Can you give examples of how Super Bowl advertisers & brands
used Twitter to communication, engage, etc?
What were some trends that you observed?
“Social media sites such as Twitter provide organizations with the
ability to interact directly with publics.” - Saffer, Sommerfeldt,
Technology has potential for organizational-public relationship
“… it is how the technology is used that inﬂuences organization–
public relationships” – Kent, Taylor 1998
Tell good, personal stories
Don’t try to “manage” conversations.
“Loud design and a bold headline does not make the cut
anymore, since it works when you’re the only few in a crowd who
is yelling. […] The most important thing you need to remember is
if you can provide an environment that your customer is
comfortable in sharing their stories, you are off to a very good
start.” - Idris Mootee
The best content or stories are those that:
1/ Reads like my life experience
2/ Relates to my life experience
3/ Speaks to me in my language and
4/ Something that makes me want to share them with my friends.
Functional interactivity: includes the features found on a site that
allow users to interact in a number of modes.
Can you think of examples?
Contingency interactivity occurs when users’ roles are
interchangeable and “interactants” are responding to one another
Can you think of examples?
Noninteractive, when a message is not related to previous messages
Reactive, when a message is related only to one immediately previous
Interactive, when a message is related to a number of previous
messages and to the relationship between them
Students assigned for 2 weeks to:
High interactivity account (Starbucks)
Low interactivity accounts (Gatorade or Target)
*Interactivity = number of replies an account had with its followers
Hypothesis: High organizational Twitter interactivity will positively
affect the perceived organization–public relationship:
Trust - One party’s level of confidence in and willingness to open oneself
to the other party.
Control mutuality - The degree to which parties agree on who has the
rightful power to influence one another. Although some imbalance is
natural, stable relationships require that organizations and publics each
have some control over the other.
Satisfaction - The extent to which each party feels favorably toward the
other because positive expectations about the relationship are
Commitment - The extent to which each party believes and feels that the
relationship is worth spending energy to maintain and promote; involves
emotions and behaviors.
Students assigned to high interactivity account (starbucks)
perceived greater trust, control mutuality, satisfaction and
commitment to the brand/organization than students assigned to
the low interactivity accounts.
“To communicate with frequent Twitter users, organizations
should dedicate more time and resources to maintaining
two-way communication via their social media.” - Saffer,
Sommerfeldt, Taylor 2013
“a majority of organizations are not using Twitter beyond one-way
messaging…” - Saffer, Sommerfeldt, Taylor 2013
“Twitter as a social media platform is functionally interactive.
Organizations can use the platform in the contingently
interactive sense by being both the sender and receiver of
messages – not just the sender.” - Saffer, Sommerfeldt, Taylor
So, what strategies should organizations (or individuals) use
to build and maintain quality relationships?
Spend more time listening
Follow and subscribe to your consumers
Get involved in related communities. Take some time to
monitor the discussions that are happening around the web that
are relevant to you, and gauge the appropriateness of joining in
(according to whether it is ethical, whether it will be perceived as
Set goals and dedicate time to engagement