Engineering Simulations and TestingRaj C Thiagarajan, PhD    The Engineering process is the    conversion of material into...
Table of Contents1. The Engineering Process2. The Simulation for the First time right3. Simulation Based Engineering (SBE)...
The Engineering ProcessMATERIAL                       ENGINEERING PROCESS                                            PRODU...
The Simulation for the First time rightMATHEMATICAL MODEL     •Captures the THE PHYSICS EMBEDDED IN THE ENGINEERING SCIENC...
Simulation Based Engineering (SBE)• Engineering is the profession in which a  knowledge of the mathematical and natural  s...
Simulation based Engineering Design(SBED)•   SBED provides unparalleled access to real-world    conditions•   SBED is cred...
Type of Failure and ExamplesA. Modeling Problem/ Unknown Phenomenon The Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The suspension bridge acros...
Reliability of SimulationsEngineering accidents can happen due to,    – Modeling Error,    – the numerical treatment,    –...
Testing of Materials• Simulation and Testing are complimentary• Similar to Theory vs Experiments.• Testing are generally u...
Why do we test?• Avoid Premature Failure• Testing is part of the engineering Process• To augment Computational Simulation ...
Simulation and Testing + V&V                  Real product/                         Mathematical                          ...
What Material Properties are Tested?Mechanical:• Strength, stiffness, elasticity, plasticity,   ductility, brittleness, ha...
What is Measured?•   In a Typical mechanical testing:•   Force and pressure•   Deflection and displacement•   Hardness•   ...
Type of Mechanical testing• Load type : Tension, Compression, shear, torsion, flexure,• Loading rate/time/ Repetition :   ...
Virtual Testing• Simulation to predict the experimental properties  of systems.• For example, It is difficult to character...
Four Stages of Complimentary Simulation andTesting for the Engineering Design of First Time          Right Product Develop...
ATOA Scientific Technologies Pvt Ltd (LLC)   ATOA Scientific Technologies is an engineering simulationservice provider, wi...
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Engineering simulations and testing by atoast

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The Engineering process is the conversion of material into useful product. The need for both simulation and experiments for reliable and rapid development of new products is outlined. This report provides a brief overview of the simulation based engineered product development and testing for the first time right product development. The interplay between simulation and testing are highlighted.

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Engineering simulations and testing by atoast

  1. 1. Engineering Simulations and TestingRaj C Thiagarajan, PhD The Engineering process is the conversion of material into useful product. The need for both simulation and experiments for reliable and rapid development of new products is outlined. This report provides a brief overview of the simulation based engineered product development and testing for the first time right product development. The interplay between simulation and testing are highlighted. ATOA Scientific Technologies Engineering Simulation For Innovation
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. The Engineering Process2. The Simulation for the First time right3. Simulation Based Engineering (SBE)4. Simulation based Engineering Design (SBED)5. Type of Failure and Examples6. Reliability of Simulations7. Testing of Materials8. Why do we Test?9. Simulation and Testing + Validation & Verification10. What Material Properties are Tested?11. What is Measured?12. Type of Mechanical Testing13. Virtual Testing14. The Four Stages of Complimentary Simulation and Testing © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 2
  3. 3. The Engineering ProcessMATERIAL ENGINEERING PROCESS PRODUCT The Traditional Engineered Process Conceptual Design Fabrication Assembly Testing The Simulation Based Engineered Process Mathematical Virtual Testing for Predictive Computational product/ Validation & Processing Design system verification Transformation of Material into Useful Products FIRST TIME RIGHT © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 3
  4. 4. The Simulation for the First time rightMATHEMATICAL MODEL •Captures the THE PHYSICS EMBEDDED IN THE ENGINEERING SCIENCES Real product/ •Simple closed-form solutions to establish essential relationships, Numerical solutions for complex system problems •Properties of different types of differential and integral equations •Closed-form solutions only available for very simple problems Mathematical •The mathematical model only transforms the available information about the real problem into a model predictable quantity of interestCOMPUTATIONAL MODEL Computational •Computers have revolutionized techniques for solving differential and integral equations model •Finite element methods, •Availability of Fast and cheap computing power •Accurate numerical solutions to complex problems •Nonlinearities easily handled Prediction (Output) •The purpose of computation to model the real system to output the quantities of interest on which a decision can be made • NEW PARADIGM: Simulation based engineering Design (SBED) with Multiphysics and Multiscale depth It is a must to incorporate all the known Scientific and or Engineering knowledge for a given problem solving or new product design. Failure by not integrating the known knowledge is not professionally acceptable. © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 4
  5. 5. Simulation Based Engineering (SBE)• Engineering is the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of the society -Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology• SBE to develop Virtual Innovative Products for unique customer experience with highest performance and reliability at lowest cost .• Studies shows that the Simulation based Product development, reduced the prototyping by 50% and increased the lead time ~60 days ahead of the competition. © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 5
  6. 6. Simulation based Engineering Design(SBED)• SBED provides unparalleled access to real-world conditions• SBED is credited with numerous success story• SBED can be used to Predict unknown product performance for first time right• Eventually can be used to predict the future outcome• Simulations has none of the following limitations of experimental designs /tests, – Cost constraints – harsh/unrealistic parameter ranges, and – Environment, Health and Safety concerns.• It has become indispensable for – Weather prediction – Medical diagnosis (Virtual human) – Material modeling – Drug synthesis From: Research Directions In Computational Mechanics, A Report of the United States National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, September 2000 – Auto design for crashworthiness Ref: Jaroslav Mackerle Finite-element analysis and simulation of machining: a bibliography (1976– 1996), Journal of Materials Processing Technology 86 (1999) 17–44 © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 6
  7. 7. Type of Failure and ExamplesA. Modeling Problem/ Unknown Phenomenon The Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The suspension bridge across Puget-Sound(Washington State) collapsed November 7, 1940.Reason: the model did not properly describe the aerodynamic forces and theeffects of the Von Karman vortices. In addition, the behavior of the cables wasnot correctly modeled.• The Columbia Shuttle Accident June 2003. It was caused by a piece of foambroken off the fuel tank. After it was observed, the potential of the damagewas judged, upon computations, as nonserious. Reason: the model used didnot take properly into consideration the size of the foam debris.B. Numerical Treatment Problem• The Sleipner Accident. The gravity base structure of Sleipner, an offshoreplatform made of reinforced concrete, sank during ballast test operation inGandsfjorden, Norway, August 23, 1991. Reason: finite element analysis gave a47% underestimation of the shear forces in the critical part of the basestructure.C. Computer Science Problem• Failure of the ARIANE 5 Rocket, June 1996. Reason: problem of computerscience, implementation of the round offs.D. Human Problem• Mars Climate Orbiter. The Orbiter was lost September 23, 1999, in the MarsAtmosphere. Reason: unintended mixture of Imperial and metric units. Simulations helps to avoid failure & From: Babuška, F. Nobile, R. Tempone, Reliability of make it first time right. Computational Science, Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, DOI 10.1002/num 20263, www.interscience.wiley.com © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 7
  8. 8. Reliability of SimulationsEngineering accidents can happen due to, – Modeling Error, – the numerical treatment, – computer science problems, and – human errors.Reliability of simulation depends on• The Mathematical model.• Resources vs performance• Deterministic/ Probabilistic• Prediction/quantification – Failure probability – Confidence level/ Factor of safety• Simulations are moving from Trend prediction to actual and accurate performance prediction Objective is to increase the reliability of simulations. © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 8
  9. 9. Testing of Materials• Simulation and Testing are complimentary• Similar to Theory vs Experiments.• Testing are generally used to verify simulations.• Simulation also includes virtual material testing.• Faster and cheaper new product Development• Prediction of anisotropic, complex, costly and time consuming experimental properties.• Simulation helps to cut the cost and time• But Final, limited Testing is a must for new product Development and Introduction into the Market. © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 9
  10. 10. Why do we test?• Avoid Premature Failure• Testing is part of the engineering Process• To augment Computational Simulation based Engineering for Virtual product development .• To provide inputs to simulation• Validation and Verification• Material, product, process, system development• Characterization of Material properties• Part performance prediction• Quality control/assurance, Long term reliability © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 10
  11. 11. Simulation and Testing + V&V Real product/ Mathematical Computational PredictionSimulation system model model (Output) Testing Validation Verification • The interplay between Simulation and Testing. • Testing is a process to help validation and verification for first time right. • Validation is a process determining if the mathematical model describes sufficiently well the reality • Verification is a process of determining whether the computational model and the implementation lead to the prediction with sufficient accuracy. • V&V concepts are applicable to all stages of testing…. Reference: Leszek A. Dobrza´nski, Significance of materials science for the future development of societies, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 175 (2006) 133–148 © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 11
  12. 12. What Material Properties are Tested?Mechanical:• Strength, stiffness, elasticity, plasticity, ductility, brittleness, hardness, wear resistance, Impact strength, fatigue life.Thermal:• Expansion, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivityElectrical & magnetic:• Conductivity, permeability, permittivity, dielectric properties.Acoustical:• Sound transmission, Attenuation.Optical:• light transmission/reflection, haze, absorption, Color. © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 12
  13. 13. What is Measured?• In a Typical mechanical testing:• Force and pressure• Deflection and displacement• Hardness• Velocity, acceleration,• Temperature, humidity• Variation due to 5M (People, Machine, Methods, Material, Mother Nature).• Specification, Quality control , Gauge R&R, Data transfer• International standards (ASTM, ISO..) guide Testing Process © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 13
  14. 14. Type of Mechanical testing• Load type : Tension, Compression, shear, torsion, flexure,• Loading rate/time/ Repetition : Steady state/ Static/ Short Transient/ dynamic/ Long term / term/ Monotonic cyclic Mechanics: Mechanics: Fixed geometry, loads Variable geometry, loads Continuum Discontinuous Dominated by final failure Dominated by micro mechanical events events Physics: Physics: Equilibrium state Variable state of material Constant properties Variable properties Only Mechanical testing is referred. Watch out this space for more on Thermal, Electrical, Magnetic, Acoustical, Opticals... © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 14
  15. 15. Virtual Testing• Simulation to predict the experimental properties of systems.• For example, It is difficult to characterize all the anisotropic properties of composites. Numerical models is used to predict the complimentary anisotropic properties.• Simulation to mimic the testing is performed to zoom into the inner working mechanism of materials and products.• The progressive growth, failure, damage mechanics can help to reverse engineer the materials for improved and optimal performance.• Virtual Testing are used to simulate and predict high risk and costly experimental tests for cost effective product development. © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 15
  16. 16. Four Stages of Complimentary Simulation andTesting for the Engineering Design of First Time Right Product Development © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 16
  17. 17. ATOA Scientific Technologies Pvt Ltd (LLC) ATOA Scientific Technologies is an engineering simulationservice provider, with a specialty on Multiphysics, Multiscale and Multimaterials, for innovative material, product, process and system development to cut cost and cycle time for our clients. For all your Engineering CAD, CAE, CFD, CAPD, CAI Contact: ATOAST.HQ@atoastech.com © ATOA Scientific Technologies www.atoastech.com Multiphysics CAE For Innovation TM 17

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