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Comparatives and Superlatives (Los comparativos y                     superlativos)Al igual que en español, cuando queremo...
Mark doesnt run as fast (slower) as Juan. (Mark no corre tan rápido              como Juan.)oSues room is not as clean as ...
New York is the biggest city in the United States. (Nueva York el la              cuidad más grande de los Estados Unidos....
far           further              furthest                        List of Comparatives and Superlatives (Lista de        ...
cold      colder            coldest             fríocool      cooler            coolest             frescocrazy     crazie...
few        fewer        fewest        pocosfierce     fiercer      fiercest      fiero, encarnizado                       ...
alegrehard      harder      hardest      duro, difícilharsh     harsher     harshest     áspero, durohealthy   healthier  ...
malo, mezquino,mean      meaner        meanest                                        tacaño                              ...
rare      rarer       rarest       raroraw       rawer       rawest       crudo, agrietadorich      richer      richest   ...
empalagososlow      slower     slowest     lentosmall     smaller    smallest    pequeño                                 l...
thirsty              thirstier           thirstiest           sedientotiny                 tinier              tiniest    ...
Uses (Usos)1. "Like" es una preposición" que significa "parecido a" o "lo mismo de". No se   puede utilizar "as" de este m...
• There are many things we can do to protect the environment, like        recycling or using renewable energy sources.    ...
There are many things we can do to protect the environment, such as         recycling or using renewable energy sources. (...
• As expected, Ben was late for class again today.                As expected, Ben was late for class again today. (Como s...
a) difficultb) difficulterc) the difficultestd) more difficultPeter is as fast as Alex.a) fastb) fasterc) the fastestd) th...
Howard sings with as much confidence as a professional.a) as, asHoward sings like a professional.a) likeIt is just like Je...
Like /as (Como)-She swim like a professional.(Nada como una profesional.)- I loook my father.(Me parezco a mi padre.)-It l...
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Comparatives and superlatives

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Comparatives and superlatives

  1. 1. Comparatives and Superlatives (Los comparativos y superlativos)Al igual que en español, cuando queremos hacer comparaciones contrastamoscualidades o atributos por medio de adjetivos en sus diversos grados. Grades of Adjectives (Grados de adjetivos)1.El grado positivo es la cualidad en el grado más simple.oEjemplos:oJuan runs fast. Juan runs fast. (Juan corre rápido.)oAngelas room is clean. Angelas room is clean. (La habitación de Angela está limpia.)oI am tall. I am tall. (Soy alto.)oNew York is big. New York is big. (Nueva York es grande.) fast, hard, smart, pretty, clean, large, small, old, easy...2.El grado comparativo puede ser de superioridad, inferioridad o igualidad. Paracomparativos de superioridad o inferioridad, el adjetivo es seguido por "than".Para comparativos de inferioridad, usamos "not as...as" o "less" delante deladjetivo. Y para comparativos de igualidad, el adjetivo va entre "as...as".oEjemplos:oComparativos de superioridadoJuan runs faster than Mark. Juan runs faster than Mark. (Juan corre más rápido que Mark.)oAngelas room is cleaner than Sues. Angelas room is cleaner than Sues. (La habitación de Angela está más limpia que la de Sue.)oI am taller than Beth. I am taller than Beth. (Soy más alto que Beth.)oNew York is bigger than Los Angeles. New York is bigger than Los Angeles. (Nueva York es más grandeque Los Angeles.)oComparativos de inferioridadoMark doesnt run as fast as Juan.
  2. 2. Mark doesnt run as fast (slower) as Juan. (Mark no corre tan rápido como Juan.)oSues room is not as clean as Angelas. Sues room is not as clean (dirtier) as Angelas. (La habitación de Sue no es tan limpia como la de Angela.)oBeth is not as tall as me. Beth is not as tall (shorter) as me. (Beth no es tan alta como yo.)oLos Angeles is not as big as New York. Los Angeles is not as big (smaller) as New York. (Los Angeles no es tan grande como Nueva York.)oComparativos de igualidadoMark is as fast as Juan. Mark is as fast as Juan. (Mark corre tan rápido como Juan.)oSues room is as clean as Angelas. Sues room is as clean as Angelas. (La habitación de Sue es tan limpia como la de Angela.)oBeth is as tall as I am. Beth is as tall as I am. (Beth es tan alta como yo.)oLos Angeles is as big as New York. Los Angeles is as big as New York. (Los Angeles es tan grande como Nueva York.) Nota: Podemos modificar un comparativo con un cuantificador (much, a lot, a little, slightly...).Ejemplos:Juan runs a lot faster than Mark. Juan runs a lot faster than Mark. (Juan corre mucho más rápido que Mark.)I am slightly taller than Beth. I am slightly taller than Beth. (Soy un poco más alta que Beth.)3.El grado superlativo denota la calidad en el grado más alto y como espanol, seusa "the" delante del adjetivo.oEjemplos:oJuan is the fastest. Juan is the fastest. (Juan es el más rápido.)oAngelas room is the cleanest. Angelaa room is the cleanest. (La habitación de Angela es la más limpia.)oI am the tallest. I am the tallest. (Soy el más alto.)oNew York is the biggest city in the United States.
  3. 3. New York is the biggest city in the United States. (Nueva York el la cuidad más grande de los Estados Unidos.)oEjemplos:oHis smartest student is Lisa. His smartest student is Lisa. (Su estudiante más lista es Lisa.)oNew York is coldest in January. New York is coldest in January. (Nueva York es más frio en enero.) Nota: Si el adjetivo es posesivo, no se usa "the". Además no se usa "the" si comparamos algo con si mismo. Form (Forma)Hay unas reglas para formar el comparativo y superlativo. 1.Para adjetivos de una sílaba: Comparativo Superlativo añade: "-er" (faster añade: "-est" (fastest faster) fastest) 2.Para adjetivos de una sílaba que terminan en "e": Comparativo Superlativo añade: "-r" (nicer añade: "-st" (nicest nicer) nicest) 3.Para adjetivos de una sílaba que terminan en constanante + vocal + constanante: Comparativo Superlativo añade: constanante + "er" (hotter añade: constanante + "-est" (hottest hotter) hottest) 4.Para adjetivos de dos silabas que terminan en "y": Comparativo Superlativo sustituye "y" por: "-ier" (funnier sustituye "y" por: "-iest" (funniest funnier) funniest) 5.Para adjetivos de dos o más silabas:Comparativo Superlativoañade: "more"/"less" (more añade "the most"/"the least": (the mostbeautiful, less beautiful beautiful, the least beautifulmore beautiful) the most beautiful) 6.Adjetivos irregulares: Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo good better best good better best bad worse worst bad worse worst far further furthest
  4. 4. far further furthest List of Comparatives and Superlatives (Lista de comparativos y superlativos)Lista de los adjetivos más comunes, con su forma comparativa y superlativa.Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo Españolangry angrier angriest enfadado, enojadobad worse worst malobig bigger biggest grande amargo, resentido,bitter bitterer bitterest agrioblack blacker blackest negrobland blander blandest sosobloody bloodier bloodiest sanguinolentoblue bluer bluest deprimidobold bolder boldest audazbossy bossier bossiest mandónbrave braver bravest valientebrief briefer briefest brevebright brighter brightest brillante, luminosobroad broader broadest ancho, ampliobusy busier busiest ocupado, ajetreadocalm calmer calmest tranquilocheap cheap cheaper baratochewy chewier chewiest correoso, gomosochubby chubbier chubbiest rechonchoclassy classier classiest eleganteclean cleaner cleanest limpio, sanoclear clear clearest claro, despejadoclever cleverer cleverest listo, ingeniosoclose closer closest cercacloudy cloudier cloudiest nubiadoclumsy clumsier clumsiest torpecoarse coarser coarsest áspero, grosero
  5. 5. cold colder coldest fríocool cooler coolest frescocrazy crazier craziest lococreamy creamier creamiest cremosocreepy creepier creepiest espeluznante, repugnantecrispy crispier crispiest crujientecruel crueler cruelest cruelcrunchy crunchier crunchiest crujiente rizado, crespo,curly curly curliest quebradocurvy curvier curviest curvocute cuter cutest monodamp damper dampest húmedodark darker darkest oscuro, morenodeadly deadlier deadliest mortal, mortíferodeep deeper deepest profundodense denser densest densodirty dirtier dirtiest suciodry drier driest seco aburrido, soso,dull duller dullest tonto, romodumb dumber dumbest estúpidodusty dustier dustiest polvorientoearly earlier earliest pronto, tempranoeasy easier easiest facíl leve, tenue, vago,faint fainter faintest ligero claro, sereno, recto,fair fairer fairest justofancy fancier fanciest lujosofar further/farther furthest/farthest lejos, distantefast faster fastest rápidofat fatter fattest gordo
  6. 6. few fewer fewest pocosfierce fiercer fiercest fiero, encarnizado aaqueroso,filthy filthier filthiest obscenofine finer finest finofirm firmer firmest firme, estrictofit fitter fittest apto, en formaflaky flakier flakiest desconchadoflat flatter flattest llano, liso, plano fresco, nuevo,fresh fresher freshest original agradable, amable,friendly friendlier friendliest amistosofull fuller fullest lleno, completo gracioso, curioso,funny funnier funniest raro tierno, afectuoso,gentle gentler gentlest suave oscuro, abatido,gloomy gloomier gloomiest decaídogood better best bueno grandioso,grand grander grandest ambicioso, impotentegrave graver gravest gravegreasy greasier greasiest grasientogreat greater greatest grande, genial goloso, codicioso,greedy greedier greediest ávido asqueroso, grosero,gross grosser grossest crasoguilty guilter guiltiest culpablehairy hairier hairiest velludo, peludo práctivo, útil,handy handier handiest habilidoso, mañosohappy happier happiest feliz, contento,
  7. 7. alegrehard harder hardest duro, difícilharsh harsher harshest áspero, durohealthy healthier healthiest sano, saludableheavy heavier heaviest pesado, grueso, fuerte, duro alto, elevado,high higher highest agudohip hipper hippest moderno caliente, caluroso,hot hotter hottest picantehumble humbler humblest humildehungry hungrier hungriest hambrientoicy icier iciest helado, fríoitchy itchier itchiest pica jugoso, zumoso,juicy juicier juiciest suculento amable, benévolo,kind kinder kindest cariñosolarge larger largest grande tarde, restrasado,late later latest recientelazy lazier laziest perezosolight lighter lightest ligero, clarolikely likelier likeliest probablelittle littler littlest pequeño, pocolively livelier liveliest animado, vivolonely lonlier lonliest solitariolong longer longest largoloud louder loudest fuerte, alto precioso, bello,lovely lovelier loveliest lindolow lower lowest bajo enfadado, enojado,mad madder maddest loco
  8. 8. malo, mezquino,mean meaner meanest tacaño sucio,messy messier messiest desordenado, desastrosomild milder mildest afable, suave, levemoist moister moistest húmedonarrow narrower narrowest estrecho, escaso asqueroso,nasty nastier nastiest desagradable malo, travieso,naughty naughtier naughtiest picantenear nearer nearest cercano, próximo ordenado, aseado,neat neater neatest pulcroneedy needier neediest necesitado nuevo, fresco,new newer newest reciente, moderno simpatico,nice nicer nicest agradable, buenonoisy noisier noisiest ruidoso, clamarosoodd odder oddest raro, extrañooily oilier oiliest grasiento, aceitoso viejo, anciano,old older/elder oldest/eldest antiguoplain plainer plainest claro, sencillopolite politer politest educado, cortéspoor poorer poorest pobre bonito, lindo,pretty prettier prettiest hermoso orgulloso, soberbio,proud prouder proudest dignopure purer purest puroquick quicker quickest rápido tranquillo,quiet quieter quietest silencioso
  9. 9. rare rarer rarest raroraw rawer rawest crudo, agrietadorich richer richest rico, abundanteripe riper ripest maduro, curado arriesgado,risky riskier riskiest peligrosoroomy roomier roomiest espacioso áspero, tosco,rough rougher roughest bruto, ronco maleducado,rude ruder rudest grosero, toscorusty rustier rustiest oxidado triste, lamentable,sad sadder saddest penososafe safer safest segurosalty saltier saltiest saladosane saner sanest cuerdo, sensato espantoso,scary scarier scariest asustadizo superficial, pocoshallow shallower shallowest profundo afilado, cerrado,sharp sharper sharpest agudoshiny shinier shiniest brillante, reluciente corto, bajo,short shorter shortest chaparroshy shyer shyest tímidosilly sillier silliest tonto sencillo, simple,simple simpler simplest facílsincere sincerer sincerest sincero, genuinoskinny skinnier skinniest flaco adormilado,sleepy sleepier sleepiest soñolientoslim slimmer slimmest delgado, finoslimy slimier slimiest viscoso, pegajoso,
  10. 10. empalagososlow slower slowest lentosmall smaller smallest pequeño listo, inteligente,smart smarter smartest agudosmelly smellier smelliest apestoso humeante,smoky smokier smokiest ahumado liso, suave, llano,smooth smoother smoothest fluidosoft softer softest blando, suavesoon sooner soonest prontosore sorer sorest doloridosorry sorrier sorriest lamentablesour sourer sourest agrio, ácido picante, especiado,spicy spicier spiciest sazonado empinado,steep steeper steepest pronunciado tacaño, rácano,stingy stingier stingiest raquítico raro, extraño,strange stranger strangest desconocidostrict stricter strictest estricto, rígido fuerte, sólido,strong stronger strongest intenso, marcadosunny sunnier sunniest soleado, radiantesweaty sweatier sweatiest sudorososweet sweeter sweetest dulcetall taller tallest altotan tanner tannest bronceado, moreno rico, sabroso,tasty tastier tastiest apetitoso grueso, denso,thick thicker thickest espeso, pobladothin thinner thinnest delgado, fino
  11. 11. thirsty thirstier thirstiest sedientotiny tinier tiniest diminuto, minúsculo fuerte, resistente,tough tougher toughest duro, difícil cierto, verdadero,true truer truest leal, fielugly uglier ugliest feo caliente, templado,warm warmer warmest cálidoweak weaker weakest débil, flojowealthy wealthier wealthiest rico, pudienteweird weirder weirdest raro, extraño mojado, húmedo,wet wetter wettest lluvioso ancho, amplio,wide wider widest extenso salvaje, silvestre,wild wilder wildest descontroladowindy windier windiest ventoso sabio, sensato,wise wiser wisest prudenteworldly worldlier worldliest mundano, terrenoworthy worthier worthiest virtuoso, dignoyoung younger younges joven Like / as (Como)"Like" y "as" a menudo se confunden en inglés. Ambos se pueden utilizar parahacer comparaciones o hablar de similitudes. Es muy común en inglés americanoutilizar "like" en lugar de "as". Sin embargo, es generalmente considerado informalutilizarlo en esta forma. La siguiente es una explicación de los diversos usos deestas dos palabras. Like (Como)
  12. 12. Uses (Usos)1. "Like" es una preposición" que significa "parecido a" o "lo mismo de". No se puede utilizar "as" de este modo. Como una preposición, "like" está seguida por un sustantivo o un pronombre. Estructura verbo + "like" + sustantivo/pronombre • Ejemplos: • She dances like a professinal. She dances like a professional. (Baila como una profesional.) • Like me, my friend John loves the cinema. Like me, my friend John loves the cinema. (Como yo, a mi amigo John le encanta el cine.) • Michael speaks English like a native. Michael speaks English like a native. (Michael habla inglés como un nativo.)2. También, se utiliza "like" para decir que algo es típico de alguien. • Ejemplos: • Its so like Ben to be late. Its so like Ben to be late. (Es tan típico de Ben llegar tarde.) • Its just like Helen to laugh in uncomfortable situations. Its just like Helen to laugh in uncomfortable situations. (Es tan típico de Helen reír en situaciones incómodas.)3. Cuando utiliza "like" con el verbo "look" significa "parecer" or "parecerse". • Ejemplos: • I look like my mother. I look like my mother. (Me parezco a mi madre.) • It looks like it is going to rain. It looks like it is going to rain. (Parece que va a llover.) • He looks like he hasnt slept in weeks. He looks like he hasnt slept in weeks. (Él parece como que no ha dormido en semanas.)4. También utilizamos "like" para presentar ejemplos. • Ejemplos: • I play many sports like football, basketball and tennis. I play many sports like football, basketball and tennis. (**** muchos deportes como fútbol, baloncesto y tenis.)
  13. 13. • There are many things we can do to protect the environment, like recycling or using renewable energy sources. There are many things we can do to protect the environment, like recycling or using renewable energy sources. (Hay muchas cosas que podemos hacer para proteger el medio ambiente, como reciclar o utilizar fuentes de energía renovables.) • Some people, like my friend Carol, dont like to travel. Some people, like my friend Carol, dont like to travel. (Algunas personas, como mi amiga Carol, no le gusta viajar.) As (Como) Uses (Usos)1. "As" significa "en la misma manera" o "en la misma condición de". Al diferencia de "like", "as" está seguido por un sujeto y un verbo. • Ejemplos: • She worked hard on the project, as she always does. She worked hard on the project, as she always does. (Trabajó duramente en el proyecto, como lo hace siempre.) • Nobody paints as Picasso did. Nobody paints as Picasso did. (Nadie pinta como Picasso lo hizo.) Estructura "as" + sujeto + verbo2. Se utiliza "as" en frases comparativas. • Ejemplos: • John can run as fast as Peter. John can run as fast as Peter. (John puede correr tan rápido como Peter.) • My dad doesnt have as much energy as he used to have. My dad doesnt have as much energy as he used to have. (Mi padre no tiene tanta energía como solía tener.)3. Como "like", se usa "such as" para presentar ejemplos. • Ejemplos: • I play many sports, such as football, basketball and tennis. I play many sports, such as football, basketball and tennis. (**** a muchos deportes como el fútbol, baloncesto y tenis.) • There are many things we can do to protect the environment, such as recycling or using renewable energy sources.
  14. 14. There are many things we can do to protect the environment, such as recycling or using renewable energy sources. (Hay muchas cosas que podemos hacer para proteger el medio ambiente, como reciclar o utilizar fuentes de energía renovables.) • Some people, such as my friend Carol, dont like to travel. Some people, such as my friend Carol, dont like to travel. (Algunas personas, como a mi amiga Carol, no les gusta viajar.)4. Cuando sea una preposición, "as" significa el papel o profesión de algo o alguien. • Ejemplos: • She started working as a teacher 5 years ago. She started working as a teacher 5 years ago. (Empezó a trabajar como profesor hace 5 años.) • We used to live here, but now we are using the apartment as a painting studio. We used to live here, but now we are using the apartment as a painting studio. (Vivíamos aquí antes, pero ahora estamos utilizando el piso como un estudio de pintura.) • "As" can be used as a conjunction or a preposition. "As" can be used as a conjunction or a preposition. ("Como" puede ser usado como una conjunción o una preposición.) Nota: Ten cuidado, el uso de uno sobre otro puede cambiar el sentido. • Ejemplos: • As your teacher, I suggest you study more. As your teacher, I suggest you study more. [Significa: I am your teacher] • Like your teacher, I suggest you study more. Like your teacher, I suggest you study more. [Significa: I agree with your teacher, we have a similar opinion]5. Se utiliza "as" en algunas expresiones. • Ejemplos: • As you know, this is not the first time your son has been a problem in class. As you know, this is not the first time your son has been a problem in class. (Como ya sabe, esto no es la primera vez que su hijo ha sido un problema en clase.)
  15. 15. • As expected, Ben was late for class again today. As expected, Ben was late for class again today. (Como se esperaba, Ben llegó de nuevo tarde a clase hoy.) • As I said, I hope this is the last time you are late. As I said, I hope this is the last time you are late. (Como ya he dicho, espero que esta sea la última vez que llegas tarde.) • Here is the report, as requested. Here is the report, as requested. (Aquí está el informe, como solicitó.) Lección gramática: Comparatives and SuperlativesMy mother is older than my father.a) oldb) olderc) the oldestd) the oldWhat is the funniest movie you have ever seen?a) funnyb) funnierc) the funniestd) the funnyThat movie was bad, but it wasnt the worst I have ever seen.a) baddestb) worsestc) worsed) the worstRachels hair is not as long as Sarahs.a) longb) longerc) the longestd) more longYesterdays exam was more difficult than the one last month.
  16. 16. a) difficultb) difficulterc) the difficultestd) more difficultPeter is as fast as Alex.a) fastb) fasterc) the fastestd) the fasterI think Mary is the most beautiful woman I have ever seen.a) beautifulb) the most beautifulc) the beautifulestd) the beautifulerHer room is only a little bit bigger than mine.a) biggerb) the biggerc) bigd) he biggestHe is happiest when he is playing football.a) the happierb) happiestc) the happyd) happyestMichaels house is further from the train than Bettys.a) farb) the furthestc) the fartherd) further Lección gramática: Like / as
  17. 17. Howard sings with as much confidence as a professional.a) as, asHoward sings like a professional.a) likeIt is just like Jenny to forget my birthday.a) likePeters work as a consultant keeps him very busy.a) asAs your boss, I think you need to work harder. [= I am your boss]a) AsLike your boss, I think you need to work harder. [= I am not your boss]a) LikeVanessa won the race, as expected.a) asYoure bedroom is a mess. Its like a bomb exploded in there!a) likeIt looks like its going to be another beautiful day.a) likeHe blamed everyone else for his mistakes as he always does.a) as Examples: Comparatives an Superlatives-Camila dance good faster than Sofía .(Camila baila mejor y rápido que Sofía).-Carlos car is cleaner than Luisas.(El carro de Carlos está más limpio)-José doesnt eat pizza as Julián .(José no come pizzas como Julián.)-María is as beautiful as i am .(María es tan bella como yo )Iam the smallest .(Soy el más pequeño.)
  18. 18. Like /as (Como)-She swim like a professional.(Nada como una profesional.)- I loook my father.(Me parezco a mi padre.)-It looks like it is going to cold.(Parece que va a ser calor.)-Its so loke Max to be late.(ES tan típico de Max llegar tarde.)-Karol cooks a soup of chicken like a chef.(Karol cocina sopa de pollo como unachef.)

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