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Cancer Prevention and Early Detection


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Risk factors and symptoms of 5 types of cancer: Bowel, Lung, Prostate, Breast and Cervical.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

  1. 1. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Risk factors and possible signs of Bowel, Breast, Cervical, Lung, and Prostate cancer
  2. 2. Introduction • This presentation features 5 of the most common cancers: Bowel - Breast – Cervical – Lung – Prostate • Some cancers have specific symptoms, but not all cancers will have symptoms in the early stages. • Cancer can’t be diagnosed based on symptoms alone: investigations, such as scans, biopsies and x-rays, are nearly always needed. • The signs and symptoms described herein can be caused by many conditions other than cancer. • See your doctor if you notice signs, symptoms, or anything unusual, so they can investigate properly. The information in this presentation has been adapted from Macmillan Cancer Support’s information and is current as of November 2011. For more information visit or call 0808 808 00 00
  3. 3. Bowel Cancer RISK FACTORS • Age: increasing age is the main factor, more than 8 in 10 people who get bowel cancer 883%) are over 60. • Polyps of other chronic bowel problems: if you’ve had bowel polyps (non- cancerous growths on the lining of your bowel), have ulcerative colitis or Chron’s disease,your risk of bowel cancer is increased. It’s important to remember that most chronic bowel problems are not cancer. • Diet: a diet high in red meat and animal fat and low in fruit and vegetables increases the risk • Body weight: being overweight can increase the risk, especially for men • Lack of exercise: some studies suggest that people who aren’t physically active are more likely to develop bowel cancer • Family history: a genetic mutation that could increasr the risk is only likely to be present in your family if you have: • one first degree relative who had it under 45 • at least two first degree relatives on the same side who had it • cases of bowel and womb cancer on the same side of the family • relatives wih multiple growths (polyps) in the bowel (colon)
  4. 4. Bowel Cancer SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • Blood in, or on the stools (bowel motions) – the blood may be bright red or dark in colour • A change in your normal bowel habit (such as diarrhoea or constipation) for no obvious reason, lasting longer than 6 weeks • Pain in the abdoomen or back passage • A feeling of not having empied your bowel properly afetr a bowel motion • Unexplained weight loss • Unexplained tiredness The tiredeness can happen if the cancer has been bleeding so the number of red blood cells is reduced (anaemia). Anaemia may also make you feel breathless. Sometimes cancer can cause an obstruction in the bowel and cause these symptoms: • Being sick (vomiting) • Constipation • Pain in the abdomen • A bloated feeling
  5. 5. Breast Cancer RISK FACTORS • Age: Breast cancer mainly affects women over 50. In the UK more than a half of breast cancers occur in women over 65 • Hormonal risk factors: there is an increased risk for women who: • Dense breast tissue: breasts with more glandular and connective tissue and less fatty tissue, breasts appear denser on mammograms (breasts x-rays) • Radiation: women who had radiotherapy to their chest under 35 for cancers such as Hodgkin lymphoma may be at an increased risk of breast cancer • Lifestyle: being overweight, lack of exercise, alcohol may increase the risk • Genetic factors: if you have more than one relative that has developed cancer, it may be better to check with your GP. However, only 5-10% of breast cancers are thought to be due to an inherited altered gene running in the family. • started their period under 12 • have late menopause • don’t have children or have children over the age of 30 • don’t breast-feed/breast-feed for less than 12 months in total
  6. 6. Breast Cancer SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • In most people the first symptoms of breast cancer is a painless lump. Although most breast lumps are benign (not cancerous), they still need to be checked carefully to rule out the possibility of cancer. • See your GP if you have: • lumps or bumpy areas in your breast • a change to the outline or shape of your breasts • unsual nipple discharge that is not milky • Unusual nipple discomfort or pain in one breast (many women say that their breasts are more tender or a bit lumpy just before their period)
  7. 7. Cervical Cancer RISK FACTORS • Cervical cancer can take many years to develop. Before it does, changes occur in the cells of the cervix: these ubnormal cells are not cancerous, and are called cervical intra-epithelias neoplasia (CIN). Some doctors call these cells pre-cancerous. It is important to know that most women with CIN do not develop cancer. • Sexual contact: having sex at an early age and having has several partners can increase the risk, as HPV (human papilloma virus), carried both by men and women, can affect the cervix cells. Condoms can help to reduce the risk. Cervical cancer though is not infectious and can’t be passed on to other people. • Immune factors: a weakened immune system may also allow CIN to develop into a cancer. Smoking, poor, dite, and infections (such as HIV/AIDS) can weaken the IS. • Contraceptive pills: long-term use of the contraceptive pill (more than 10 years) can slightly increase the risk of developing cervical cancer, but the pill’s benefits outweigh the risk for most women.
  8. 8. Cervical Cancer SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • The most common symptoms is abnormal vaginal bleeding usually between periods or after sex. Often there is also a bad-smelling vaginal discharge, and discomfort during sex. • Women who have had their menopause may have some new bleeding. • There are other conditions that can also cause these symptoms but it’s important to see the doctor or practice nurse about them.
  9. 9. Lung Cancer RISK FACTORS • Smoking: cigarette smoking is the cause of most lung cancers. Passive smoking slightly increase the risk too, but not as if you smoke yourself. Pipes and cigars are a risk factor too, although less than cigarettes. • Radon gas: in some parts of the UK a natural gall called radon can pass from the soil into the foundations of buildings. Exposure to high concentrations can increase the risk of developing lung cancer. It’s believed that 9% of lung cancers in European countries are caused by exposure to radon. • Age: about 80% in lung cancers are diagnosed in people over 60. Lung cancer rarely affects people under 40. • Genetic risk: if you have more than one relative, on the same side of the family, that has developed lung cancer, it may be better to check with your GP. • Asbetstos: people who have been in prolonged or close contact with asbestos have a higher risk of developing cancer, especially if they smoke. Asbetsos and smoking act together to increase the risk. • Post cancer treatment: people who’ve been treated for some tyoes of cancer may have a slightly increased risk of developing lung cancer many years later. REDUCING RISK: stop smoking; exercise; healthy diet (especially if you smoke).
  10. 10. Lung Cancer SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • Continuing cough, or change in a long-standing cough • A chest infection that doesn’t get better • Increasing breathlessness and wheezing • Coughing up blood.stained pleghm (sputum) • A hoarse voice • A dull ache or sharo pain when you cough or take a deep breath • Loss of appetite and wweight loss • Difficulty swallowing • Excessive tiredness (fatigue) and lethargy
  11. 11. Prostate Cancer RISK FACTORS • Age: men under 50 have a low risk but their risk increases as they get older. • Ethnic group: some ethnic groups have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer than other. black African and black Caribbean men are nore likely to develop prostate cancer than white men. Asian men have a lower risk. • Family history: it’s thought that men’s risk of developing prostate cancer is more likely if their father/brother had it at/under the age of 60, or more than one man on the same side of the family has had prostate cancer. • Diet: it’s thought that a diet high in animal fat (inclusing dairy products), a high intake of calcium, and low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables may increase the risk of prostate cancer REDUCING RISK: tomatoes and tomato products may help to protect against prostate cancer. This may be because they contain high levels of a substance called lycopene.
  12. 12. Prostate Cancer SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Prostate cancer if often slow-growing and symptoms may not occur for many years. Men with early prostate cancer are unlikely to have symptoms as they only occur when the cancer is large enough to put pressure on the urethra. In men over 50, the prostate gland often gets larger due to a non.cancerous condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia or hypertrophy (BPH). Symptoms of both benign enlargement of the prostate gland and malignant tumours (cancer) are similar and can include any of the following: • Difficulty passing urine • Passing urine more frequently than usual, especially at night • Pain when passing urine • Blood in the urine (this is not common)