Grade 7 Vocabulary List (Inquiry on Weather)HumidityDew PointisothermMeteorologistEl NinoWeatherPrecipitationAtmosphereTroposphereIonosphereOzoneUltravioletConductionConvectionHydrosphereCondensationFront (weather)TornadoHurricaneBlizzardIsobarClimatePolarTemperateGreenhouseDeforestation** Need to write for each word:1. Definition2. Your own sentence
______________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 16, Section 1, pg. 452-461)Weather is the state of atmosphere at a specific time and place. In short, it describes conditionsof three things: 1. ________________ (ex. air pressure, wind) 2. ______________________ (ex. water moisture in the air) 3. __________________________ (Ex. temperature)However, the Sun is the biggest factor in ultimately establishing the weather because itprovides almost all of the Earth’s energy. For example, energy from the sun affects the watermoisture through evaporation. Differences in temperature between 2 regions of the earth cancause wind currents and more.Here is some more general information about the major defining conditions of weather: 1. _______________________________________-Air consists of molecules that are always moving in a random motion. Air temperature is ameasure of how _____________________ air molecules are moving. When heat from thesun (or other energy) hits air molecules, they move faster and the temperature goes up. Whenheat is removed, they move slower and the temperature goes down. 2. _____________________________-The wind refers to the _______________________________. There are many ways airmovement occurs. The most basic one is simply the rising and falling of air. When air is heated,it become less dense and moves up. On the other hand, when air is cooled, it becomes moredense and moves down. We (and also instruments) can feel this rising or falling movement of airas the wind. To more specific, different areas of air will have different densities depending ontheir temperature. This creates higher and lower areas of air pressure. Air will travel from airs ofhigh pressure to low pressure allowing wind to move in any direction and at different speeds. 3. ______________________________-Energy from the sun can cause water to evaporate into water vapor (gas). The____________________________________ in the air is known as humidity. When there isgreater sunlight (ie. when it is hotter), more water evaporates and the humidity increases. Onthe other hand, when there is less sunlight (ie. when it is cooler), water vapor changes back intowater through the process known as condensation. 4. _______________________________-The dew point is related to humidity. More specifically, it refers to the specific temperature atwhich water vapor changes (ie. _______________________) back into water for a particularlocation. Thus, when you see water form out of the air on some cooled object, the presenttemperature at the place where the water forms is called the dew point.
Also note: if the a place’s temperature drops too quickly (to around zero), the water vapor willchange into ice instead of water. This type of ice is called _______________________Other Important Features of Weather A. _________________________-If fact, clouds are formed in the same way that dew forms except it happens high up in the sky.The temperature drops low enough that water vapor in some part of the sky changes into water.But these water droplets form around little particles in the air such as dust and are preventedfrom falling. Instead, they all get stuck together to make a cloud.There are also different ways the water droplets can get stuck together because the amount ofdust but also because of differences in temperature, pressures and the amount of water vapor.As a result, different kinds of clouds can be formed. In general, we classify clouds by their shapeand height._____________________ clouds usually form at low altitudes. They form as smooth sheets inthe sky or even just above the ground to make fog. ___________________clouds form at veryhigh altitudes and are very puffy and white. ____________________ clouds are very curly orfibrous clouds. They look like feathers. Eventually, some clouds can accumulate enough dropsof water such that they become too heavy to be held up by nearby particles in the air. They willsoon produce rain or snow. These clouds often include the word “nimbus” in their naming. B. __________________________-When clouds get too heavy and their water particles begin to fall, we call the falling water:precipitation. The type of water particles can vary depending on the air temperature. There arefour types: _______________ (just water droplets), _____________ (thin),______________(thicker ice in the form of pellets) and ___________________(big lumps ofice). As well, the size of the water particles can also vary depending on the wind and thetemperature. Updrafts keep the water droplets in the sky longer so they can combine with otherdrops and grow bigger before falling. If the temperature goes up enough, water droplets mayevaporate again before even falling.
SUMMARY – Organizer Handout (for Chapter 15, Section 1)Step 1: Read one time. * Take notes too if you want! Reading NotesStep 2:Write the Main Idea (1-2 sentences) –________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Step 3: Write the supporting ideas. Write in the small boxes first!Step 4: Write the supporting details. Write in the bigger boxes later!Supporting Idea 1 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 1 (1+ sentences)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Supporting Idea 2 (1-2 sentences)Supporting Details 2 (1+ sentences) _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Earth’s Atmosphere (Chapter 15 , Section 1)In order to understand weather better, you should first understand “where” weather occurs. Itnormally takes place in Earth’s atmosphere. Our atmosphere is a thin layer of air that servesas a protective covering around the whole planet. In addition to things happening in theatmosphere, it also plays an important function in regulating the amount of sunlight thatcomes in or remains after.The Makeup-The earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases, solids and liquids that all surround theplanet from the Earth’s surface right up to outer space. Gases include mostly nitrogen(78 %) , oxygen (21 %) and then there is a very small amount (1%) of other gases such asneon and ozone. Solids include small, solid particles such as dust, salt and pollen. Liquidsinclude water droplets. And all of the gases, solids and an liquids are constantly moving andcan change. So for example, droplets of water from a volcano erupting could travel thousandsof kilometers to other areas of the Earth.People even believe that Earth’s atmosphere was very different a long time and changedslowly over time to what it is today. A long time ago, the atmosphere still had a lot of nitrogenbut had more carbon dioxide and little oxygen. But Earth’s early organisms released oxygenin air. This oxygen later formed the ozone layer that protects now many living things from thesun’s harmful rays. Then, more plants could survive and more oxygen was released into the air.Layers of the Atmosphere-The earth’s atmosphere has layers. There are five in total as follows:Trophosphere – this is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It is from 0 – 10 km and it containsalmost all the water vapour (99 %) and most of the gases in the atmosphere ( 75 %)Stratosphere- this layer is about 10 -50 km high. It contains higher level of a gas called ozone.The ozone helps to protect the earth from harmful rays.** The troposphere and the stratosphere together make up the higher atmosphereMesophere – it extends from the top of the stratosphere to about 85 km up. Inside it is a layerof electrically charged particles called the ionsphere. Radiowaves travel through theionsphere. As well, sunlight can interact with the ionsphere causing its particles to even absorbAM radio waves. This is why AM is worse in the day light, because it gets absorbed better ratherthan being reflecting off the ionosphereThermosphere – it is found between 85 km and 500 km above. Here, you can also find theionsphere. As well, this layer of the Earth is actually very warm and is the thickest layer.Exosphere – the exosphere is the last layer of Earth to open space. There are few moleculeshere. So flying objects cannot use friction but must rely on bursts of rocket thrusters to moveabout. Space shuttles orbit the Earth in the exosphere.
Atmospheric Pressure – It is also important to understand that all the gases in the atmosphere have mass (similar toweight). So they get pulled toward the Earth’s surface by gravity. You feel this pulling of airmolecules as pressure. As well, the weight of all the gases higher above presses down the airbelow and makes its molecules pack closer together. As a result, the air closer to the ground ismore dense and is pulled more by gravity. The pressure is higher here. On the other hand,the higher up gases are not compacted and so their molecules are spread out more. Thepressure is lower in these higher up laces. People can only breathe well in high pressureplaces because more oxygen gets pushed together enough for them to breath.Temperature –The various layers of the atmosphere are also at different temperatures. This is because theyhave different amounts of gases. When the sun passes through a layer, it gets absorb moreeasily with some kinds of gases or amounts of gases than others. So some layers absorb moresun and are warmer while others absorb less sun and are cooler.As well, the Earth is very hot at its core and even the surface of the Earth gives off heat. As aresult, the higher up you go, the less heat you can receive from the Earth’s surface.So the combinations of the Earth’s surface and abortion of the sun produce special effects onthe temperature for each layer of the atmosphere. (see. Figure 8)The Ozone Layer-The ozone layer in the stratosphere is made up of oxygen. The oxygen atoms howeverarrange themselves in groups of three to make up ozone molecules. Then they all sticktogether to make the ozone layer. This layer is then able to shield certain types of sunlightincluding a lot of ultraviolet radiation. This is important because too much ultraviolet radiationcan kill living things by causing cancer.Unfortunately, pollution may be destroying the ozone layer. Harmful pollutants such as CFCs(chlorfluorocarbons) can react with ozone molecules to make new molecules that do not absorbultraviolet radiation well. Such reactions are believed to occur in certain places only to createholes in the ozone layer such as the one located above Antartica.
_____________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 15, Section 2)Part 1 – _________________________________Most of the energy on Earth comes ultimately from the sun. How the sun provides energy to theEarth occurs in a special way. (And it also results in various weather effects) i) The flow of solar energy can occur in ______________ ways- 1. Some of the energy is ___________________ right back into space by either the atmosphere itself (the many small particles) OR by the clouds in the atmosphere OR by the Earth’s surface (see figure 11 on page 435 ) 2. Some of the energy is ___________________________________ itself 3. Some of the energy travels through the atmosphere and ___________________________ _______________________________* Also Note! The amount of energy that gets absorbed is a very delicate matter. Just enoughenergy gets let into the atmosphere to allow heat to be transferred and allow the various effectson weather and to provide enough heat for life on Earth. If this amount were not controlled well,too much light or not enough light entering the world would have deadly affects on the Earth.(either it would be too cold and nothing would live or too much radiation would enter also killingeverything) ii) __________________________ is produced in ______________________ as solar energy travels through the atmosphere 1. __________________________– heat is generated from moving radiation waves from the sun itself. The moving radiation waves come directly from the sun an travel all the way to the atmosphere as form of energy called radiant energy 2. _______________________– First, the earth is warmed by radiation (heat) from the Sun. But then, the surface of the earth transfer some of its heat back to the atmosphere of the Earth. Basically, warmed particles of the earth are in contact with air molecules. The transfer some of their heat energy which then causes the air molecules to be warmed. These air particles than come into contact with other air particles and pass heat energy to them. Eventually, more and more particles get touched and heat is passed from one particle to the next. We call this kind of transfer of heat: conduction 3. Convection- After the atmosphere is warmed by radiation from the sun or convection from the Earth, certain molecules in the air can move from one area to another and take their heat energy with them to warm new areas up. In general, warmer air molecules rise up from lower altitudes to higher altitudes because of differences in density. The passing of heat energy by the movement of heated particles is called convection. (see figure 12)
Part 2 – ________________________________-The Sun’s energy also causes water in the atmosphere to change regularly from a liquid to agas (ie. evaporation) and later from a gas to a liquid (ie. condensation). More specifically, thesechanges occur as a constant cycle involving all waters of Earth that are known as thehydrosphere.Basically, the cycle is as follows: 1. Water evaporates from lakes, rivers and oceans and enters the earth’s atmosphere 2. Later, as it rises it cools and changes back into a liquid up in the sky. We can also say the water condenses. 3. Often, condensed water particles will collide in the sky with each other and other particles in the atmosphere. They get stuck together and stay up in the air by resting on other particles. The collection of such water particles forms clouds. 4. The water droplets of the clouds get bigger and bigger as more water condenses. Eventually, they fall to the ground as precipitation and eventually reach the lakes, rivers and oceans to complete the cycle. (see figure 13 on pg. 437)
_________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 15, Section 3)As mentioned briefly before, air movement is caused by the sun when it heats up different partsof the Earth in different amounts. But there are other forces at work too that cause the wind tomove or affect how it moves (ex. affects the wind’s direction)Most importantly, for ALL areas of the earth, there are 3 main causes of air movement.1. ________________________- The heat from the sun warms the air molecules by itsradiation. When air molecules are warmed, they move about faster and faster. Eventually, theycannot stay in one spot. So they move away from the heat further and further until they can cooland relax again. When the air molecules, move away from the heat, wind occurs! (ie. There isair movement!)2. ___________________________-Air density is the amount of air molecules in a given area of air. The more air molecules in anarea, the greater the density. Air molecules will move from a greater density area to a lowerdensity area. This is because the air molecules are always moving randomly around in any areaat any time. But in a dense area, many molecules will bump into each other and stay. But alsomany other molecules will miss bumping and “fly away”. The movement of many air moleculesaway from the area is enough to make wind! (ie. There is air movement!)Later, the density gets low. Now not enough air molecules are together to move away togetherto make a big enough force of wind (so you can’t naturally have a significant movement of airfrom a low density to a higher density)3.____________________________ –Another air movement factor is Earth’s spin. The earth is constantly spinning around. (You knowit takes 1 day to make a complete turn). Air molecules normally move in a straight path in anarea at rest. However, moving area molecules will appear to curve when they are in a spinningarea. Because the whole area itself has started to spin, the target area moves away to the rightor left from where the air particles travel to. So to the target area, the air molecules appear tohave moved to the right or left. (Of course, it is really the target area that is curving and not theair itself!) straight anymore)The same happens when you are on a merry-go-around. If you are on a merry-go-round andthrow a ball something to a person straight across. Does the ball travel straight to him/her? No.It will land to the left or right of him/her. Air molecules experience a similar situation!_____________________________-Because of the three factors described before, air movement can occur in various ways(because of one factor or even a combination of multiple factors). So, is the air movementrandom? NO. Actually, specific patterns of air movement get created by these factors dependingon the location of the Earth. The location affects these patterns because of the sun’s heat.Different amounts of heat hit different parts of the Earth to cause different types of windmovements called Global Wind Patterns. You can describe the general features of these worldwind patterns as follows:__________________________- at the North and South Pole, density related air movementoccurs along with the coriolis effect.--> It is colder at a pole so the air is very dense. (ie. there are many air particles crowedtogether). It is warmer away from the pole (ie. it is less crowded). So air moves away from thepoles.--> The earth is spinning. As a result, the air that moves away from the poles does not flystraight across but instead flies at an angle to the left (north pole) or to the right (south pole).
________________________- Near 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south latitude, heated airmovement occurs at large and also the coriolis effect--> Here, air moves towards the poles because any area farther from the pole receives moreheat than an area closer to a pole. So this heat causes the air molecules to move away towardsthe colder area (which is towards a pole)--> The earth is spinning. As a result, the air that moves towards the poles does not fly straightacross but instead flies at an angle to the right (north pole) or to the left (south pole).______________________- Near the equator, mostly density related air movement occursalong with the coriolis effect.--> Here, air begins to move towards the poles because it is colder in that direction BUT also theregion immediately away from the poles (the equator) has almost no air molecules because it isso hot there. So, instead the air tends to move actually away from the poles in this area as ittravels from a more crowded area to a very non-crowded area the equator--> The earth is spinning. As a result, the air that moves towards the poles does not fly straightacross but instead flies at an angle to the left (north pole) or to the right (south pole)._______________________ – at the equator, mostly heated air movement occurs only. It is sohot here, that most air molecules fly away (towards either pole) and make this area almost freefrom any wind. So the air density or pressure is VERY low here.** See Figure 17 on pg. 441_________________________________-The Global Wind Patterns are not the only types of wind systems. Other types can occur tooincluding:_________________________- There are certain areas that are on the bolder of warmer airnear the equator and colder air near the poles. As a result, a special jet stream of wind occursfrom the colder air region to the warmer air region. Jets sometimes fly in the direction of the jetstream to fly faster around the world or avoid go against it so that they don’t have to work ashard._______________________________- Currents of air also form when water meets the land.This is because the water is colder or warmer than the land and so air moves from the colderarea to the warmer area as density air movement. More specifically, in the day time, the land iswarmer than the sea so the wind blows from the land to the sea. (The air around the land is lessdense than the air around the sea). But at night, the sea is warmer than the land so the windblows from the sea to the land. (The air around the land is more dense than the air around thesea.)
________________________________________________ (Chapter 16, Section 2)In addition to there being a number of global wind effects like the Trade Winds and the CoriolisEffect, various patterns of air movements, precipitation and other effects can happen at morelocal regions within them. As well, these more specific air and water effects are constantlychanging and moving. We can refer to them as __________________________ and usespecific words to define their behaviors as follows:________________________- the word air mass is used to describe how a body of air actswithin some more local region. Normally, the way an air mass develops is______________________ upon its specific _____________________. For example, if there island below the air, the air is usually more dry than other air where there is water below it. Thetemperature can also define the nature of an air mass. For instance, cold air masses blow fromthe polar regions towards the middle while hotter air masses blow from the middle of the Earthtowards the poles.And the air pressure changes within the world also cause _________________________.Normally, when air moves from a high pressure area (air molecules are more dense or crowded)to a low pressure area (air molecules are less dense or crowded), there will be more watercondensation and often even _______________________________. The air swirls a lot moreand rises up more and is called a ____________________. On the other hand, when air movesfrom a low pressure area to a high pressure area, there will be less water condensation andmore sinking motions of air. As a result, the weather is usually more fair here and the air here iscalled an __________________________.See figure 9 on pg. 462 for some examples of air masses in North America.___________________- Another way that specific weather effects occur is because of themeeting of two or more different types of air masses. The place or boundary where they meet iscalled a _______________. We can further divide these fronts into different types depending onwhich meeting air mass is moving faster than the other one(s).i) _______________________- With a cold front, cold air is moving faster towards warmer airand it pushes under the warm air and causes the war air to greatly move upwards into the sky.As a result, the warmer air gets cooled much quicker as it is pushed up and this can lead tomore rapid cloud formation and precipitation. In other words, thunderstorms often result at sucha front but for a short time. See figure 11, top left.ii) ______________________ – With a warm front, warm air is moving faster towards colder airand it slides more gently over the colder air and gently upwards. As a result, more condensationand rain also occur and usually for a long period of time causing days of rain as the warm airmoves more slowly upward. See figure 11, top right.iii) ___________________ – With an occluded front, colder air, cool air and warm air all meet inone area. Here the colder air is moving the fastest and it again forces the warm air upwards(like with the cold front). But there is also cooler air nearby so the warm air also gets pushed upsomewhat by the cool air too in another direction. See figure 11, bottom left.
iv) ___________________ - With a stationary front, cold air and warm air meet. Neither ismoving much faster than the other and there is like a showoff. Neither air mass can advanceover the other and they just push at each other for a good period of time. In the place wherethey push as each other, a light wind and some precipitation can occur. See figure 11, bottomright.____________________- as mentioned above, in certain cases, (example air moving to lowpressure zones or with certain fronts meeting), more special weather effects can occur thatusually involve great precipitation and wind movement can be dangerous. We can all such moreviolent weather behavior, severe weather. Some of them are described now below:____________________- a thunderstorm usually occurs in warm, moist (wet) air masses orbetween certain fronts. There are a number of features. First, it rains hard. This is becausewarm air usually gets pushed up faster and higher forming big cumulonimbus clouds. And theneventually water droplets condense and fall and even collide with other water droplets fallinginto bigger, heavier and faster falling water. The sudden heavy rain can even cause dangerousflash floods because rivers receive so much water that they spill over onto the land. Second, the sinking water cools the air. This sinking cool air mixes with other warm airthat is still rising. As a result, ___________________ usually forms during a thunderstorm.These winds can damage things too. Third, _____________________ can result. As just explained, sinking cool air mixes withrising warm air. Such movement can cause the forming clouds to have different electricalcharges at their ends. Then, current flows between the charged ends, creating lightning.Further, lightning is very hot. So when it happens, it rapidly warms the air around it (about 30000 degrees Celsius). Then, right after, the air quickly cools and contracts. This rapid warmingand cooling of air creates sounds, the sound of __________________._______________________- tornadoes can sometimes be produced from thunderstorms incertain areas of the world. Again, during a thunderstorm, cooling sinking air from heavy rainmixes with rising warm air. Their mixing can create powerful winds that blow in differentdirections. Sometimes, these winds react with each other such that they all violently rotate intoa column that touches the ground. We call this rotating upward column of air a tornado.Tornadoes can cause great destruction such as ripping apart buildings and uprooting trees.___________________ - There are also low-pressure areas over water and it can also rainheavily in these areas. Just like thunderstorms on land, great winds can be created over thewater. And sometimes, these winds are so great that a large swirling motion of wind happenstoo. Often, this wind also receives more power from heat energy from the ocean and turns intothe most powerful storms: a hurricane in the Atlantic, a typhoon in the Pacific or a cyclone in theIndian Ocean. These three storms are extremely destructive. Hurricane weather can kill people,demolish buildings and destroy crops as they move and eventually hit land.___________________ - another type of storm is the blizzard. Blizzards are very similar tothunderstorms except that somehow warmer air is pushed upwards in a cold area. (Ex. between2 fronts). This time, instead of heavy rain, there is heavy snow and again very strong winds.Because of the heavy snow, visibility is reduced making it hard to see during a blizzard.
____________________________ - Because severe weather can be dangerous, people areconstantly monitoring them to ensure safety. Whenever meteorologists detect conditions thatcould (but not for sure) cause possible severe weather, they issue a ____________________.Later, if the severe weather does actually happen, they issue a ___________________. Peopleshould prepare accordingly whenever a watch or especially a warning is in effect (Ex. stay in thebasement, leave the area etc.)
Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________ Student Exploration: Weather MapsVocabulary: air mass, air pressure, cold front, high-pressure system, knot, low-pressure system,precipitation, warm frontPrior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)1. How would you describe your weather today? ____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________2. What information is important to include when you are describing the weather? __________ _________________________________________________________________________Gizmo Warm-upData on weather conditions is gathered from weather stations all overthe world. This information is combined with satellite and radar imagesto create weather maps that show current conditions. With the WeatherMaps Gizmo™, you will use this information to interpret a variety ofcommon weather patterns.A weather station symbol, shown at right, summarizes the weatherconditions at a location.1. The amount of cloud cover is shown by filling in the circle. A black circle indicates completely overcast conditions, while a white circle indicates a clear sky. What percentage of cloud cover is indicated on the symbol above? ____________________2. Look at the “tail” that is sticking out from the circle. The tail points to where the wind is coming from. If the tail points north, a north wind is moving from north to south. What direction is the wind coming from on the symbol above? ________________________3. The “feathers” that stick out from the tail indicate the wind speed in knots. (1 knot = 1.151 miles per hour.) A short feather represents 5 knots (5.75 mph), a long feather represents 10 knots (11.51 mph), and a triangular feather stands for 50 knots (57.54 mph). Add the feathers to find the wind speed. What is the wind speed shown on the symbol above? ______________________________
Get the Gizmo ready:Activity A: Click New until you see a high-pressure system,High-pressure represented by the symbol H.systems Turn on Show Mobile Station B data. Turn on Show land.Question: What weather patterns are associated with high-pressure systems?1. Observe: Air pressure is equal to the weight of a column of air on a particular location. Air pressure is measured in millibars (mb). Use your mouse to move the mobile station B around the map. Note how the air pressure changes as you move Station B towards the center of the high-pressure system. i. What do you notice? __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ii. Why do you think this is called a high-pressure system? ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________2. Observe: Select Show satellite image to observe any clouds near the system. What do you notice about the cloud cover near the high-pressure system? _________________________________________________________________________ High-pressure systems are regions where air moves downward. Usually few or no clouds form in these conditions.3. Measure: Measure the wind speed and direction around the high-pressure system. Sketch the following on the map at right: The location of the high-pressure system. Arrows to show the wind directions around the high-pressure system. The approximate wind speed at each arrow (in miles per hour).4. Analyze: Use your map to answer the following questions: A. Is the wind pattern clockwise or counterclockwise? __________________________ B. Where are the strongest winds found? ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
Get the Gizmo ready: Activity B: Click New until you see a low-pressure system, Low-pressure represented by the symbol L. systems Check that Show Mobile Station B data and Show land are on.Question: What weather patterns are associated with low-pressure systems?1. Observe: Use your mouse to move the mobile station B around the map.Note how the air pressure changes as you move Station B towards the center of the low-pressure system. A. What do you notice? __________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ B. Why do you think this is called a low-pressure system? _______________________ ___________________________________________________________________2. Observe: Select Show satellite image. What do you notice about the cloud cover near the low- pressure system? _______________________________________________________ Low-pressure systems are regions where air moves upward. This can lead to condensation and cloud formation.3. Measure: Measure the wind speed and direction around the low-pressure system. Sketch the following on the map at right: The location of the low-pressure system. Arrows to show the wind directions around the low-pressure system. The approximate wind speed at each arrow (in miles per hour). Any clouds associated with the low-pressure system.4. Analyze: Use your map to answer the following questions: C. Is the wind pattern clockwise or counterclockwise? __________________________ D. Where are the strongest winds found? ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________ (Summary Note for Chapter 16, Section 3)In the last class, you learned about certain specific type of local weather patterns (behaviors)and also the general causes for them (ex. pressure change, fronts). In this lesson, you will learnthe basic ways that _____________________________ (weather men and women who studythe weather) _________________________________________ the weather patterns foreveryone to see.First of all, meteorologists normally study weather patterns and communicate them byillustrations –___________________- they actually occur. In other words, weather people try togive everyone illustrated ________________________ of future weather to come so that peoplecan plan their lives accordingly and prepare for dangerous weather. Doing so requires careful_________________________________ of various conditions of the atmosphere in numerousdifferent spots for a given region. Such monitoring and measuring occurs through the use of avariety of ______________________ that measure things like_________________________________________ ___________________. For instance,Doppler radar carried by balloons can be used to gather such data. As well, other satelliteinstruments attached to balloons located both in the upper atmosphere and on Earth’s surfaceare utilized. Then, the weather people normally read their collected data and make________________________ to show their forecasts. It is important to note, such forecastmaps can never be completely accurate because atmospheric conditions are constantlychanging.General Make Up of Weather Maps- in order to keep consistency (sameness), mostmeteorologists create their maps in the same and using the same symbols. Some of morecommon methods and symbols for map making are given below briefly.__________________________- Information on different types of data is all written togetherspots on a map using a combination of symbols. Such a gathering of data and symbols at agiven spot is called a station model. For instance, in any station model, you can read thetemperature, the amount of clouds or cloud coverage (by a circle fill) and type of clouds, thewind speed and direction (by a tail with ticks connected to the cloud amount circle) and otherpressure related data. See figure 18 in your textbook.__________________________________ – In addition to entering station models on theirmaps, meteorologists also include special lines that can run throughout their maps and evenoccur as a series of circles radiating out from some location. These lines connect points of equalpressure (isobars) or equal temperature (isotherms). Also, in the case of concentric circularisobars, weather people write _______________________ at the centre of the radiating circlesto describe the amount of pressure. Further, you can look at the –space- between isobars toknow how fast the pressure is changing. If the lines are ___________________ from each other,there is generally a ______________________________ in that area. But if the lines are____________ to each other, there is generally a much ________________________________in that area. In turn, you can use this pressure difference information to predict the__________________________. Winds are usually strong in areas with big pressure changesand gentle in areas with small pressure changes. Also, you normally see bigger pressuredifferences and stronger winds ___________________________.
__________________________ – fronts are also usually illustrated in weather maps as youlearned in the last lesson. Cold fronts are shown by green lines and little triangles. Warm frontsare shown by red lines and little half circles. Occluded fronts are represented by purple lineswith triangles and half circles. Stationary fronts are shown by red green lines with triangles andhalf circles too. See figure 19 in your textbook for a visual.