Minerals World 2006.Pdf


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An overview of some examples of what the Australian minerals industry has achieved in energy efficiency.

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Minerals World 2006.Pdf

  1. 1. Cleaning up Dr Turlough Guerin talks to Michael Forrest about sustainable development in the mining industry and what it can offer to the companies involved. O ver the past decade, there has been a concerted effort by the mining industry to counter criticism, mainly from NGOs, of their activities. Geology determines where mines are located and, although some are in old industrial areas, many are in pristine regions where there are few people and important ecological habitats, residual but not obvious landownership, and little infrastructure. shareholders who support these aims, and as a result it has developed a number of initiatives to meet these Rock show objectives. One initiative is the International Council of Mining usually requires blasting, moving millions of Mining and Metals’ (ICMM) framework, which is tonnes of ore and disposing of waste rock. Mines based on 10 principals for sustainable development. can be economic at the grade of one gram of gold In Australia, one of the world’s major mining per tonne of rock or one part in a million. Mining countries, its Minerals Council (a member of ICMM) technology has had to improve to match the has released a framework entitled ‘Enduring Value’ economics of mining ever-lower grades, as these that further underpins the industry’s commitment to deposits are the only ones of sufficient size to sustainable development. Cynics may regard this as meet the needs of today’s industries. The demand window-dressing without real application, but Dr for most metals has doubled or tripled over Guerin, Group Manager Environment for Telstra the past 30 years, and as a consequence, mines Corporation and formerly of Shell Australia and Rio Below: Kanowna Belle, are large, mechanised, usually open pit, and Tinto, has demonstrated the real financial benefits of Australia, retreatment highly visible. this approach. plant for the recovery The objectives of environmentalists have generally One of the problems of ‘sustainable development’ of fine grained gold been welcomed by an industry that has partners and is that of semantics – sustainability of a non- renewable resource such as iron ore seems a contradiction in terms. However, Guerin offers a different definition, ‘sustainable development in the minerals industry means that investments should be profitable, technically appropriate, environmentally sound and socially responsible.’ Putting these factors into practice has been a challenge to the industry, but one where some advantages have been recognised. Guerin has assembled 13 case studies across the industry in Australia that highlight how sustainability can be successfully implemented at operational level using cleaner production tools and with stakeholder engagement. Significant financial, environmental and social benefits can be gained at mine site and regional levels, while the environmental challenge of different mine locations can bring advantages to the wider community. 28 MATERIALS WORLD August 2006
  2. 2. the act Cleaner production technologies have a number ● Stakeholder engagement was a crucial approach, Tailing riffles to prevent wind of advantages, not least the reduction in environ- with more than 50% of case studies demonstrating ablation, Namibia mental costs of waste disposal. Cleaner production its application. is also an environmental improvement strategy ● Resource use optimisation was also an important which leads to specific solutions that are applicable cleaner production tool with 46% of the reported to any given business, not just mining or mineral case studies using it. This included optimising how processing or manufacturing. It complements life ore resources and other process raw materials are cycle analyses, product stewardship programmes used, as well as implementing improvements in and initiatives, as well as social ‘tools’ including how other inputs, such as energy sources and stakeholder engagement. Stakeholder involvement, chemical reagents inputs into downstream which has become increasingly important in the processes, were used. mining industry globally, is now being recognised ● Input substitution, good housekeeping, life cycle by mining managers as a critical tool, enabling analysis and product stewardship were less prominent, them to operate their mines. with less than 35% of case studies demonstrating their application. Eco-efficiency survey Examples of how sustainable development has Take-home messages been enhanced are contained in the table (next Guerin says, ‘Mining and minerals companies in page). Australia are putting sustainable development into In addition to specific savings and benefits in operation at their sites. The extent to which this is individual mines, a number of generic applications of being done varies from operation to operation and it cleaner production technologies were revealed by is reasonable to state that no one operation reviewed Guerin’s survey, including sequential leaching of has implemented a fully sustainable operation’. ores to recover multiple metals, enhanced ore He notes that, ‘Environmental and social body modelling to optimise ore recovery, residue improvements can realise economic benefits and will processing to produce geochemical stable forms for not always incur a major financial cost for a mining storage and counter-current washing to minimise operation or its corporate function. For example, water consumption. improvements to waste management practices and The results of the survey indicated that – waste prevention can lead to cost reductions and ● Technological modifications, including process often increased revenues.’ equipment redesigns and on-site recycling (or The survey shows that local communities provide recovery), are the most common applications of the means by which a mining or minerals processing cleaner production tools with more than 60% of the operation can realise its full potential in contributing to 13 case studies using these approaches. a region’s economic and social well-being. MATERIALS WORLD August 2006 29
  3. 3. Guerin adds, ‘Water efficiency improvements will be needed by any mining company planning to remain Further information viable in the future, particularly in Australia where Dr Guerin has previously worked for Shell’s Commercial water is a major limiting resource. Similarly, energy Fuel business as the Lead Environmental Advisor, efficiency improvements will also be important.’ supporting the mining and heavy industry marketing and Overall, much has been achieved, but there are sales team in Australia and New Zealand, as well as Rio opportunities to do more. Mining companies need to Tinto companies across Australia. He is currently the work closely with other businesses and suppliers to Group Manager Environment for Telstra Corporation. identify new processes, products and knowledge that E-mail: turlough.guerin@team.telstra.com. will increase the sustainability of their industry. Case study focus Minerals sector Company and location Summary description of case study (activity and outcome) Air emissions reduction Aluminium Comalco Aluminium Ltd (Rio Tinto) Use of dry-scrubbing technology led to AUS$11M in Bell, Bay Smelter, Bell Bay, savings in savings and contributed significantly to the Tasmania local community. Dust management Lime Blue Circle Southern Cement, Plant modifications enabled removal of fine dusts from Marulan, New South Wales (NSW) the process and collection of limestone dust for sale as a by-product. Energy and Industrial minerals Tiwest Joint Venture Pigment Modified process to recover synthetic rutile using waste materials efficiency Plant, Kwinana, Western Australia acid from neighbouring company to produce ammonium (WA) and Iluka Resources Ltd chloride for use in pigment production. Synthetic Rutile Plant, Kwinana, Adopted technology to capture waste heat power and WA installed an electrostatic precipitator. Generated 6.5MW, returning 16% on capital, saving AUS$1.5M/year. Coal BHP Billiton Coal, Illawarra region, Captured coal seam methane and piped it to surface where NSW it generates 94MW of energy through electricity generation (energy for 60,000 homes). Copper, zinc and lead Xstrata's Mount Isa Mines, Programme of innovations enabled opening of new mine Mount Isa, Queensland and increased capacity while cutting electricity use, CO2 emissions and delayed demand for a new power station. Water efficiency Steel OneSteel Whyalla Steelworks, Reed beds were introduced for treatment of industrial waste Whyalla, South Australia water to reduce water consumption and increase quality of discharged water. Copper and uranium BHP Billiton Olympic Dam Mine, Production processes were modified so less water is used Roxby Downs, South Australia in flotation separation. Acid and saline water is recycled from mine tailings for drilling and dust control. Waste minimisation Aluminium Alcoa Portland Aluminium, Reduction in landfill waste by evaluating processes, through Portland, Victoria commitment of its workforce and combining with waste minimisation concepts. Integrated sustainable Aluminium Alcoa World Alumina, Various Implemented a range of cleaner production initiatives at development locations in WA bauxite mines and alumina refineries, that have led to a saving of approximately AUS$ 0.5M annually. Gold JV between Delta Gold and Placer Developed a range of sustainability practices, taking an Dome, Granny Smith Mine, holistic approach to mining. Created opportunities for Laverton, WA indigenous communities and reduced landfill waste. Oxiana Golden Grove Operations Initiatives reduced pollution and landfill waste, improved Western Australia energy efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Rehabilitation processes were also improved. Diamonds Argyle Diamond Mine (Rio Tinto), Mine was threatened with closure in 2001 but is still Kununurra, WA operating in 2006 as a result of efforts by management in implementing a range of initiatives including developing capacity in the local indigenous community. 30 MATERIALS WORLD August 2006