Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Preparing your code for Java 9

489 views

Published on

This presentation covers some of the aspects that a developer should be aware of while moving to Java 9.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Preparing your code for Java 9

  1. 1. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Preparing your code for Java 9 Eclipse Summit, India Deepu Xavier Product Manager Java Platform Group 26 August 2016
  2. 2. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Safe Harbor Statement The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Agenda • Java 9 Schedule • How a developer can leverage and adjust to Java 9 features – Jshell – Javadoc Search – Internal API encapsulation – Process API – Convenience Factory Methods for Collections – Version String – V for Verona – Multi Release Jar Files – Gone, gone, gone… • The Jigsaw way – How to make your own modular image • What Next
  4. 4. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Java 9 Timeline Schedule Milestone Target Date Feature Complete 26 May 2016 All Tests Run 11 August 2016 Rampdown Start 01 September 2016 Zero bug Bounce 20 October 2016 Rampdown Phase 2 01 December 2016 Final Release Candidate 26 January 2017 General Availability 23 March 2017 https://jdk9.java.net/
  5. 5. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 6 JDK Enhancement Proposals (JEPs) for Java 9 Total 84 JEPs Jigsaw Client Lib Core Lib Core SVC Hotspot JavaFX Security Lib Tools XML Others Version String Linux/AArch64 Port Infra & Deploy- 3 JEPs 7 JEPs 19 JEPs 2 JEPs 17 JEPs 3 JEPs 9 JEPs 15 JEPs 1 JEPs 5 JEPs Note: The content of this slide is based on information available as of 26th July 2016 6 JEPs
  6. 6. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 7 Java 9: Jigsaw and Many More… Process API Improvements Multi-Resolution Images Interned String in CDS Unicode Compatibility Default GC JVM Command Validation Compact String Segmented Code Cache Reserved Stack Areas for Critical Sections Better Import Statement Handling Convenient Collections Handling Concurrency Updates Multi Release JAR Smart Compilation 2 HiDPI Graphics on Windows and Linux Microbenchmark Suite More JVM Diagnostic Commands Compile for Older Platform Versions Jigsaw HTTP2 Compliance New Version String http://openjdk.java.net/projects/jdk9/
  7. 7. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 222: JShell • Lets you try code. • Supports libraries, tab completion, up/down arrows, etc. • Not for “create a class or method from this prose.” 8 •Without JShell, I often wrote random unit tests or main methods to try things. •With JShell, I can try things and close it when I’m done. JEP 222
  8. 8. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 225: Javadoc Search • Add a search box to generated API documentation that can be used to search for program elements and tagged words and phrases within the documentation. tools / javadoc(tool) Java 8 Javadoc: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/ Java 9 Javadoc: http://download.java.net/java/jdk9/docs/api/index.html
  9. 9. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 260: Encapsulate Most Internal APIs • Make most of the JDK's internal APIs inaccessible by default but leave a few critical, widely-used internal APIs accessible, until supported replacements exist for all or most of their functionality – In order to keep critical APIs without a replacement accessible by default sun.misc and sun.reflect will not be hidden and a few APIs kept “public” • sun.misc.Unsafe • sun.misc.{Signal,SignalHandler} • sun.reflect.Reflection::getCallerClass • sun.reflect.ReflectionFactory – All other APIs in these packages (e.g. sun.misc.Base64) will be removed
  10. 10. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 11 Categories of APIs in JDK • Supported, intended for external use • JCP standard, java.*, javax.* • JDK-specific API, some com.sun.*, some jdk.* • Unsupported, JDK-internal, not intended for external use • sun.* mostly
  11. 11. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 12 Internal API Related Changes
  12. 12. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 13 General compatibility policies •If an application uses only supported, non-deprecated, APIs and works on release N then it should work on N+1, even without recompilation •Supported APIs can be removed but only with advanced notice How we manage incompatibilities • Judge risk and impact based on actual data (where possible) • Communicate early and vigorously through Early Access, OpenJDK Mails etc. • Make it easy to understand how existing code will be affected • When removing unsupported APIs, provide replacements where it make sense • Provide workarounds where possible
  13. 13. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 14 JEP 260 proposal Encapsulate all non-critical internal APIs by default Encapsulate all critical internal APIs for which supported replacements exist in JDK 8 Do not encapsulate critical internal APIs • Deprecate them in JDK 9 • Plan to remove in JDK 10 Provide a workaround via command-line flag Non-critical No evidence of use outside of JDK or used only for convenience Critical Functionality that would be difficult, if not impossible, to implement outside of the JDK
  14. 14. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15 Finding uses of JDK-internal APIs • jdeps tool in JDK 8, improved in JDK 9 • Maven JDeps Plugin $ jdeps -jdkinternals glassfish/modules/security.jar
  15. 15. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Code shown in the following examples are purely author’s imagination or used in a fictitious manner. Any resemblance to your application code “could be” purely coincidental. Internal API !!!
  16. 16. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. jdeps To The Rescue
  17. 17. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Right Way
  18. 18. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 102: Process API Updates 19 • There has been a huge limitation in managing and controlling OS processes with Java • Platform compatibility was always a challenge. At present, developers resort to native code or much verbose workaround • With Java 9, processes can be handled using new direct methods like: • ProcessHandle currProcess = ProcessHandle.current(); • ProcessHandle.allProcesses() .filter(processHandle -> processHandle.info().command().isPresent()) .limit(3) .forEach((process) ->{// action here} //In Windows Process myProc = Runtime.getRuntime().exec ("tasklist.exe"); InputStream procOutput = myProc.getInputStream (); if (0 == myProc.waitFor ()) { // actions here } //For Linux Process myProc = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("ps -e"); InputStream procOutput = myProc.getInputStream (); if (0 == myProc.waitFor ()) { // actions here } Note: This is just couple of new methods/ classes. Please refer the respective javadoc for full list
  19. 19. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The Right Way
  20. 20. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 269: Convenience Factory Methods for Collections • Define library APIs to make it convenient to create instances of collections and maps with small numbers of elements, so as to ease the pain of not having collection literals in the Java programming language • Less boilerplate and reduced amount of code needed for creating small collections and maps • Set<String> set = Collections.unmodifiableSet(new HashSet<>(Arrays.asList("a", "b", "c"))); – populate a collection using a copy constructor from another collection: • Set<String> set = Collections.unmodifiableSet(new HashSet<String>() {{ add("a"); add("b"); add("c"); }}); – use the so-called "double brace" technique: • Set<String> set = Collections.unmodifiableSet(Stream.of("a", "b", "c").collect(toSet())); – by combining stream factory methods and collectors Set<String> alphabet = Set.of("a", "b", "c");
  21. 21. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Overload Difficulty: List.of(array) Oracle Confidential – Internal 22 Suppose you have this: String[] array = { "a", "b", "c" }; List.of(array); Should this create: A. List<String> containing three strings? B. List<String[]> containing a single array? JEP 269 ANSWER: A. Compiler chooses varargs, so we get List<String> with three strings Probably right; list of arrays is rare. Workaround: List<String[]> listOfArray = List.<String[]>of(array);
  22. 22. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 23 JEP 223: New Version-String Scheme Revise the JDK's version-string scheme so that it is easier to distinguish major, minor, and security-update releases. Goal is to device a new version numbering scheme which is  easily understandable  aligning with industry best practices (Semantic Versioning)  is easy to distinguish between major, minor and critical patch update (CPU) releases New scheme will follow MAJOR.MINOR.SECURITY (-PRE)?(+BUILD)?(-OPT)? convention MAJOR : The major version number will be incremented for every major release MINOR : The minor version number will be incremented for every minor update release MINOR is reset to zero when MAJOR is incremented SECURITY: The security version number will be incremented for every security update release SECURITY is reset to zero only when MAJOR is incremented A higher value of SECURITY for a given MAJOR value, therefore, always indicates a more secure release, regardless of the value of MINOR PRE: This represents a pre-release identifier. E.g. ea, for an early-access release BUILD: Build number may be promoted by 1 for every promoted build. BUILD is reset to one when any portion of MAJOR.MINOR.SECURITY is incremented OPT: Additional build information Note: Existing code that assumes the initial element to have the value 1, however, and therefore always skips to the second element when comparing version numbers, will not work correctly e.g., such code will consider 9.0.1 to precede 1.8.0. Version # Detail 9 Java 9 GA 9.0.1 CPU: 9 + critical changes 9.1.1 Minor release: 9.0.1 + other changes 9.1.2 CPU: 9.1.1 + critical changes 9.2.2 Minor release: 9.1.2 + other changes Hypothetical Release Sequence (for illustration only)
  23. 23. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 282: jlink: The Java Linker • Create a tool that can assemble and optimize a set of modules and their dependencies into a custom run- time image as defined in JEP 220. Define a plugin mechanism for transformation and optimization during the assembly process, and for the generation of alternative image formats • Create a custom runtime optimized for a single program • JEP 261 defines link time as an optional phase between the phases of compile time and run time. Link time requires a linking tool that will assemble and optimize a set of modules and their transitive dependencies to create a run-time image or executable.
  24. 24. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 25 JEP 238: Multi-Release JAR Files Extend the JAR file format to allow multiple, Java-release-specific versions of class files to coexist in a single archive. • It is practically difficult to express conditional platform dependencies or to distribute separate library artifacts for each new java version • A multi-release JAR ("MRJAR") will contain additional directories for classes and resources specific to particular Java platform releases. With this, it is possible for versions of a class designed for a later Java platform version to override the version of that same class designed for an earlier Java platform release. META-INF Content Root A.class B.class C.class D.class Normal JAR META-INF versions -8 A.class B.class -9 A.class Content Root A.class B.class C.class D.class MR JAR
  25. 25. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 289: Deprecate the Applet API • Deprecate the Applet API, which is rapidly becoming irrelevant as web-browser vendors remove support for Java browser plug-ins JEP 241: Remove the jhat Tool • Remove the antiquated jhat tool • jhat is an experimental, unsupported, and out-of-date tool added in JDK 6 • Superior heap visualizers and analyzers have now been available for many years
  26. 26. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. JEP 231: Remove Launch-Time JRE Version Selection • Remove the ability to request, at JRE launch time, a version of the JRE that is not the JRE being launched. • Modern applications are typically deployed via Java Web Start (JNLP), native OS packaging systems, or active installers, and all of these technologies have their own ways of finding, and even sometimes installing and later updating, an appropriate JRE for the application. JEP 240: Remove the JVM TI hprof Agent • Remove the hprof agent from the JDK • The hprof agent was written as demonstration code for the JVM Tool Interface and not intended to be a production tool. • The useful features of the hprof agent have been superseded by better alternatives. Alternatives Heap dumps: GC.heap_dump (jcmd <pid> GC.heap_dump)/ jmap –dump Allocation profiler : Java VisualVm & other 3rd party tools CPU profiler: Java VisualVm and Java Flight Recorder
  27. 27. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What Next ?
  28. 28. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Download Early Access and Try Java 9 https://jdk9.java.net/
  29. 29. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. How can Open Source projects get involved to test JDK 9? • Helps open source projects understand changes and know how to test. • Check your code for internal APIs using Jdeps. • Run your tests on JDK 9. https://wiki.openjdk.java.net/display/quality/Quality+Outreach 30 Join the OpenJDK Quality Outreach Campaign
  30. 30. Copyright © 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

×