Sahiwal is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan. As of1998, it had a population of 1,843,194 people, 16.27% of which were locatedin urban areas.Since 2008, Sahiwal District along with Okara District andPakpattan District has comprised the Sahiwal Division. The city of Sahiwalis the capital of both the district and the division.
LocationScenic Jungle in Division SahiwalSahiwal Division is located in the south-east of Punjab, from MultanDivision it lies between 30-40 north latitude and 73-06 longitude. It is500 ft (150 m) above sea level. It forms a parallelogram lying NE-SW along
the River Ravi. It is 100 km from east to west and 45 km from the north-western boundary of the Division of Sahiwal, Division Faisalabad, DistrictToba Tek Singh. The dry River Khushak Bias separates it from theDistrictPakpattan. Okara District is east of the division. District Khanewaland District Vehari form boundaries with the division, and on thesouthern side is District Pakpattan, where there is a shrine of the SufiHazrat Baba Fareed Shaker Gunj.
Sahiwal Dairy Cattle BreedThe Sahiwal cattle breed is the best dairy breed of zebu or humped cattle(Bos Indicus), followed by the very similar Red Sindhi and Butana breeds. It originated in the dry Punjab region which liesalong the Indo-Pakistani border, and was once kept in large herds byprofessional herdsmen called "Jaanglees". With the introduction ofirrigation to the region their numbers dripped, and farmers used them as
draft and dairy animals. The Division Sahiwal has one of the best dairybreeds in India and Pakistan. It is thick-resistant, heat-tolerant andresistant to parasites, both internal and external.Cows average 2270 kilograms of milk while suckling a calf and muchhigher milk yields have been recorded. Due to their heat tolerance andhigh milk production they have been exported to other Asian countries,Africa, Caribbean and around the world. As oxen, they are docile but slow,making them more useful for slow work. Their colour can range fromreddish brown to red, with varying amounts of white on the neck, and theunderline. In males, the colour darkens towards the extremities, such asthe head, legs and tails. Sahiwal breed arrived in Australia via New Guineain the early 1950s. In Australia, the Sahiwal breed was initially selected as adual-purpose breed. It played a valuable role in the development of thetwo Australian tropical dairy breeds, the Australian milking zebu and the
Australian Fresian Sahiwal. Sahiwal breeds are now used in Australia forbeef production, as crossing high-grade Sahiwal sires with Bos taurusanimals produced a carcass of lean quality with desirable fat cover.The Sahiwal breed is the heaviest milker of all zebu breeds and displays awell-developed udder. It sires small, fast-growing calves and is noted forits hardiness under unfavourable climatic conditions.
Notable residents Abdus Salam, Pakistans only Nobel Prize winner was born in Santokdas, Division Sahiwal, according to his elder sister and his obituary, although he grew up in Jhang. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his achievements in the field of Theoretical Physics in 1979. He is buried in Rabwah, in the Jhang district.
Majeed Amjad, one of the founding forefathers of modern Urdu literature, was bornin Sahiwal and received his education from Government College Lahore. He was inspired by the greenery of Sahiwal andwrote about the trees and greenery of Sahiwal. There is a park named for him.
Munir Niazi, A leading Urdu language poet of national and international stature.
HARAPPA Remains of 5,000 years old siteRediscovering History Harappa has the honor of being the first site where the remains ofone of the most celebrated civilizations of the ancient world werediscovered. Here we had the first urban settlements, which ultimatelyblossomed into what is known as Indus Valley Civilization, acontemporary of the ancient Babylon and Egypt. This civilization is alsoknown as Harappan civilization due to its first discovered site of Harappa.The Harappa region consists of the Indus planes of Sind and Punjab. Themajor centers of this civilization were Mohenjodaro on the river Indus in
Larkana district of the Sind province, and Harappa on the fiver Ravi inSahiwal district of the Punjab province. Harappa and Mohenjodaro areidentified as the twin capitals of Indus Valley Civilization on the basis ofsimilarity in architecture, and objects recovered by excavation.ACCESSIBILITY The remains of Harappa city are located about 200 Km from Lahore,and 27 Km south west of Sahiwal. The site of Harappa is approachable bymetal led road which connects the museum with the main highway from
Lahore to Multan at the point of Harappa railway station that is 7 Kmfrom the museum.
DISCOVERY OF THE SITE The ancient site of Harappa was first visited and described byBurnes and Masson, the two famous travelers. In 1856, a British road-engineer, named William Bounton, unknowingly dug down these preciousremains in search of brick-ballast for a railway line which he was layingfrom Multan to Lahore. During the process of that spoliation severalantiquities were found which were either destroyed or taken away by thelabourers. Among these a steatite seal and a few chert blades wereexamined by Sir Alexander Cunningham. The site remained un-attendedfor the next seventy years when again in January 1921, regular excavationswere started by the Archaeological Survey of India and the truesignificance of the ruins was recognized. It was established that the city
existed some five thousand years ago as a twin capital of the Indus ValleyCivilization. Archaeologists have revealed that the only older site thanthese sites is Mehr Garh (around 7,000 BC) situated in the Baluchistanprovince. Between the years 1923 and 1925, and again from 1926 to 1934,major excavations were carried out at various parts of the site. Theseexcavations revealed some highly interesting evidence that the city fallsinto two parts; lower and upper Harappa. Further investigations todetermine the true chronological sequence were undertaken by SirMotimer Wheeler in 1946 who uncovered, among other things, theportions of a massive mud brick fortification having rectangular bastionsat frequent intervals. Besides the fortification wall which surrounded the
citadel, there was a lower city having important public and privatebuildings and two cemeteries on the south.
NOMENCLATURE About the name of “Harappa” following popular theories arepresented by the scholars: a. One group of scholars believed that the word Harappa is derived from the Punjabi word ‘HAR’ MEANING ‘flood’ because the site of Harappa is located in the area which received much flood water from river Ravi in the rainy season. b. It is also said that ancient name of the place was ‘HARI UPA’ (golden altar) and became Harappa by excessive use of this word.
c. Punjabi word ‘HARAP’ means ‘swallow’. Because the city is buried, so people began to call it “Harappa” (destroyed city).
CHRONOLOGY OF HARAPPA Early Harappan Phase (500 BC – 2600 BC) This period is said to be the formative phase of Indus Civilizationwhich shows the use of mud brick wall and mud floor. The pottery of thisperiod is mostly hand-made and includes thick textured globular vesselswith exterior surface coated with the mixture of clay and pottery bits.
Mature Harappan Phase (2600 BC – 1900 BC) This is the most important period of Harappan Civilization. The significant innovation of this period is the extensive use of burnt brick employed in the architecture of public as well as residential buildings.Late Harappan Phase ( 1900 BC – 1300 BC) During this final period, certain changes are seen in the material culture which resulted form re-adjustments in the socio-economic and political organization of Harappan society. It is characterized by the pottery
excavated from Cemetery-H and Mound-E where evidences of thisphase have been identified.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION1. The Harappan civilization reflects a highly developed civic life with rigid regularity of standardized block after block of burnt brick houses with broad main streets; the drains are well-planned and kept clean and so on. The housing, the layout of public and private places is an evidence of culture and civilization which was in no way inferior to the present one.
2. The Harappan Civilization is extended over a much longer area than Mesopotamia and Egypt and may be older in age. It could be a fore-runner of theirs as well.3. The most characteristic of all the Harappan objects are the seals. The harappan seals are mostly made of steatite (a soft stone, easy to carve), terracotta and stone. The typical Harappan seal is square in shape and depicts engraved figures of animals (Tiger, Elephant, Bull
and Reno) along with lines of Indus script at the top.4. the most significant feature of the Indus valley civilization is the Indus Script, mostly found engraved on the seals and terracotta material. The Indus script is one of the oldest scripts. So far 396 signs of the Indus script have been identified. The scholars have made
many attempts and research is still going on for its decipherment.
A TOUR O F THE SITE According to recent estimates Harappa ruins cover an area of around150 hectares and are about 3 km in circumference. An aura of mysteryand hidden secrets hangs over the ruins and adds to their attraction andromance. The great mass of ruins is on the western side, where themound rises to 60 feet in height in the centre. At this point there areseveral massive walls built of large bricks, which are, no doubt, theremains of some extensive buildings. The other portions of the mound
vary from 30 to 50 feet in height, the mass being formed almost ofbroken bricks. The town appears to have been planned on a major north-south axis.The main features of the plan are the citadel (mound AB) on the west,the mound of the “lower City” (Mound E) towards the east andsoutheast. Between the citadel and the river bed, (Mound F) has beenfound to contain a remarkable and significant piece of town planning.
A tour of the site takes about an hour and half. There is a single roomArchaeological Museum at the site entrance containing some of themost interesting artifacts found at the site. These include stone tools,seals, jewelry, stone weights, shell spoons, copper and pottery utensils,some collection of games like a game of chess, pottery rattles andwhistles, toy carts etc.