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CIPR State of the Profession 2018

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The State of the Profession is the PR industry's longest-running and most authoritative research study into public relations practice. Now in its ninth year, this year's research reflects the views of more than 1,700 PR professionals and harnesses pioneering new research from the Office of National Statistics on the PR population.

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CIPR State of the Profession 2018

  1. 1. P1 S TAT E O F T H E P R O F E S S I O N 2018 #StateOfPR cipr.co.uk
  2. 2. P2 INTRODUCTION For almost a decade, the CIPR’s State of the Profession has delivered industry- leading data on the trends, issues and challenges impacting public relations. From skills and salaries to diversity and gender pay, the research has benchmarked standards and spotlighted stories that have guided industry efforts to improve practice. Thousands of PR professionals have had their say on the PR industry each year since the survey’s inception in 2009, but tens of thousands more work in public relations beyond the CIPR’s networks. The CIPR wanted to conduct a research study that truly represented the entire profession. This perspective inspired a unique approach to the 2018 study. For the first time, this year’s research combines State of the Profession insight with data from a separate Office of National Statistics (ONS) study into the public relations population. The intention was to create a higher level of assurance for the findings of the research by doing a wider desk-based analysis of the PR population based on the ONS Annual Population Survey. Validated against the ONS data, this year’s State of the Profession is the most powerful, statistically robust and authoritative exploration of public relations practice to date. STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018
  3. 3. P3 METHODOLOGY In 2017 the CIPR chose to work with Chalkstream Ltd, an agency with a research specialism led by a Chartered PR Practitioner, to deliver the project. The initial output was an analysis of the UK’s PR population, giving an overall figure and providing a range of demographic information. This was tested and extended to cover the period 2013-2017. To set State of the Profession in context, the CIPR commissioned an analysis of the UK PR population as a whole. This was carried out through an analysis of data collected through the Annual Population Survey (APS) of UK residents. Around 320,000 people take part in the APS each year, giving it the largest coverage of any UK household survey and allowing for the generation of statistics for small geographical areas. The APS is a representative survey and produces the most robust data available to help any organisation understand the population of a given profession. The APS data is, according to the ONS, the most reliable source for occupation and industry breakdown in the UK. To test the robustness of the methodology and to understand data trends, data from APS 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16 and 2016/17 was analysed. The data from population research was used to created weighted samples and test the State of the Profession sample to see how representative it is of the PR population. State of the Profession went into the field in November 2017, closing on 17 December with 1,752 respondents. Invitations to complete the survey were sent via email by the CIPR to its members and non-members who were signed up to the Institute’s mailing list. Invitation links were also shared on social media. Of the 1,752 responses, 179 respondents did not work in public relations and 369 respondents failed to complete the survey in its entirety although the responses provided in these cases allowed for confident interpretation and presentation of the data. The results reflected through this study related to the UK PR population as a whole, as analysed further in the appendix. The State of the Profession survey sampled this population and followed a different methodology. The two sets of results are distinct but provide a strong basis for comparison. The APS data allowed us to analyse how representative the sample in State of the Profession is of the UK’s PR population and provided a basis to set the analysis in a wider context. STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 METHODOLOGY
  4. 4. P4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The use of new research on the population of UK PR practitioners ensures the results of this year’s State of the Profession are representative of the wider PR industry. The findings: 1. GROWTH AND SALARIES Public relations is a growing profession. There are 71,000 PR practitioners in the UK. The workforce has grown by 22% (from 58,000) over the past four years. The vast majority of agencies, consultancies and departments are growing or maintaining their size in 2017/18. Chartered Practitioners, as a group, have the highest average income. As in 2017, in-house professionals in the private sector earn more than public sector in-house professionals, agency, consultancy or independent practitioners. PR professionals working outside the UK as well as those in London, the South East and the Channel Islands have the highest average annual income; those in Northern Ireland and East Midlands have the lowest. Overall, average salaries for full-time workers grew by £1,123 from £50,447 in 2017 to £51,570 in 2018, but the results showed significant variations according to gender, age and location. 2. ACHIEVING RECOGNITION AS A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DISCIPLINE Senior representation for the PR function matters to practitioners; respondents consider that under-representation of public relations practitioners at board level is the biggest challenge facing the industry, as they did last year. Practitioners need to break away from tactical communications and assert wider influence over the organisation they work in or for if PR is to thrive as a strategic management discipline. Although practitioners influence communications strategy and communication budgets, organisations are systematically undervaluing their PR functions – only 1 in 10 senior respondents indicated they were a member of an executive board. Nine out of 10 (88%) recruiters value strategic thinking as one of the most significant attributes in senior practitioners. Senior practitioners rate it as strength (45%), and strategic planning is one of the most commonly undertaken activities at this level (66%). However, senior practitioners need to build their business acumen to break through beyond PR. STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  5. 5. P5 Public relations faces a longer term challenge to establish new sources of value to counter the risks posed by new technology. At all levels, practitioners are overwhelmingly engaged in tactical delivery. The most commonly undertaken activity in PR is copywriting and editing – the third most common is media relations. Elements of these activities, as well as social media relations, are at risk of automation. Delivering PR campaigns is the second most common activity. Senior practitioners are strategic planners but are more commonly occupied in copywriting and campaigns. While recruiters value strategic thinking and practitioners identified it as a strength, there is a gap between this perceived value and the reality of a senior role in PR. 3. PR FAILING TO BRIDGE THE DIVERSITY GAP PR has a “Diversity Gap” – our population research suggests that in 2017, 96% of the population of public relations was ethnically white, up from 90% in 2013. We should be cautious about placing too much emphasis on diversity data for a single year, due to the limitations of the methodology. The average over recent years (of 93% white ethnicity) is probably more robust. Thus, even on a generous interpretation of the data, the ‘Diversity Gap’ exists between the PR population and the wider UK population, which is generally identified as 87% white. The ‘Diversity Gap’ also relates to the change in attitudes within the profession. State of the Profession data shows practitioners are increasingly likely to believe that ethnic diversity contributes to improved PR practice. This rose from 59% to 65% between 2016 and 2017. Attitudes may be evolving, but recruitment practices are failing to drive real change. PR must take this issue more seriously. According to the January 2016 School Census, in primary schools 31.4% of pupils are of minority ethnic origin. The UK population is changing and PR is standing still. The sector needs to break down barriers to diversity in employment. The cost of failing to do this will become increasingly evident as society diversifies and PR is increasingly isolated and out of touch. STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  6. 6. P6 4. DECLINING FEMALE EMPLOYMENT, GENDER PAY AND PR’S GLASS CEILING FOR WOMEN Our survey data suggests that the proportion of men and women in the profession remains stable at 63% women; interestingly however, ONS data suggests there is a steady change in the gender balance in public relations. This ONS data indicates women make up 56% of the PR practitioner population which has declined year on year since 2013 (when they made up 63% of the workforce). If women are leaving, or being put off from working in PR, it may be in part due to the following reasons: The gap between the female and male salaries in PR has fallen slightly, to an average of £11,156 in 2018. However, this masks the annual cost of being a woman in PR. According to the regression analysis, which strips out other factors that influence earnings such as seniority, prevalence of part-time work or years in practice, this has risen from £5,784 to £6,725. It is also more difficult for women to reach the most senior, better paid roles in public relations. The average gap between male and female earnings rises to over £18,000 for practitioners who have worked in PR for between 17 and 21 years. 5. MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES ARE ON THE RISE Around one in six (16%) of PR practitioners stated that they have a mental health condition. This figure has more than doubled in the last year – only 6% of professionals reported mental health conditions in 2016/17. This rapid increase could be attributed in part to greater awareness of mental health in society, but also points to a challenge for employers in the sector. STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  7. 7. P7 CONTENTS THE PROFESSION 8 • RECRUITMENT 9 • CHALLENGES FACING THE INDUSTRY 10 EMPLOYMENT DEMOGRAPHICS 11 • AGE 12 • GENDER 12 • EDUCATION 12 • WORKPLACE REGION 13 • ORGANISATION TYPE 14 • YEARS IN PR 16 • SENIORITY 16 SALARY 17 • BY AGE 18 • BY LOCATION 18 • BY ROLE 18 • BY EXPERIENCE 19 • BY PROFESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 19 • BY GENDER 19 • GENDER PAY GAP BY EXPERIENCE 19 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE 20 • ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN 21 • SENIOR PRACTITIONERS 22 – Perceived strongest skills/competencies 22 – Skills most valued by recruiters 22 – Top perceived strongest attributes 23 – Attributes most valued by recruiters 23 – Strongest areas of professional knowledge 23 – Specialist knowledge most valued by recruiters 23 • NON MANAGERS 24 – Perceived strongest skills/competencies 24 – Skills most valued by recruiters 24 – Top perceived strongest attributes 24 – Attributes most valued by recruiters 24 – Strongest areas of professional knowledge 25 – Specialist knowledge most valued by recruiters 25 • RESPONSIBILITIES 26 – Senior responsibilities 26 – In-house responsibilities 26 – Consultancy/agency responsibilities 27 – Independent practioner responsibilities 27 – Professional standards 27 DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION 28 • ETHNICITY 29 • SEXUAL ORIENTATION 29 • RELIGION 29 • WELLBEING 30 • DIVERSITY ATTITUDES 30 HOW RESULTS REFLECT THE INDUSTRY 31 APPENDIX 32 LIMITATIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY 33 ABOUT CHALKSTREAM AND CIPR 34 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 CONTENTS
  8. 8. T H E P R O F E S S I O N 01 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018
  9. 9. P9 The APS data highlights a growth in the population working in PR. Over the last four years this has seen a rise from 58,000 to 71,000 people working in PR. This growth is reflected in the survey findings from State of the Profession which shows that agencies, consultancies and in house teams largely identify their workforce as ‘growing’ or ‘stable’. This trend suggests a continuation in growth of the workforce as well as recognition of the importance of strategic PR. However, the main challenge facing the industry is recognised as ‘under- representation of public relations practitioners at board level’ for the second year in a row. Other challenges include adapting to trends in media and technology – matters set to impact the workforce and required skills now and in the future. RECRUITMENT Agency/consultancy Growing Stable Reducing in size I don’t know RECRUITMENT PR department Growing Stable Reducing in size I don’t know STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 THE PROFESSION01 37% 59% 3% 1% 2% 31% 53% 14%
  10. 10. P10 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 THE PROFESSION01 CHALLENGES FACING THE INDUSTRY Ranking Industry Challenge 1. Under-representation of public relations practitioners at board level 2. Changing social and digital landscape 3. Unethical public relations practice 4. An expanding skill set required of professionals 5. Not being seen as a professional discipline 6. Convergence with other marketing disciplines 7. Emergence of fake news 8. Lack of diversity amongst PR professionals 9. Lack of analytical skills 10. A lack of collective self-belief and confidence 11. Automation
  11. 11. P11 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 E M P L O Y M E N T D E M O G R A P H I C S 02
  12. 12. P12 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EMPLOYMENT DEMOGRAPHICS02 AGE Age range 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 Over 64 GENDER Male Female Other 0% Prefer not to say 0% This section explores the make up the PR population by age, gender, region and education. This examines the split between in-house and agency practitioners as well as their role, level of seniority, and years of experience. 6%3% 29% 29% 24% 10% 36% 63% EDUCATION LEVEL Undergraduate degree 74% Masters degree 32% Doctorate/PhD 2% Another university 12% qualification No higher education 9% qualification
  13. 13. P13 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EMPLOYMENT DEMOGRAPHICS02 WORKPLACE REGION Region % Channel Islands 1% East of England 5% East Midlands 4% London 27% North East 4% Northern Ireland 3% North West 8% Scotland 7% South East 10% South West 8% Wales 4% West Midlands 5% Yorkshire and the Humber 3% Outside of the UK 10%
  14. 14. P14 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EMPLOYMENT DEMOGRAPHICS02 ORGANISATION TYPE BY AGE ORGANISATION TYPE Response I work in-house in the private sector I work in-house in the public sector I work in-house for a not-for-profit organisation/NGO I work in a consultancy/agency I am an independent practitioner 12% 16% 27% 22% 23% In-house 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 Over 64 Consultancy 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 Over 64 Indep. Prac. 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 Over 64 24% 37% 12%8% 17% 2% 33% 32% 7% 1% 3% 24% 30% 6% 34% 23% 7%
  15. 15. P15 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EMPLOYMENT DEMOGRAPHICS02 ORGANISATION TYPE BY LOCATION In-house London Midlands and E. England North England South (incl C.I.) Northern Ireland Scotland Wales International Consultancy London Midlands and E. England North England South (incl C.I.) Northern Ireland Scotland Wales International Indep. Prac. London Midlands and E. England North England South (incl C.I.) Northern Ireland Scotland Wales International 27% 15%19% 7% 10% 15% 4% 3% 31% 9% 15% 20% 13% 5% 4% 3% 14%11% 16% 17% 2% 2% 5% 32%
  16. 16. P16 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 EMPLOYMENT DEMOGRAPHICS02 YEARS IN PR 0-4 5-8 9-12 13-16 17-20 21+ 12% 13% 17% 21% 18% 19% SENIORITY Role Assistant/Executive Officer Manager Head of Communications/ Associate Director Director/Partner/ Managing Director Other Intern/Trainee 0% 21% 17% 34% 17% 6% 5% SENIORITY BY GENDER Male Role Non-manager (i.e. Intern, Assistant, Executive, Officer) Manager Head of Communications/ Associate Director Director/Partner/ Managing Director Other 17% 19% 33% 26% 5% Female Role Non-manager Manager Head of Communications/ Associate Director Director/Partner/ Managing Director Other 5% 24% 35% 18% 18%
  17. 17. P17 S A L A R Y 03 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018
  18. 18. P18 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SALARY03 SALARY BY AGE Age range 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 Over 65 Average income £24,223 £38,794 £51,840 £67,425 £73,613 £65,778 SALARY BY ROLE Role Intern/trainee Assistant/executive Officer Manager Head of Communications/ Associate Director Director/Partner/ Managing Director Average income £21,667 £23,844 £31,232 £43,498 £63,139 £79,244 SALARY BY LOCATION Location Channel Islands East of England East Midlands London North East Northern Ireland North West Scotland South East South West Wales West Midlands Yorks Humber Outside of the UK Average income £51,462 £41,296 £38,390 £60,228 £39,907 £37,596 £49,880 £43,904 £51,304 £49,311 £41,247 £44,778 £42,645 £69,290
  19. 19. P19 SALARY BY GENDER Gender Average income Male £58,276 Female £47,706 Difference £10,570 GENDER PAY GAP BY EXPERIENCE Years Worked in PR Difference between male and female salaries 0-4 £2,298 5-8 £4,034 9-12 £6,121 13-16 £12,649 17-20 £18,713 21+ £11,436 SALARY BY PROFESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENT Status Professional qualification in public relations Chartered Practitioner No professional qualification/Not Chartered Average income £50,027 £66,526 £49,360 SALARY BY EXPERIENCE Years in PR 0 to 4 5 to 8 9 to 12 13 to 16 17 to 20 21+ Average income £31,201 £41,537 £51,458 £55,773 £65,872 £76,522 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SALARY03 A regression analysis of the gender pay gap, which considers variables that influence salary such as prevalence of part-time work, years in PR and seniority, revealed that men are paid an average of £6,725 more than women in public relations.
  20. 20. P20 S K I L L S , AT T R I B U T E S A N D K N O W L E D G E 04 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018
  21. 21. P21 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 Survey respondents were asked to indicate how they spent their time by identifying specific work activities. The results reveal the evolving skillset required of public relations professionals. Segmenting these responses by respondents’ seniority reveals powerful insights into how workflow is distributed amongst PR professionals. Meanwhile respondents with responsibilities for recruiting staff were asked which skills, attributes and specialist knowledge they value most. This exercise evidenced the prevalence of skills gaps in public relations. The options were developed using the Global Alliance’s ‘Global Body of Knowledge’ framework. This section also identifies where PR is positioned within organisations in relation to its influence and authority over strategy and budgets. PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES MOST COMMONLY UNDERTAKEN IN CURRENT JOB Activity % Copywriting and editing 73% PR programmes/campaigns 68% Media relations 65% Strategic planning 57% Social media relations 54% Crisis, issues management 52% Community and stakeholder relations 49% Internal/employee communication 48% Events, conferences 44% Management of people, resources 38% Research, evaluation, measurement 36% Marketing 33% Project, account, client management 29% Public affairs 25% Defining mission/values, corporate governance 24% Technical/digital (exc social media) 19% Financial, investor relations 6% Respondents were asked to reveal how they spent their time. This year’s study combines the tasks/competencies respondents said they spend most and some of their time on to reveal the most common areas of practice.
  22. 22. P22 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 SENIOR ROLES Activity % Copywriting and editing 71% PR programmes/campaigns 69% Strategic planning 66% NON-MANAGER ROLES Activity % Copywriting and editing 79% Media relations 67% Social media relations 65% SENIOR PRACTITIONERS TOP 3 PERCEIVED STRONGEST SKILLS/ COMPETENCIES Activity % Copywriting and editing 59% Media relations 46% Strategic planning 45% SKILLS MOST VALUED BY RECRUITERS Activity % Management of people, resources 65% Strategic planning 61% Crisis, issues management 57%
  23. 23. P23 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 TOP 3 PERCEIVED STRONGEST ATTRIBUTES Activity % Strategic thinking 62% Problem solving 43% Writing ability 38% ATTRIBUTES MOST VALUED BY RECRUITERS Activity % Strategic thinking 88% Problem solving 45% Emotional intelligence 37% TOP 3 PERCEIVED STRONGEST AREAS OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE Activity % Research, planning, implementation, evaluation 55% Crisis communications management 47% Media and social channels, use of technology 44% SPECIALIST KNOWLEDGE MOST VALUED BY RECRUITERS Activity % Research, planning, implementation, evaluation 66% Business acumen 62% Crisis communications management 57%
  24. 24. P24 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 NON-MANAGERS TOP 3 PERCEIVED STRONGEST SKILLS/ COMPETENCIES Activity % Copywriting and editing 73% Social media relations 44% Media relations 50% SKILLS MOST VALUED BY RECRUITERS Activity % Copywriting and editing 84% Social media relations 57% Media relations 53% TOP 3 PERCEIVED STRONGEST ATTRIBUTES Activity % Attention to detail 42% Writing ability 49% Creativity 38% ATTRIBUTES MOST VALUED BY RECRUITERS Activity % Attention to detail 63% Writing ability 54% Creativity 41%
  25. 25. P25 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 TOP 3 PERCEIVED STRONGEST AREAS OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE Activity % Media and social channels, use of technology 65% Research, planning, implementation, evaluation 50% Communication models and theories 25% SPECIALIST KNOWLEDGE MOST VALUED BY RECRUITERS Activity % Media and social channels, use of technology 86% Research, planning, implementation, evaluation 64% Business acumen 34%
  26. 26. P26 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 SENIOR RESPONSIBILITIES Board level responsibility I am directly answerable to one or more Boards of Directors I am a non-executive member of a Board of Directors I am an executive member of a Board of Directors None of the above 43% 47% 11% 5% IN-HOUSE RESPONSIBILITIES The marketing budget 29% 38% 34% The public relations budget 50% 36% 14% Other budgets in the organisation 17% 37% 46% The communication strategy 63% 34% 2% The organisation’s business strategy 3% 60% 37% In-house I am responsible for I influence but I am not responsible for I do not influence
  27. 27. P27 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 SKILLS, ATTRIBUTES AND KNOWLEDGE04 CONSULTANCY/AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES I am responsible for I influence but I am not responsible for I do not influence Consultancy/agency % % % The organisation’s budget 39% 37% 24% Client marketing budgets 25% 50% 25% Client public relations budgets 38% 50% 11% Client communication strategies 60% 37% 2% The organisation’s business strategy 37% 47% 16% Client business strategies 24% 55% 21% INDEPENDENT PRACTITIONER RESPONSIBILITIES I am responsible for I influence but I am not responsible for I do not influence Independent % % % Client marketing budgets 24% 52% 25% Client public relations budgets 30% 56% 15% Client communication strategies 59% 41% 1% Client business strategies 15% 67% 18% PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS How do you judge the professional standards of public relations practitioners? % Satisfying clients/employers 63% Membership of a professional body 60% Commitment to industry codes of practice 56% Industry training and qualifications 50% Active participation in CPD or similar scheme 36% Chartered Status 29%
  28. 28. P28 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 D I V E R S I T Y A N D I N C L U S I O N 05 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018
  29. 29. P29 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION05 This section explores the progression of diversity in PR. Data from the APS suggests that despite the shift in attitudes towards greater diversity within the workforce, the diversity gap has increased. ETHNICITY 2013/14 % 2014/15 % 2015/16 % 2016/17 % Average White 91% 92% 93% 96% 93% Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups 4% 1% 1% 1% 2% Indian 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% Black/African/Caribbean/Black British NA 1% 2% NA 2% Other ethnic group 1% NA 1% NA 1% Suppressed data/NA 2% 4% 3% 2% 3% From ONS data - please see ‘Limitations of Methodology’ for further details. SEXUAL ORIENTATION Heterosexual Gay Prefer not to say Bi-sexual Lesbian 5% 2%1% 85% 7% RELIGION No religion Christian Buddhist Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh 0% Any other religion Prefer not to say 50% 37% 2% 1% 7%
  30. 30. P30 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION05 DIVERSITY ATTITUDES “I believe public relations campaigns are more effective if practised by teams that are… % Agree % Neutral % Disagree Don’t know ethnically diverse” 65% 27% 6% 2% socially diverse” 78% 17% 4% 1% of all ages” 77% 18% 4% 1% representative of the audience(s) they are communicating with” 67% 23% 9% 1% culturally diverse” 74% 20% 5% 1% made up of a proportionate number of men and women” 57% 31% 11% 1% made up of a proportionate number of people with and without disabilities” 43% 41% 13% 3% Mental health condition Yes No Prefer not to say WELLBEING Physical disability or long-term physical health condition Yes No Prefer not to say 6%1% 93% 4% 16% 80%
  31. 31. P31 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 HOW RESULTS REFLECT THE INDUSTRY By analysing data from the Office for National Statistics’ Annual Population Survey (APS), Chalkstream was able to determine the number of practitioners, as well as a range of demographic features, including: • Gender • Age • Type of employment • Sector • Industrial sector • Workplace location • Ethnicity • Employment length • (Recent) education and training history The methodology was tested by applying it to the results of the APS for the previous three years and by comparing results against the national census of 2011. The results were then used to create a sample frame in order to weight the study to reflect the population as defined by the APS data. This allows assessment of the extent to which the results of the State of the Profession Survey 2018 are representative of the industry beyond CIPR members. Only complete returns to the SOTP 2017/18 survey were used to facilitate comparison. The weighted responses are consistent with those of the broader set of respondents, showing that the State of the Profession is a reliable barometer of the industry.
  32. 32. P32 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 APPENDIX For this study, the APS was used to identify those who classify themselves as working in public relations. All Standard Occupational Codes (SOC) used in the APS were reviewed in detail. Two codes were identified that covered those working in PR: 2472 – public relations professionals 1134 – advertising and public relations directors Advertising directors were then separated out from PR directors in the 1134 SOC data. From the remaining respondents, the social survey unit at the Office for National Statistics built up a detailed picture of the population. Please note that for reporting purposes the graphs and tables with percentages have been rounded up or down accordingly and, in some cases, might not add up to 100%.
  33. 33. P33 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 LIMITATIONS OF THE METHODOLOGY 1. While the APS is considered a reliable source for occupation and industry breakdown, by filtering respondents so specifically the study is based on the responses of around 400 individuals in total. Those 400 are theoretically representative of the UK PR population because the broader sample of 300,000+ is representative of the whole UK population. This theory is here tested by applying the methodology to different sets of APS results in order to see whether the results are broadly similar, or represent a trend, each time the data produced by the different surveys is analysed. While the trends are clear, the methodology seems least robust where there is a wide range of possible responses to a question in the APS (such as in relation to ethnicity or workplace region). 2. The level of filtering involved in this study results in ‘cell suppression’ – where data is hidden either to mitigate against data users being able to infer what should be private information from public sets of data, or because sample sizes are too small to provide reliable estimates. 3. The data under analysis does not provide information on the proportion of the PR population that works in-house and what proportion works in an agency setting. 4. As a result of the methodology applied, the following will not be included in the population under study here: a. Public relations professionals working as public relations directors in the advertising industry (due to the approach applied at #1). b. Individuals working in a public relations role but classifying themselves as having a different occupation (as, say, a journalist). c. Heads of public relations agencies who classify themselves as managing directors in an occupational capacity (as opposed to public relations directors). Data for some variables cannot be analysed at all due to a lack of responses. For example, typically only around 10% of APS respondents answer questions about their income.
  34. 34. P34 STATE OF THE PROFESSION 2018 ABOUT CHALKSTREAM Chalkstream specialises in in-depth, intelligent reputation and market research for education and membership body/trade association clients. Our work involves secondary and primary research exploring attitudes, awareness and behaviours among diverse groups. We turn expert research design, first-class fieldwork and powerful analysis into clear, straightforward, practical recommendations that drive intelligent decision-making. Current and former clients include NATO, City Guilds Group, Association of Colleges, National Union of Students, Association of School and College Leaders, ZSL, University of Sussex, the UK Government. chalkstreamltd.co.uk ABOUT CIPR The CIPR is by far the biggest member organisation for PR practitioners outside of North America. By the size of turnover and number of individually registered members, we are the leading representative body for the PR profession and industry in Europe. The CIPR advances professionalism in public relations by making its members accountable to their employers and the public through a code of conduct and searchable public register, setting standards through training, qualifications, awards and the production of best practice and skills guidance, facilitating Continuing Professional Development (CPD), and awarding Chartered Public Relations Practitioner status (Chart.PR). cipr.co.uk
  35. 35. P35 Chartered Institute of Public Relations 52-53 Russell Square London WC1B 4HP +44 (0)20 7631 6900 #StateOfPR cipr.co.uk

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