, Schools of Public Health) </li></ul><ul><li>Build upon existing data sources through the PCMI volunteer’s Community Health Research surrounding organized interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring based upon established indicators and benchmarks per WHO and GHWA recommendations </li></ul>
  31. 43. Future Direction <ul><li>Limited only by Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of additional departments at US institutions for collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul>
  32. 44. Thank You
  33. 45. Peace Care a World of a Difference
  34. 46. Bibliography <ul><li>1. Policy relevance determinants of health: an international perspective. Starfield B, Shi L. s.l. : Health Policy, 2002, Vol. 60, pp. 201-218. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Starfield B, Shi L, Grover A, Machinko J. The effects of specialist supply on populations' health: assessing the evidence. Health Affairs Web Exclusive. [Online] [Cited: October 10, 2008.] http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/short/hlthaff.w5.97. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Is primary care essential? B., Starfield. And, s.l. : Lancet, 1994, Vol. 344, pp. 1129-1133. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The relationship between primary care, income inequality, and mortality in US states, 1980-1995. Shi L, Macinko J, Starfield B, et al. 5, s.l. : J Am Board Fam Pract, 2003, Vol. 16, pp. 412-422. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Primary care physicians and specialists as personal physicians. Health care expenditures and mortality experience. Franks P, Fiscella K. 2, s.l. : J Fam Pract, 1998, Vol. 47, pp. 105-109. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Global Health Workforce Alliance. Scaling Up, Saving Lives. World Health Organization. [Online] 2008. http://www.who.int/workforcealliance/documents/Global_Health%20FINAL%20REPORT.pdf. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Leavitt, Michael O. Secretary U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Testimony on Global Health before Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, HHS, Education, and Related Agencies, Senate. May 2, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Face to Face with Chronic Disease. World Health Organization. [Online] 2005. [Cited: March 28, 2008.] http://www.who.int/features/2005/chronic_diseases/en/index.html . </li></ul><ul><li>9. The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control. Yach D, Hawkes C. Gould CL, Hofman KJ. 21, June 2, 2004, JAMA, Vol. 291, pp. 2616-22. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Preventing Chronic Diseases: a vital investment. World Health Organization. [Online] 2005. http://www.who.int/chp. </li></ul><ul><li>11. The ne medical &quot;missionaries&quot;--grooming the next generation of global health workers. Panosian C, Coates TJ. 17, s.l. : N Engl J Med, 2006, Vol. 354, pp. 1771-3. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington D.C. 2007 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire: all schools report. [Online] 2007. [Cited: July 16, 2008.] http://www.aamc.org/data/gq/allschoolsreports/2007.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>13. Going Global: Considerations for Introducing Global Health into Family Medicine Training Programs. Evert J, Bazemore A, Hixon A, Withy k. 9, s.l. : Fam Med, 2007, Vol. 39, pp. 659-665. </li></ul><ul><li>14. The effect of offering international health training opportunities on family medicine residency recruiting. Bazemore AW, Henein M, Goldenhar LM, Szaflarski M, Lindsell CJ, Diller P. 4, s.l. : Fam Med, 2007, Vol. 39, pp. 659-83. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Influence of international emergency medicine opportunities on residency program selection. Dey CC, Grabowski JG, Gebreyes K, et al. 7, s.l. : Acad Emerg Med, July 2002, Vol. 9, pp. 679-83. </li></ul><ul><li>16. A novel training model to address health problems in poor and underserved populations. Furin J, Farmer P, Wolf M, et al. 1, s.l. : J health Care Poor Underserved, 2006, Vol. 17, pp. 17-24. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Sen William Frist, et al. S. 850 [109th]: Global Health Corps Act of 2005. govtrack.us. [Online] 2005. [Cited: July 16, 2008.] http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s109-850. </li></ul><ul><li>18. [D-MN], Rep. Betty McCollum. H.R. 2266: United States Commitment to Global Child Survival Act of 2007. govtrack.us. [Online] May 10, 2007. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-2266 . </li></ul><ul><li>19. [D-WA], Rep. Adam Smith. H.R. 1302: Global Poverty Act of 2007. govtrack.us. [Online] September 25, 2007. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-1302 . </li></ul><ul><li>20. [D-WI], Sen. Russell Feingold. S. 2609: Global Service Fellowship Program Act of 2008. govtrack.us. [Online] February 7, 2008. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-2609 . </li></ul><ul><li>21. [D-DE], Sen. Joseph Biden. S. 2731: Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008. govtrack.us. [Online] April 15, 2008. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-2731 . </li></ul><ul><li>22. [D-WA], Rep. Adam Smith. H.R. 3605 [109th]: Global Poverty Act of 2005. govtrack.us. [Online] July 28, 2005. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-3605 . </li></ul><ul><li>23. Masters International. Peace Corps. [Online] [Cited: July 20, 2008.] http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whyvol.eduben.mastersint. </li></ul><ul><li>24. [Online] http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-2266 . </li></ul>
  35. 47. Many Thanks To… <ul><li>Babette Neuberger JD </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Peters DrPH </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Swartzman JD, MPH </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Weine MD </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty of UIC SPH </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues at UIC DFM and MSHC </li></ul><ul><li>My Mother and Father </li></ul><ul><li>My Lovely and Caring Wife, Lauren </li></ul>

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