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Hodgkins lymphoma


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clinical features,diagnosis and current management of Hodgkins lymphoma

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Hodgkins lymphoma

  1. 1. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMADr Sandip BarikDepartment ofRadiotherapy,KGMU,Lucknow
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Are group of cancers which originates fromReticuloendothelial systems• It was named after Thomas Hodgkin who first described it in1832.• Dorothy Reed and Carl Stenberg first described the malignantcells of Hodgkin’s lymphoma called Reed Stenberg cells.• Hodgkins lymphoma was the first cancer which could besuccessfully treated by radiation therapy and also bycombination chemotherapy.
  3. 3. Epidemiology• Accounts for 0.58% of all cancers diagnosed and 0.23% of all cancer deathsin U.S each year.• Incidence is less than 3 per 100,000• In 2010 in U.S 8490 cases were registered (4670 males, 3820 females) andaccounted for 1320 deaths.• It has a slightly male predominance (1.1:1)• It is rare in children younger than 10 years• It has Bimodal peak of distribution (25-30 yrs and >55 yrs)
  4. 4. Risk Factors• First degree relatives have five fold increase in risk for Hodgkins Disease.• Associated with EBV infection mainly with mixed cellularity type.• Associated with Infectious Mononucleosis. Incidence is about 2.55 timeshigher• High socio economic status.• Prolonged uses of human growth hormone
  5. 5. Natural History• Hodgkins lymphoma arises in a single node or a chain of nodes andspreads first to anatomically contiguous lymphoid tissue.• Visceral involvement by Hodgkins lymphoma may be secondary toextension from adjacent lymph nodes.• Haematogenous spread occurs to liver or multiple bony sites• It rarely involves the gut associated lymphoid tissue such as Waldeyer ringand Peyers patches.• Mechanism of spleen involvement is unclear but all pts with hepatic andbone involvement are associated with splenic involvement.
  6. 6. Clinical features• Most common presentation isasymptomatic lymphnode enlargementtypically in the neck.• Cervical lympnodes are involved in 80%cases .• Mediastinal involvement is seen in about50% cases .they produce symps likeChest painCoughDyspnoea• Infradiaphragmatic involvement is seenin 5% cases and usually seen with olderpatients.
  7. 7. Clinical features cont…• B symptoms About 33% presents with B symptoms overall. Only 15-20% of stage I-II have B symptoms likeo Fever(>38oC) May first present as fever of unknown origin Fever persists for days to weeks followed by afebrile intervals and thenrecurrence Such type of pattern is called Pel Ebstein Fevero Drenching night sweatso Weight loss(> 10% in 6 mths)
  8. 8. Clinical features cont…• Other less frequently symptoms are Pruritus Alcohol induced pain over involved lymph nodes Nephrotic syndrome Erythema nodosum Cerebellar degeneration Immune hemolytic anaemia, Thrombocytopenia Hypercalcaemia
  9. 9. Diagnostic Workup• History• Complete physical examination• Confirmatory workup Excisional biopsy of the lymph node Staging workup Chest x ray(pa,lat) Usg neck,whole abdomen CT scan thorax,abdomen and pelvis FDG PET scan
  10. 10. • Routine blood investigations Complete blood count Liver function Renal function Serum albumin ESR Lactate Dehydrogenase OTHERS Bone marrow biopsy
  11. 11. PET SCAN• PET Scan has become an integralcomponent of initial staging.• Information provided by PET hasbeen recently incorporated in thelymphoma guidelines for responseevaluation after completion oftreatment.• Useful for follow up study toevaluate residual masses , dx ofearly recurrence and predictingoutcome.• It has a specificity of 90-95%
  12. 12. Revised International Workshop Criteria With PET Scan
  13. 13. Bone Marrow Biopsy• Less commonly put into practice• Overall involvement of bone marrow in Hodgkins lymphoma is5%.• Indicated in pts with B symptoms Clinical evidence of sub diaphragmatic disease Stage iii-iv Recurrent disease
  14. 14. Pathological ClassificationHistologic SubtypesNodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkins lymphoma(NLPHL)Classical Hodgkins lymphoma(CHL)1 Nodular sclerosis Hodgkins lymphoma2 Lymphocyte rich classical Hodgkins lymphoma3 Mixed cellularity Hodgkins lymphoma4 Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin lymphoma
  15. 15. Lymphocyte predominant Hodgkins lymphoma• <5% of Hodgkins lymphoma• Mainly involves cervical,axillary ormediastinal• “L&H” cells or Popcorn cells areseen• Positive for CD20,45• Negative for CD15,30.EBV
  16. 16. Nodular Sclerosis• Most common type diagnosed.About 70%• Lacunar ceells are seen• CD 15 and 30 positive• EBV negative• Only subtype without a malepredominance• Seen in younger pts with stage I –II disease
  17. 17. Mixed Cellularity• Constitutes about 20%• More common in young children• CD 15,30 EBV positive• Presents in advanced stages• Tendency to involve spleen,bonemarrow
  18. 18. Lymphocyte Depleted• Constitutes <5%• Worst prognosis of all subtypes• Older males• Advanced stage• HIV infection
  19. 19. StagingI Involvement of a single lymph nodeOr,lymphoid structureOr single extralymphatic siteII Involvement of two or more lymphnode region on same side of diaphragmLocalized contiguous involvement of only one extranodal organ or site andlymphnode regions on same side of diaphragmIII Involvement of lymphnode regions on both side of diaphragmIII1 With or without involvement of splenic,hilar.celiac or portal nodesIII2 With involvement of paraaortic ,iliac,and mesenteric nodesIV Diffuse or disseminated involvement of one or more extranodal organs ortissues,with or without involvement of associated lymphnodes.
  20. 20. Lymphnodes group
  21. 21. Prognostic FactorsPrognostic factor for Early stage Hodgkins disease
  22. 22. Prognostic factors cont…Advanced stage hodgkins lymphomaInternational prognostic score
  24. 24. Chemotherapy25mg/m2106375
  25. 25. Radiotherapy• Radiation therapy is the most effective single therapeutic agent fortreating Hodgkins lymphoma.• The main objective of radiation in Hodgkins lymphoma is to treat involvedand contiguous field.• Radiotherapy can be given by• 2D Planning• 3D Planning• IMRT
  26. 26. • Pre RT Evaluation: Oro dental prophylaxis Pulmonary function test Pre chemotherapy and post chemotherapy information from CT or PET scan Position Usually supine. Arms up position pulled up the axillary node further from the chest wall,thereby permitting more generous lung shielding. Arms down or akimbo position permitted shielding of the humeral head andminimize the effect of tissue folds in supraclavicular If neck is to be treated head in hyperextension Frog leg for inguinal nodes
  27. 27. • Immobilization Mask for head and neck Body cast for pelvis OTHERS Oophoropexy in young females Fields are shaped using multileaf collimators Respiatory gating has to be taken care of
  28. 28. Mantle technique• Target volume definition. The target volume for mantle field includes the Occipital Submental Submandibular Ant and Post cervical Infraclavicular Axillary Medial pectoral Paratracheal Mediastinal and hilar nodes
  29. 29. • Treatment Field: Superiorly: Inferior portion ofmandible bisecting the mastoidprocess Laterally: Both the axillae Inferiorly: T10-11 interspace
  30. 30. • BLOCKS : Larynx anteriorly Humeral heads Spinal cord if >40 Gy Heart after 30 Gy Lung blocks: The upper border of lung block curves centrally toinclude infraclavicular nodesThe medial borders are shaped so as to treat the hilar nodes.A gapof 8-10 cm is left in midline between blocks to treatmediastinal nodes.
  31. 31. Subdiaphragmatic Fields• The classical subdiaphragmatic field is the Inverted-Y.• Target Volume: Para aortic Pelvis Inguinal nodes(b/l) Spleen
  32. 32. • Treatment Fields: For Paraaortic Superiorly:The T10-11 vertebrae Inferiorly:The lower limit of L4 Laterally:width of transverse process. Pelvis F ield: Laterally:1.5-2 cm lat to the widest point in pelvis Inferiorly:Lesser trochanter.
  33. 33. Inverted “Y” FieldPara aortic fields pelvic field
  34. 34. • BLOCKS: Central midline block for Bladder Small bowel Oophoropexy if performed Testicular shielding
  35. 35. IFRT• Involved field radiotherapy.• IFRT is the most commonly used technique at present• Targets a smaller area rather than a classical extended field.• IFRT(ASTRO 2002)DEFINITION IFRT encompasses region and not an individual lymph node. Initially involved Pre chemo sites and volume are treated Exception to above rule is for transverse diameter of mediastinum andparaaortic lymphnodes for which reduced post chemo volume is treated.
  36. 36. Major fields of IFRT
  37. 37. IFRT
  38. 38. 3DCRT• GTV:Original prechemo volumeof involved lymphnodes clinicallyand radiologically• CTV:GTV with whole nodalregions that contains the involvedlymphnodes.• PTV:Depends onimmobilization,reproducibility,organ motion.usually 10 mm marginis added to CTV
  39. 39. • INRT• Newer concept evolved with advent and more usage of ct and PET scan• Target volume is based on initial macroscopic prechemo disease ratherthan based on lymphnode region.• Treatment Portals: Beam arrangement is often // & opposite pair fields(ap-pa) DOSE Early stage :after complete response to chemotherapy 20 Gy in 10# Advanced stage with residual disease after chemotherapy30 Gy in 15# with additional 6 Gy in 3# depending on bulk of disease
  40. 40. Sequelae of Treatment• ACUTE REACTIONS: Fatigue ,nausea,vomiting,dry cough Occipital hair loss Sore throat Skin reactions Alteration of taste Dysphagia Reflux symptoms Myelosupression
  41. 41. • LATE REACTIONS Radiation Pneumonitis(6-12 wks) Radiation Pericarditis Subclinical Hypothyroidism:most common delayed symotoms Herpes Zoster infections: Lhermittes sign(1-2 mths)
  42. 42. • Late Reactions(cont…) Streptococcus pneumoniae and H influenzae infection following splenicradiation. Azoospermia in males Premature menopause in females Secondary malignancy:• Leukaemia• Lymphoma(diffuse large cell type most common after 5 years)• Solid Tumors:In males Lung (>30 Gy),colorectalIn females Breast,lung,colorectal
  43. 43. Conclusion• Radiation therapy is the most effective single therapeutic agent fortreating Hodgkins lymphoma• The management of Hodgkins lymphoma has evolved from extended fieldradiation to a combined modality of chemo radiation or chemo alone.• Interest is in achieving the best therapeutic ratio by minimizing latetoxicity while maintaining effectiveness.• With improvement in diagnostic modality and PET scanning and improvedtreatment policy the results in future will be encouraging.
  44. 44. THANK YOU