TRAINING IN PUBLIC
By-Yatendra Kumar. The analysis is purely in
personal capacity and does not reflect views of the
Sl.No. Topic Page No.
1 Introduction 2
2 Expansion of Public Policy Training 3-7
Programmes in India
3 Participant profile and relevance of the 7-14
4 Findings of the review/evaluation 15-17
5 Way forward 17-26
6 Comparative curriculum of PG Programmes in 26-32
IIMB, IIMA, TERI and MDI Gurgaon
7 Top Programmes in US and other Countries 33-35
8 Curriculum of some well known Public Policy 36-72
1. Public Policy: Policy formulation is a multifaceted process with an intricate association of
numerous competing and collaborating groups which influence policy makers for advancing
their aims and objectives. Sound research and data can be used to educate the public as well as
policy makers for shielding against undue influences and thereby improving the public policy
process. This may not be feasible in absence of an institutionalised mechanism. The dynamics of
globalization and pressures for reforms have further created a demand for specialised Public
Policy courses. Over the past 30 years or more there was rapid expansion of MBA programs,
now, globally there is an equivalent increase of public policy programs. This is addressing the
growing demand for training mid-career and senior Civil Servants in policy formulation and
management principles. Indeed, Public Policy has emerged as one of the key areas in leading
1.1 International scenario:- China have embarked upon a major initiative in the area of in
Public Policy training. In fact, initiatives taken by China are rooted in a long term vision.
A major program for local government officials has also been launched in collaboration
with the State Council’s Development Research Center and the School of Public Policy
and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing. London School of Economics, with its
global partners- Columbia University, New York, Sciences Po, Paris and Peking
University, Beijing has launched an annual Executive Public Policy Training
Programme (EPPTP) in Beijing. The area of Public Policy has also commanded
attention of other Asian countries like Singapore and Malaysia. In fact, Lee Kaun Yew
School of Public Policy (Singapore) established in 2004 has emerged as a premier
Institution of Public Policy in Asia. Besides, there are world class Institutions of Public
Policy in Australia- New Zealand, South Korea, US, Germany, Israel, and UK. Dubai
Government has also established Dubai School of Government (DSG) in 2005 under in
cooperation with the Harvard Kennedy School. DSG aims to promote good governance
through enhancing the region’s capacity for effective public policy..
1.2 Genesis of Public Policy Programmes in India:-
- Under the Mason Programme, every year 4 to 5 government officers were
trained in Public Administration and Public Policy at Harvard University.
- UNDP was expressing concerns and reluctance in funding such type of long
term training programs.
- Considering the usefulness of Mason programme and funding constraints from
UNDP, need was felt to internalize Mason Programme in an appropriate
Institution in India. Idea was afloat for building our Training Institutions for
regular in service training for middle level officers. The essence was to put
together a training programme suitably adapted to conditions at home and to
reach out to a larger target group. It was also felt that with the same amount
of UNDP grant, large number of officers could be trained in a course which
is suitable to our requirement.
- The concept of setting up of an Executive Centre was first floated in 1992
through a joint GoI –UNDP Training Needs Analysis conducted for a limited
segment of higher Civil Service (Central Staffing Scheme and IAS officers in
few State Governments). The Centre was envisaged as an autonomous body that
could create synergy between management development and research and to
develop a critical mass of faculty. This concept was revived in 1994/95 and a
working group was set up for this purpose. In its report, the group shortlisted
IIM, Bangalore for running a programme similar to the Mason Programme..
The group suggested that participants should be officers from IAS/allied
Central Services and corresponding State Services.
- The efforts of GoI resulted in setting up a Centre for Public Policy at IIM,
o Conducting training programmes in public policy.
o Carrying out research and consultancy.
o Conducting workshops, seminars and other training programmes.
2. Expansion of Training Programmes in India.
Training Division, Department of Personnel and Training is sponsoring candidates for the
following programmes in Public Policy:-
1. PGD in Public Policy and Management, IIM, Bangalore.
2. PGD in Public Management and Policy, IIM Ahmedabad.
3. PGD in Public Policy and Management, MDI Gurgaon.
4. MA in Public Policy and Sustainable Development, TERI, University
The programmes at IIMs and MDI are quite similar in nature with focus on Public policy and
core management principles. The programme at TERI University is more specialized in the
area of environment and sustainable development.
Relevant information on year of commencement of programme, duration, number of
courses conducted and number of participants trained is given in the Table below:-
Name of Institution/ Course offered Year of Number of
Organisation commenceme Participants
nt ( Course wise)
IIM, Bangalore PGD in Public Policy and 2002 2002-03 26
Management 2003-04 30
MDI Gurgaon PGD in Public Policy and 2006 2006-07 19
Management 2007-08 15
TERI /TERI University MA in Public Policy and 2006 2006-07 14
Sustainable Development 2007-08 21
IIM Ahmedabad PGD in Public 2007 2007-08 10
Management and Policy 2008-09 20
*-Programme not conducted.
2.1 Concerns Though the programmes have been successful in creating domain knowledge
and competencies in public policy, lower representation of officers from desired streams has
been of considerable concern. Certain changes are necessary for facilitating a higher
participation of officers who could bring more value addition to the policy processes. The
participation of IAS officers and those directly associated with policy formulation has been on
decline. The programme design needs to be revisited for attracting the right kind of clientele.
The selection process may need some modifications for synchronizing it with the overall
programme objectives. We need to build in safeguards so that a cohort from a particular
stream like engineering should not crowd out the others. The programme should focus on the
broad rubrics of public policy like social sector, public accountability, transparency,
sustainable development, etc. There is a need for diversification of the content in public policy
for addressing the emerging areas of concern.
2.2 Need for training in public policy and role of government:- Changing scenario at global
and national level mandate innovative and socially relevant approach to public policy. Unlike
the past, the Civil servants need appropriate skills to function in an information society.
Therefore, we need specialized training with a spotlight on governance, policy formulation and
public enterprise management.
2.3 Nurturing Public Policy training programmes:-Absence of experience and resources in
Government Training Institutions necessitated introduction of specialized programmes in Public
Policy. The partnership with IIM, Bangalore was for setting up a Centre for Public Policy , the
association with other Institutions, viz, MDI, Gurgaon; TERI, Delhi and IIM, Ahmedabad is
limited to sponsorship of the participants. Other than IIM, Bangalore, no assistance has been
provided in terms of infrastructure to any other training institution. Needless to mention that the
Government and organized state institutions comprise the major catchment for public policy
programmes. Compared to the regular management courses, revenue-generating potential of
Public Policy programmes is limited. As competing programmes using similar resources
generally have higher revenue-generation potential, there is an opportunity cost in running these
programmes. Revenue deficit programmes cannot be sustained without proactive intervention.
The Public Policy and Management courses are specialised programmes and the Institutions
running these courses invest in developing faculty positions. Further, there is a value addition
with each programme, especially when it is a new area of training and research. The momentum
gained by the initial success of Public Policy training programmes needs to be continued. A
mutually beneficial partnership with the premier institutions is in the overall interest of all the
stake holders. Most of the leading institutions in Public Policy globally have achieved
international acclaim as a result of government support at initial stages.
2.4 Rationale of having a partnership with Management Institutions for running Public
Policy Programmes: - Prior to commencement of Public Policy and Management programmes,
thrust of the Management institutions was on Business Management. Though the premier
institutions like IIM and MDI have a mandate for developing human resource in “management”,
the focus remained skewed. It could be corrected by incentivizing the public policy programmes.
This could leverage the strengths of management institutions.
2.5 Models of partnership:- We need to evolve a mutually acceptable framework of a long-term
partnership with Management Institutions. This is essential for sustaining stake holders interest
in public policy training programmes. Some of the alternatives which could be examined are
Alt-I This approach may be administratively convenient,
commensurate benefits and.
One time grant for setting up
Centres of Public Policy followed by Quality of training programmes could largely depend on
limited assistance for course fee the initiatives of the Centres/Institutes.
With initial investment converted as sunk cost,
government could be tempted to continue the
programmes which, in some cases, may be at the cost of
the quality of inputs.
Alt-II More flexibility in conducting training programmes
within the overall framework of the MoU.
Long term MoU with a commitment
to provide realistic if not generous Government could have more occasion for positive
support to public policy training influence on the training programmes.
programmes by bearing the
expenses/course fee of the It is healthier to reward high quality by periodic
participants. reviews of the programmes.
Encourage the institutions to capture
open market candidates including
PSUs. Financially viable
associations with State Governments
and Central Ministries for conduting
studies and research.
Alt-III Absence of realistic financial model could fail to
attract the apex Management Institutions ehich
Government only encourages the work on a self sustainable model .
participants to attend the training
without any financial support. Even if the government is able to impress upon the apex
institutes to play a role in public policy training, the
quality of programmes may remain average. This could
effectively defeat the purpose of having public policy
training programme in the first place.
The Alt-II above leads to a fine balance between the social responsibility of management
institutions and requirement of the government. This also makes the programme more
2.6. Balance between Public Policy and Management: - Public policy processes are not applied in
isolation. Fine blending of policy process and management principles is critical to formulation of
effectual programmes and policies. In fact, all the major Institutions in US/UK/China/South
Korea/Australia are offering executive development courses covering both, Public Policy and
Management principles. Diluting any of the two components may constrict the utility, effectiveness
and appeal of the course. However, we may ensure that the balance is tilted more towards Public Policy
And the curricula covers a range of public policy issues, including analytical skills in planning and
implementing public economic policy.
2.7. Cost of the Programme- The first programme of this kind was started in IIM Bangalore in 2002
by setting up a Centre for Public Policy as an outcome of UNDP Scheme. Infrastructure and other
capital costs for this programme were borne out of GoI budget and UNDP grant. The running cost was
met by tuition/course fee. The course fee for 30 participants was suggested as:-
In country training fee for 30 participants $ 160,000.00
Course fee $ 54,000.00
Travel expenses and living charges $ 208,210.00
Total $ 422,210.00
Cost-Benefit:-If we compare the cost of PGP PPM at Bangalore and similar programme under
Mason at Harvard, the cost per participant is about one fourth.
2.8 Cross Subsidisation of the programme cost: Public Policy courses at IIMs/MDI/TERI are also
open to those working in private sector/ public sector/NGOs and have requisite qualification. This opens
the possibility of spreading the programme cost to a larger group of participants and thereby rationalize
the course fee. Some of the areas covered in Public Policy and Management programme are also
relevant to other coexisting courses. This also helps in rationalising the course fee.
3. Participant profile and relevance of the programmes:-. To a large extent, job outline of the
participants has a bearing on the outcome of the specialized programmes . The following points are
broadly indicative of the utility of PMP/PPM programmes to different sets of officers:-
≈ Category-I: Those working in Ministries under the Central Staffing scheme, derive maximum
benefit out of such programmes.
≈ Category-II: Officers who are subsequently posted in the Ministries are in position to use the
training inputs in policy making at a latter stage.
≈ Category-III: Those who may not work in the Ministries, could still be benefitted in the area of
policy implementation/evaluation and management skills.
The broad structure of such training programmes is rooted in “policy issues” and
“management principles” . The richness and diversity of the curriculum makes it relevant for
all the officers. However, the government could derive maximum benefit by sponsoring the first
3.1. Trends in participants profile:-We may analyse the participants mix for appreciating the
demand of the course by various categories. The graphs below are indicative of trends in
participants mix :-.
A. PGD in Public Policy and Management,IIM Bangalore:-
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 7 courses (excluding the current course of 2009)
run by IIM, Bangalore.
Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 7 courses.
(ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-
(iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream:-
B. PGD in Public Management and Policy,IIM Ahmedabad
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses ( including the current course of 2009)
run by IIM, Ahmedabad.
Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses.
(ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-
(iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream:-
C. MA in Public Policy and Sustainable Development:-
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses( 2009 course not yet started) run by,
Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses.
(ii)Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-
(iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream:-
D. PGD in Public Policy and Management, MDI Gurgaon:-
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses (2009 course not yet started) run by
Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses.
(ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-
(iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream in MDI:-
As could appear, there has been steady rise number of participants from technical streams.
Further, participation of IAS officers has been on decline. Though the programmes have a wide
coverage in terms of utility, precipitous decrease in the participants from IAS and other services,
which are vital players in policy processes, has necessitated a rethinking of eligibility criteria.
4. Findings of the review/evaluation committees:-
Initially a review was taken up for IIM, Bangalore. Later, a comprehensive review was also
commissioned for the programmes at IIM (Ahmedabad), MDI Gurgaon and TERI. The reviews
were basically to identify critical gaps and usefulness of the programmes. The Table below
highlights some of the vital recommendations:-
Name of Course offered Major Recommendations
IIM, Bangalore PGD in Public > Setting up of Centre for Public Policy (CPP) at IIM-
Policy and Bangalore was a bold and imaginative initiative
Management towards enhancement of public policy training
capacity in India.
( Centre for Public > The five-year-old CPP has succeeded in creating the
Policy) basic edifice for a teaching-cum-research-cum-training
institution, which has the promise of becoming a
public think tank in due course of time.
> The CPP has already come up as a strong centre for
public policy debate and if adequately nursed, has the
potential for expanding the network of its activities.
> The teaching and training components have already
gained sufficient strength and recognition even while
continuous improvements are sought to be effected,
almost on a year-to-year basis. The success of CPP
experiment at IIM Bangalore has triggered the process
of establishing a few more institutes/centres elsewhere
in the country.
MDI Gurgaon PGD in Public > “MDI is running an excellent course: at least that is
Policy and what I found from my interactions with the participants
Management of current and previous batches”
> The current batch was confident that the course could
> There is certainly a need for a detailed review of the
Course as well as to bring about a common core in
similar courses conducted in other institutes by DoPT.
> “Among the more important issues to be addressed are
those of suitable placement for participants after the
Course, improvement in food and recreation facility and
review of the fee being paid so as to eliminate any
feeling of disparity between the institutions”.
> The course may be continued for another three years and
a review under taken at that stage.
TERI /TERI MA in Public > TERI should be developed as an important resource
University Policy and centre for public policy in the area of natural resource
Sustainable management and environment. The present
Development programme in Master of Arts in Public policy and
Sustainable development should continue .
> The present level of enrolment is sub-optimal. It should be
increased by giving wider publicity among specific
groups of civil servants such as the IFS as well as
personnel in Pollution Control Boards, environmental
> TERI must provide residential accommodation including
family accommodation to outstation participants.
> Syllabus should be under continuous review from the
view point of relevancy and significance to students of
public policy and sustainable development.
> The second year of the programme which is spent off-
campus should be better structured. As participants cannot
be spared from their duties for two consecutive years, this
year could be There is a need for flexible structuring of
this part of the programme so that those who have not
read specific subjects are given basic grounding to enable
them to follow the course better, while those who are
proficient are offered other courses to fruitfully utilize
> A module on administrative law, while it is useful to civil
servants, has little relevance to a programme of this
nature. On the other hand, it could be useful to have a
course on communications.
> Foreign training should be limited to one university as the
duration is only six weeks.
IIM Ahmadabad PGD in > Further continuation of this programme provided the number
Public of sponsored seats remain same to maintain the quality and in
Management the interest of economy.
and Policy > Duration of the programme is optimal and does not require any
> Participants may be taken to one or two short field visits which
may provide a first-hand experience of current happenings in
the field as also a practical exposure to what is being taught in
the class rooms.
> To adopt the cost plus principle bearing in mind IIMA also
carries a social mandate
4.1 Summary of the conclusions arrived at by the review Committees.
Participants have derived benefit from the training programmes.
Further continuation of the Programmes. However, there is a need to review the
The duration of programmes is optimal and there is no need for any change.
More emphasis is required on practical exposure.
The training programmes should also cover India specific case studies.
International attachment should remain as integral part of the programme.
A good family residential accommodation is essential for such programmes.
4.2 Concerns of the Institutes:-
The course fee for the initial courses was kept low as the programme was promotional in
nature. The existing fee pattern is not reflective of the resources deployed for the
programme. As a matter of policy, the Management Institutions has gradually shifted
towards self financing mode. This has mandated revision of fee for the public policy
Some of the inputs provided in PGP, PMP are at par with those provided in the
The PG Programmes have been quite successful and we need to take the initiative
forward. The Government should invest in building capacity of Institutions within the
country. This is also essential for sustained delivery of high quality programmes adapted
to local conditions. With the current fee structure it could be difficult to continue the
programme. Therefore, either the course fee may be up-scaled or provision may be kept
for block grant. Failure to find a financially viable model may result in the programmes
5. Way forward:-
5.1 Long term vision and strategy in Public Policy Training: Complexities in socio-economic
aspirations and changing political landscape necessitate a paradigm shift in public policy
processes. This requires an astute understanding of complexities in multi-sectoral linkages. A
good policy design not only hinges on the skills and expertise but also on the collaboration and
receptivity of the major players. For this, Public policy schools should serve as a platform for
cross-fertilizing ideas and thoughts of all the stake holders. There is also a need for periodic
reviews of the programme structure. A mutually beneficial partnership with training institutions
should be the focal point of our long-term vision. We should encourage the public policy
schools to emerge as think tanks and centres of excellence with a global outlook. The centres
should not only play a leading role in building public policy management capability but also
produce research that directly contributes to the pressing policy debates in the country. For this,
we should encourage institutions to develop praxis oriented approach by active collaboration
with Central Ministries and the State Governments. The institutions should also strive for inter-
sectoral and multi level collaboration and partnerships for bringing a deeper insight into policy
issues. Constitution of Thematic Public Policy Groups with area experts, professionals, public
institutions and government agencies should be an integral part of our long term strategy. The
policy Groups could analyze and devise thematic policy solutions across a range of issues
--economics, security, health, poverty alleviation, infrastructure, environment, governance, and
technology among others. They may organise seminars and public events, publish articles and
information material, and often communicate actively modern networking tools. Public Policy
programmes run by Indian institutions/centres should be capable of attracting international
faculty and participants. Each Institution should focus on the following:-
Research in Public Policy and building a brand image :-There is a need to
develop strong linkages between policy making and research outcomes.
Besides yielding rich inputs and monographs, it could also provide
recognition and add value to the research efforts in Public Policy. In the
long run, the programme will get enriched and develop a brand image.
Towards this end, the Government may keep a budgetary provision for
funding the research efforts of partner institutions.
Core areas of specialization:-In the current setting, each of the partner-
Institutions is following its syllabus. In addition to the compulsory inputs,
wide choice of electives on different thrust areas of governance is also
available to the participants. The institutions have also developed expertise
in three to four identified sectors. However, due to limited resources, the
existing arrangement is not geared to achieve the depth and insight
required for building specialized knowledge in all the thrust areas of
governance. The terms of partnership may be further extended for
supporting research in three to four core areas in each Institution.
Sharing of resources and knowledge: The participants may be encouraged
to opt for the elective courses cutting across institutional barriers. We may
encourage seamless sharing of resources for fulfilling the larger objective
of developing proficiency in thrust areas of governance.
Attracting managers of public enterprises, NGOs; and executives of
private sector firms engaged in public management for making the training
programme more broad based and financially sustainable.
Building synergy between Ministries and Public Policy Institutions for
developing training modules on policy formulation in the priority areas.
5.2. Revisiting the intake criteria/eligibility:-
As per our existing terms and conditions, the programmes are open to officers of AIS, Central
Services-organised and non organised, technical and non technical, faculty members of State ATIs
and members of State Civil Services. Minimum service requirement for Group-A service is 7 years,
whereas for State Civil Services it is 9 years. Officers attending the training are required to execute
bond for a period of 5 years, failing which the officer has to pay all charges and expenses.
Over the years, the programmes on Public Policy have attracted a much wider spectrum of
services. Representation of Central Services has also increased. There has been a steady rise in
number of participants from Technical stream. Central Services have a reasonably good share in
different Ministries of Government of India under Central Staffing Scheme. Besides the Civil
Services, Technical services like Central Engineering Service, Railway Engineering Service, etc. are
also eligible for Central Staffing Scheme. The matrix below gives a broad classification in terms of
relevance of the course for various services:-
Sl. Service/Category Utility
Immediate/ Short Long -term
Policy Managem Policy Managemen
Tools ent Tools t principles
1 IAS /State Civil
Services/faculty in State
2 Civil Services other than
3 Engineering Services
services) when confined
to parent department
4 Engineering Services
services) Who may also
be ,in future, posted
under central staffing
5 Engineering services
officers who are likely to
be confined in PSUs-
Though such programmes have a wide coverage in terms of utility, precipitous decrease in
participants from IAS and other services has been a cause of concern. A revised criteria for eligibility
as sponsored candidate may addresses some of the concerns related to relevance of programme and
participants profile. While there is a need to keep the programme more broad based with healthy mix
of participants, this should not place undue financial implication on the government. We may limit
the sponsorship to the following officers/services below:-
A. Officers of Indian Administrative Service when working under a State Govt with minimum of 7
years of service in IAS
B. Officers of Indian Administrative who are on deputation as Director / Deputy Secretary with two
years tenure in Central Staffing Scheme before commencement of the training programme.
C. State Civil Service Officers and faculty in ATI with minimum 9 years of service in Group-A
D. Officers of Group-A Central Services/ Indian Police Service/ Indian Forest Service when not
under Central Staffing Scheme. with minimum 7 years of service in IPS/IFS/Group-A as the
case may be.
E. Officers of Gr-A Central Services/ Indian Police Service/ Indian Forest Service when under
Central Staffing Scheme with two years tenure in Central Staffing Scheme before
commencement of the training programme.
5.3. Suggested funding pattern:-
There could be various alternatives for funding the domestic and international component
of the Course, some of them are listed below
Sl.No. Options Implications/advantages/disadvantages
1 The entire cost to be Though it may result in better control over the
borne by DoPT programme, it could result in enhancement of
2 The entire cost may be It may result in inequitable representation from
sponsored by respective some Cadres (CCAs)
3 Domestic component is This pattern is followed in APPA programme for
met by DoPT and foreign the reason that it suits the operational mechanism of
component is met by providing maintenance grant to APPA.
The disadvantage of this option is that it could
require a separate budget head or substantial
enhancement of existing Budget
4 Foreign component is met This option could lead to least difficulties in terms
by DoPT and domestic of DoPT’s budget.
component is met by
CCAs. The cost of foreign component could be met out of
annual provisions DoPT is getting under the
scheme of funding of foreign training.
At present the following funding pattern is in vogue:-
A. Cost of domestic component to be borne by CCAs
B. Cost of external(foreign ) component to be borne by DoPT.
For IAS Officers, DoPT meets the cost of both foreign and domestic component
Suggested funding pattern:- . Funding pattern and course fee:-. The programme has a cost for
both domestic and international components. The duration of training is treated on duty and the
participants are eligible for salary and other allowances. The sponsoring authorities/CCAs
absorb a substantial financial burden on this account. To maintain a reasonable balance, the
course expenditure may be shared by the sponsoring authority/CCAs and DoPT. Accordingly,
the following formulation is suggested:-
Service Funding agency for domestic Funding agency for
All India Services For IAS-DoPT, Under DFFT scheme
For IPS-MHA operated by DoPT.
Group-A Central Services Cadre Controlling
SCS Officers and faculty of DoPT
Faculty of CTIs, Cadre Controlling Authority
It is also suggested that for the officers are on deputation to a PSU, the entire cost of training
(including the international attachment) should be borne by the concerned undertaking. The
applications of such participants should be accepted by the institution concerned only when a
commitment has been made by the PSU for bearing the entire course fee.
5.4. The duration of the course:-
Current status-The table below shows the programme duration at IIM(B),IIM(A),MDI and
Name of Course offered Duration of course
IIM, Bangalore PGD in Public 2 years( one year at the Institution and balance
Policy and period at respective workplace)
MDI Gurgaon PGD in Public One year at the Institute followed by three
Policy and months at the work place for taking up
TERI /TERI University MA in Public 2 years( one year at the Institution and balance
Policy and period at respective workplace)
IIM Ahmedabad PGD in Public One year
5.5 The ideal course duration :-
The programmes are suitable for midcareer civil servants who are on the threshold of assuming
the role of policy makers. The programmes have a wide and exhaustive curriculum and the
participants are expected to understand and apply relevant concepts; develop skills to define and
resolve issues in public policy and management; and construct concepts by blending theory and
practice. As the programme needs rigorous inputs, the total duration of the course at the Institute
could be one year. This may be followed by upto 12 months for dissertation /project work which
could be undertaken at the respective work places (place of posting). However, after reporting
back, at the conclusion of campus based training, the officers may be required to make two to
three visits to the Training Institution for completing the dissertation work. The Cadre
Controlling authorities/sponsoring authorities may permit the participants to undertake upto three
visits to the Training Institute in the second year. The cumulative duration of these visits may be
for two to three weeks.
5.6 Need for review and feedback:-.
Current Status Suggested arrangement
As per the previous MoUs, the following We may continue to have in house
arrangement was in place for review of the arrangements like PAC and PCC with
course- representation from Training Division for
respective Institutions .
We may also consider evolving a formal
institutional arrangement for overall
coordination of the programmes/courses in the
domain of Public Policy.
DoPT may sponsor and play a nodal role in the
suggested arrangement. For this we may have
biennial review meetings with
Directors/Programme coordinators of four
Institutions. The review meetings may be
chaired by Secretary(P). The mandate of such
reviews could be to have a shared policy goals
and reaffirm whether the programmes are
headed in right direction.
Besides, there may be annual conference .
DoPT may spearhead the annual conference by
active partnership with Management
Institutions/TERI. The conference may be held
by rotation in each of the participating
institutions. The following areas may be focal
point of the Convention:-
(i) Evolving a common basic core
curriculum for all the four courses.
(ii) Sharing of resources in the area of
(iii) Sharing of ideas and innovations
pertaining to the curriculum.
(iv) Sharing of best practices in Public
(v) Sharing of international experience
and knowledge on reforms and
trends in public policy.
(vi) Networking with various
Departments of GoI and State
Governments for playing an advisory
role in new policy initiatives and
(vii) Measures for constant improvement
in the course content.
(viii) Create synergy for converting these
institutions as Centres of excellence
in Public Policy and research.
Mechanism for obtaining feedback from the participants
Current Status Suggested arrangement
At present, respective Institutions are DoPT may obtain online feedback from the
obtaining feedback on course content. There participants at three stages of the course, viz,-
is no structured mechanism for obtaining
feedback . A. At the time of commencement of the
Course. This could focus on the
expectations of the participants from the
B. After first semester/middle of first year.
This could focus on the content and
delivery with suggestions for
C. After completion of the course. This
could be a comprehensive review of the
Training Division may obtain this feedback
Following protocol may be followed for
sharing of feedback-
a. Full content of the feedback
obtained at the beginning of the
b. Suggestions for improvement as
obtained during the course.
c. Final feedback could be used for
review of the course after
completion of term of MoU which
could be three years. Crucial inputs
on essential changes suggested by
the participants could also be made
available to the Institutes for
providing necessary guidance.
Draft format has already been prepared.
5.7. Extension of period of Central deputation:-For the officers working under Central Staffing
Scheme , one year training period may not be counted against total tenure under Central Deputation.
Such officers may be automatically eligible for one-year extension. This could allow a reasonable term
in central deputation after one year’s training. A good number of officers from Central Staffing Scheme
also join the above programmes; this is however after completing two (2) years at the Centre. At present,
other than APPA course at IIPA, the duration/period of training is counted within the tenure of central
deputation, this effectively results in curtailed tenure in Central Ministry. Barring APPA course at IIPA,
the officers joining Public Policy Programmes are not given an additional matching tenure in the Central
Staffing Scheme. Training Division has, in the past, requested similar arrangement for the other four
Programmes. In this connection, it is felt that, if the officer opting for a long term programme is in the
middle of his/her tenure, extension of tenure would give five years tenure in the Ministry to the officer
concerned. It will also benefit the Central Ministry as it paves way for seamless transfer of the
knowledge and skill on completion of one year training at the Institute.
Further, Public Policy Programmes are specifically oriented towards improving policy
formulation skills of the officials. Thus, it is necessary that the officers attending these programmes
contribute back substantially in the Central Government.Needless to highlight that the complexities in
socio-economic landscape, changing aspirations and emerging political economy necessitate a paradigm
shift in public policy processes. This requires an astute understanding of the complexities in multi-
sectoral linkages. A good policy design largely hinges on the skills and expertise of the major players. It
is imperative that more and more officers are encouraged to participate in such programmes. We may,
therefore, create enabling conditions to encourage more officers to take up specialised course and develop
domain expertise which is essential in the changing scenario. This would entail a more proactive role of
the Cadres at the State and Central level. It is, therefore, felt that the period of long term domestic training
programmes is matched with an extended tenure in Central Staffing Scheme. This effectively excludes
the duration of training from the 5 years tenure under Central Staffing Scheme.
5.8 Long term partnership with IIMs/MDI and TERI University:-The Public Policy and
Management courses are specialized programmes and the Institutions running these courses invest
substantially for developing faculty strength and courseware. Further, the institutions also invest in
infrastructure resources and build partnership with foreign institutions for running these programmes.
Such programmes could be more effective and viable when a long term there is a long-term commitment.
Considering that there is a substantial degree of value addition to these programmes especially in the
initial years, we need to have a long-term partnership with these institutions. A joint initiative of both the
institutions and the Department is necessary for positioning the public policy programmes at global
level. Therefore, the duration of the MoUs should be for five years, with a provision for a mid-term
review after three years.
6. Comparative Curriculum of the PGP in IIMA, IIMB, TERI and MDI Gurgaon
Name of Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Course Post Graduate Programme in Public Management and Policy
Course The programme has three modules – a core management (CM) module
content that would be equivalent to a similar module in any leading international
one-year executive management programme, a core public management
and policy (CPMP) module, and electives leading to concentration in a
number of areas. In addition, an international attachment/exchange
module would provide the necessary exposure to working at senior levels
in public policy and management. The years of experience of IIMA in
research and consulting for governments, regulatory bodies, and the public
sector are being brought to bear upon to offer this unique executive
programme. The programme’s core management module is similar to the
‘building blocks’ of the Post-Graduate Programme in Management for
Executives (PGPX) of the Institute. Courses in the Core Management
Strategic Management of IT
Firms and Markets
Costing and Management
Financial Reporting and
Customer Management I
Customer Management II
Leadership in Organizations
Quantitative Approaches to
Name of Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore
Course Post Graduate Programme in Public policy and Management
Course Term 1: June – July (8 Weeks) (15 Credits)
content • Policy Process and Analysis
• Decision Analysis
• Micro and Institutional Economics
• States, Markets and Globalization
• Social Marketing
• Financial Accounting
Term 2: August – September (Co-terminus with PGP Term 1) (8 Credits)
• Managing People and Performance
• Strategy and Organizations
• Corporate Finance
• Research Methods
• Legal & Institutional Dynamics
Term 3: October-December – Maxwell/Gothenburg/Internship (8 Weeks)
Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University,
• Public Administration and Policy in International Comparative
• Internship/Alternative Overseas Component
Term 4: (December- February middle) (Synchronized with E-PGP Term
(6 weeks) (6 credits)
• Open Electives – E-PGP
Term 5 (Mid February to April end) (7 Weeks) (8 credits)
• Public Finance
• Indian Social and Human Development
• Designing Projects and Programmes
A SERIES OF PUBLIC POLICY SEMINARS WILL BE ORGANISED
THROUGHOUT THE ACADEMIC YEAR
Name of TERI University, New Delhi
Course MA in Public Policy & Sustainable Development
Course First Year
content 1st Semester
- 5 core courses of 4 credits each (18 weeks)
- Select modules on public policy of 3 credits (6 weeks at Universities in
- 1 core course
- 4 elective courses (3 credits each)
- 1 minor project
- Major Project (About 3 weeks at the TERI and the rest at participants
Core courses (4 credits each)
- Basic statistics
- Public policy processes and institutions
- Principles of economics
- Public finance and international trade
- Challenges for sustainable development and policy-making
Core course (4 credits)
- Research methods
Elective courses (3 credits each comprising policy areas of concentration)
Environmental science, policy and management
- Resource and environmental economics
- Environmental law and policy
- Natural resources policy and management
- Ecology and biodiversity
- Environmental pollution, impacts and control
Social policies: development challenges and key initiatives
- Population, gender and development
- Public health, nutrition, food security and development
- Human resources development and education
- Social security and development
- Poverty and development
Governance aspects of public policy
- Federalism and the changing patterns of governance
- Issues in local government administration (including decentralized
development and local governance)
- Administration of public and non-profit organizations
- Administrative law
- Public budgeting systems
Name of Management Development Institute, Gurgaon
Course Post Graduate Diploma Programme in Public Policy and Management
Course Micro-economics Macro-economics
content Comparative Governance Paradigms Socio-political trends
Dimensions of Policy Disinvestment
Policies for national competitiveness Managing collectivities
Public finance and budgeting Project Management
Policy and programme evaluation Contracts management
Designing citizen-centric organizations WTO and its implications
Communication for advocacy Principles of social Marketing
Decision-making techniques Ethics and Governance
ICT and e-governance Managing social conflict
Essential of strategic thinking Indian Securities markets
Quantitative and scientific methods Leadership
Logistics management Organizational culture and
Technology and Law Talent and performance
7The top programs in the United States
U.S. News & World Report provides rankings of Public Affairs (Master's) schools, as of 2008,
via a peer reviewed process. The top 25 schools are:
• 1) Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University
• 2) John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
• 2) School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University Bloomington
• 4) Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University
• 4) School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia
• 6) Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley
• 7) University of Kansas Department of Public Administration at the University of Kansas
• 7) Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan
• 7) School of Policy, Planning, and Development at the University of Southern California
• 10) H. John Heinz III College, School of Public Policy & Management at Carnegie
• 10) Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University
• 10) Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University
• 10) Harris School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago
• 14) School of Public Affairs at American University
• 14) School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University
• 14) Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at The George
• 14) Public Policy Institute at Georgetown University
• 14) Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy at the University at Albany, SUNY
• 14) School of Public Affairs at the University of California, Los Angeles
• 14) Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota
• 14) University of North Carolina School of Government at the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill
• 14) Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin
• 14) Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington
• 14) Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin-
• 25) School of Public Affairs at Arizona State University
• 25) School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park
• 27) Askew School of Public Administration and Policy at Florida State University
7.1Top programmes in other Countries
• Crawford School of Economics and Government at the Australian National University
• Discipline of Government and International Relations at The University of Sydney
• School of Public and International Affairs at the Glendon College York University
• School of Public Policy and Administration at York University
• Queen's School of Policy Studies at Queen's University
• MA Public Policy and Administration, Department of Political Science at the University
• School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Toronto
• Faculty of Public Affairs at Carleton University
• Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University
• School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University
• School of Government, Peking University
• Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad de los Andes
• FIGRI, Universidad Externado de Colombia
• Master of Public Affairs, Sciences Po Paris
• Hertie School of Governance, Berlin
• Erfurt School of Public Policy
• NRW School of Governance
• Department of Public Management and Governance, Zeppelin University
• Department of Public Policy, Central European University
• Master of Public Policy Analysis, COREP, Turin, Italy
• Institute for Public Administration and Health Care Management (IPAS), Milan, Italy
• Master of Public Management, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy
• Faculty of Law and Political Science at the University of Tehran
• The Federmann School of Public Policy and Government at the Hebrew University
• Osaka School of International Public Policy at Osaka University
• National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
• Maastricht Graduate School of Governance  at Maastricht University ,
• Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management at the Delft University of Technology
• Ateneo School of Government at the Ateneo de Manila University
• National College of Public Administration and Governance at University of the
• Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at National University of Singapore
• MPA Programme at the London School of Economics
• MPA Programme at the University of Liverpool
• Manchester Business School MPA at the University of Manchester
• School of Sociology & Social Policy MPA at the University of Nottingham
• School of Public Policy at the University College London
• Warwick Business School MPA at the University of Warwick
• Department of Politics at the University of York
• Public Policy Management at the University of São Paulo
8.Curriculum of Some of the apex Programmes in Public Policy
8.1 Carnegie Mellon Heinz College Australia
• Policy Analysis
• Applied Economic Analysis I
• Applied Economic Analysis II
• Empirical Methods for Public Policy and Management
• Policy Analysis I
• Policy Analysis II
• Policy Seminar
• Program Evaluation
• Organizational Management
• Decision Making Under Uncertainty
• Cost Benefit Analysis
• Strategic Planning
Technology & Management
• Information Technology for Public Policy and Management
• Financial Analysis
• Systems Synthesis (Project Course)
* Electives vary by semester. Consult the schedule for specific semester offerings.
• Project Management
• Ethics and Public Policy
• Introduction to Geographic Information System
8.2 London School of Economics
MPA Public Policy and Management
This stream focuses on understanding decision making and management in the public sector and
budgetary processes. Students receive a core training in political science, economics and
quantitative methods in the first year, which is complemented by compulsory courses in public
management and public budgeting and financial management and further option courses. This
stream particularly equips students to pursue careers in public management, public sector
consulting, and governance related work in international organisations or think tanks.
• Political Science and Public Policy
• Micro and Macro Economics (for Public Policy)
• Quantitative Approaches and Policy Analysis
• Public Management – Strategy, Innovation and Delivery
• Public Budgeting and Financial Management †
† may be postponed to year 2 and replaced by a course from the MPA options list below.
• Group Working and Leadership*
• Capstone (see below)
• Plus two and a half units from the MPA options list below
8.3 Goldman School of Public Policy, Berkeley
The MPP degree is earned in a two-year, full-time program consisting of a core curriculum, a
policy internship in the summer after completion of the first year, a second-year policy analysis
project, and elective courses chosen from those available on the campus (including but not
limited to those offered by the School).
The program emphasizes practical and applied dimensions of policy-making and
implementation, encouraging students to develop skills in:
Defining policy issues to make them more intelligible to officials in the public or private
Providing a broader perspective for assessing policy alternatives
Examining techniques for developing policy options and evaluating their social
Developing strategies for the successful implementation of public policies once they have
Given the relatively small class size, the School's approach to teaching emphasizes teamwork,
cooperation, and interaction among students and with the faculty. Students work, either as
individuals or in small groups, on real policy problems for real “clients” under close faculty
More specifically, the curriculum is designed to enable students to achieve the following:
Skill in written communication and in verbal reporting
An understanding of political institutions and processes, strategies, and skills associated
with policy creation and adoption
Knowledge of the organizational and bureaucratic structures involved in program
development and implementation
Skill in application of economic analysis to questions of economic trade-off and policy
choice and efficiency
Familiarity with cost-benefit analysis and other applications of quantitative analysis and
modeling, as well as the use of statistical software
An understanding of social science methodologies for dealing with problems of data
collection, analysis, and program evaluation
The ability to apply legal analysis where appropriate to the creation and implementation of
public policy and to recognize the role of courts and administrative law in program
development and implementation
Course Structure for the MPP
Law and Public Policy Introduction to Policy Analysis
The Economics of Public Policy Analysis The Economics of Public Policy Analysis
PP250 Elective Course
Political and Agency Management Aspects of
Decision Analysis, Modeling, and Decision Analysis, Modeling, and
Quantitative Methods Quantitative Methods
Summer Policy Internship (required)
Leadership & Strategy Advanced Policy Analysis (Thesis Seminar)
Elective Course PP299
Advanced Policy Analysis (Thesis
Elective Course Elective Course
The Core Curriculum
First-Year Core Courses
The core courses emphasize practical applications of analytical skills and encourage students to
“learn by doing” through numerous exercises and projects conducted in teams and individually.
Fieldwork activities are also a part of the core curriculum, involving real clients, a written report,
and oral briefings on the report. In addition, colloquia with outside speakers are frequently held
that further examine some of the policy issues treated in the core courses.
Introduction to Policy Analysis. (PP200)
Students bring together the skills learned in other core courses working in teams to solve real-life
problems for off-campus clients.
The 48-Hour Project:
Each year, first-year students write an “issue memo” to a postulated, but real, “client” about
some issue they know little or nothing about and do so on a 48-hour deadline. Topics are
developed by the faculty and assigned to students randomly. The exercise is intended to simulate
a real-life work environment in which rapid-response and “land-on-your-feet” skills are at a
premium. Designed by Professor Eugene Bardach of the GSPP faculty, the 48-hour project is an
annual rite of passage signaling the beginning of the students’ second semester.
The Economics of Public Policy Analysis (PP210A-210B)
Concepts of microeconomic behavior of producers, consumers, and government agencies are
applied to specific policy areas. The effects of policy alternatives are assessed by such criteria as
the efficiency and equity of resource allocation, impact on income distribution, and effectiveness
in achieving policy goals.
Law and Public Policy (PP220)
Materials including court decisions, legislation, and administrative regulations are used to
examine important legal aspects of public policy. Legal research, interpretation and
draftsmanship skills are developed. Relationships among lawmaking agencies and between law
and policy are explored through specific cases.
Decision Analysis, Modeling, and Quantitative Methods (PP240A-240B)
Students learn and apply quantitative methods including cost-benefit analysis; statistical and
econometric analysis of policy-relevant data; survey design and interpretation; and formal policy
models based on decision theory.
Political and Agency Management Aspects of Public Policy (PP250)
Political and organizational factors involved in developing new policies, choosing among
alternatives, gaining acceptance, assuring implementation, and coping with unanticipated
consequences. Includes case studies, theoretical, empirical, and interpretative works from several
Summer Policy Internship
Students are required to complete a policy internship during the summer between the first and
second year of study. Students choose positions as apprentices to policy practitioners in
international, federal, state, or local government agencies; non-profit organizations; or private
sector corporations and consulting firms; in the United States and abroad. Students enrolled in
concurrent degrees with Public Health and Law are exempt from this requirement, since they are
already required to do a summer internship with their concurrent degree program.
Student Internships, Summer 2008:
Public Sector 45%
Federal Government 46%
State Government 11%
Local Government 37%
International Governmental Organizations 6%
Non-Profit Sector 42%
Domestic Non-Profits 56%
International Non-Profits 44%
Private Sector 13%
The Core Curriculum
Second-Year Core Courses
Leadership & Strategy (PP260)
This course is designed to acquaint students with the basic principles and practices of leadership
– defined as the ability to focus an organization's or a public's attention on common problems
and to mobilize necessary energy and resources to solve or ameliorate them. The course is also
designed to help students develop their own capacities for leadership. We will be examining
public agencies and not-for-profit organizations, advocacy groups, and individual “change
agents,” all seeking either to improve service delivery, institute new policies, or empower those
who need more voice.
Advanced Policy Analysis (PP205, PP299)
The second year comprises two required courses, Advanced Policy Analysis (APA) and Political
and Organizational Aspects of Public Policy Analysis, plus a number of electives.
The APA project is an intensive study of a significant policy issue of the student’s choice. The
project is often done for a specific client in a public or private policy organization, and
sometimes the student is paid for the work. For some students, the project is an outgrowth of the
summer internship or may lead to a post graduation position with the client organization.
Students conduct their projects as members of an APA seminar, which provides them with a
faculty supervisor and a peer group able to supply constructive suggestions. When the completed
analysis is found satisfactory by the faculty, it then serves as the student’s required thesis.
Frequently, the specific policy recommendations made in these analyses have been adopted by
the student’s client.
The Following List of APA Titles, Drawn From Projects Completed During Recent Years,
Illustrates the Range and Variety of Suitable Projects:
Countering Joe Camel and the Marlboro Man: The relative Efficacy of Anti-Smoking Ads
Cracking Down on Identity Theft: new Challenges for Law Enforcement Agencies
Designing Local Welfare-to-Work Systems: Federal Funding Options
Pros and Cons of Privatizing Solid Waste Collection Services in Mexico
The Costs and Benefits of Job Training in the Elder Care Market
Analysis of Frequent Winners in Small Business: A Case Study of Californian Firms
Health Information and the Internet: Protecting Consumer Privacy Online
Poverty Alleviation in Rural Nicaragua
Ensuring Contraceptive Supply in Ethiopia and Sudan: The Role of the Packard Foundation
Reducing Waiting Time in Public Hospitals in Hong kong: Private Insurance Approach
Controlling Street Prostitution in Oakland: What the Oakland Police Department Can Do to
Improve Current Law Enforcement Policies
Supporting California’s Wildlife: An Evaluation of Funding Alternatives for California's
Department of Fish and Game.
Raising Low Pay in a High Income Economy: The Economics of a San Francisco Municipal
Re-examining the Property Tax reassessment for Commercial Properties
Children of Arrested Parents: Strategies to Ensure Their Safety and Well-Being
Russia’s regional nuclear Warhead Storage Facilities: Problems and Solutions
Safe Routes to School: Where exactly are we going?
Delinquency Risk Assessment: Improving the Performance of Home Mortgages
Addressing California's Overcrowded Schools: Equity in the State’s Distribution of Funds
for School Construction
Fuel-Efficient replacement Tires: Guidelines for Transforming the Marketplace
Housing voucher Portability in Alameda County: A Caseload Analysis of Clients and Cost
Estimating the External Costs of Driving in San Francisco
The Emergency Food Assistance Program in California: Opportunities for Reform
Most of the students’ second-year program consists of elective courses of individual choice
relevant to the study of public policy. The School provides students with information on course
possibilities around the campus, and each student determines a set of courses in consultation with
a faculty adviser.
Students can choose electives from the full array of courses offered by Berkeley’s academic
departments and professional schools and colleges, as well as courses taught by GSPP faculty.
With nearly 300 degree programs, Berkeley offers opportunities for advanced study in a vast
range of fields.
The following list, far from exhaustive, indicates some of the courses of particular relevance for
public policy students:
Energy and Resources Group: Energy and Society; The Politics of Energy and
Environmental Policy; Energy Economics.
Department of Economics: Economics of Public Enterprises; Public Finance.
Department of Political Science: Public Organization Theory; Public Policy and Decision
Theory; The Politics of Taxation; Science and Politics.
Department of City and Regional Planning: The Urban Planning Process; Planning and
Governmental Decision-Making; Introduction to Housing Analysis; Community
Development Theory and Practice; Policy Analysis and Program Evaluation for Social
School of Education: Education Policy Analysis; Education and the Law; Organizational
Aspects of Planning and Regulation; Economics of Education; Education, Politics and
School of Public Health: New Boundaries for Health Policy and Planning; Legislation and
Organization for Health and Social Services; Organization Theory and Health Institutions.
School of Social Welfare: Social Policy and Social Welfare; Development of Social Service
Programs; Processes of Community Planning and Organizing; The Management Cycle in
Social Welfare Administration.
School of Business Administration: Business and Public Policy; Management in the Public
and Not-for-Profit Sectors; Labor-Management Relations in the Public and Nonprofit
Sectors; Collective Bargaining; The Interaction of Business and Government.
Public and Nonprofit Management: Various colleges and schools on campus offer courses in
this area such as: Public Sector Accounting; Financial Management; Managers and
Management; Techniques of Management Control; Organizational Understanding for
Managers; Advanced Seminar in Public and Nonprofit Management; Applied
Microeconomics; Technology, Tasks and Politics; Organizational Skills for Managers;
Information Resource Management; Management of Professionals in Organizations. For
more information, call the GSPP Admissions Office at (510) 642-1940.
GSPP Elective courses offered by GSPP also provide opportunities for focused study in
specific policy fields. Most courses are taught by regular GSPP faculty and some by visiting
faculty, often policy practitioners. See the section on graduate electives for details.
8.4 Kennedy School
Master in Public Policy
The two-year Master in Public Policy (MPP) program provides future public leaders with the
conceptual framework and practical skills necessary to succeed in public service.
The MPP core requirements are built upon strong foundations in three methodological areas:
analysis, management, and leadership. These requirements are designed to help students solve
complicated and unfamiliar challenges — by asking the right questions, determining the nature
and dimensions of the problem at hand, exploring the range of possible solutions, and assessing
the capacity of public institutions to implement one or more of these solutions.
Through the MPP core, students sharpen their powers of analysis and their knowledge base.
They build the confidence and judgment needed to weigh competing demands and choose the
most appropriate action. They become skilled at shaping effective and practical solutions and
building consensus and ownership in support of those solutions. They learn to marshal resources
within and outside of an organization, monitor and fine tune innovative policy solutions, and
provide the transformational leadership that generates success.
Prospective students interested in the MPP program are encouraged to review the prerequisites
for academic and work experience prior to applying
One credit hour of class contact time per week equals on credit for the semester. If a course is
listed a a three credit course, that means it will meet for three hours per week for the semester.
This however, is for a college or university that operates on a regular two semester academic
years. If you look at this in total hours for the semester, it is approximately 48 hours of class
contact time for a three credit course for the semester.
The MPP program requires two years (four terms) of full-time study in residence at Harvard
Kennedy School. MPP candidates complete eighteen units of academic credit, eight of which are
required courses. MPP candidates also need to complete a distribution requirements in Financial
Management. Of the remaining ten credits, two must be earned in a specific Policy Area of
Concentration. Please note, IGA concentrators must earn six credits and SUP concentrators must
earn four credits.
Our required course work builds a broad perspective and sharpens specific skills. First-year
required courses develop the following core skills to prepare our students for public service:
• Quantitative analysis
• Politics and advocacy
• Financial management
• Strategic management
Additional requirements of the program such as Spring Exercise, selection of a PAC, the PAC
Seminar, and the Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) are described below.
During the last two weeks of the spring semester, all first-year MPP students participate in
Spring Exercise. This simulation provides practice in integrating the skills of the core by
requiring students to develop and present a professional simulation of a real policy problem.
Selecting a PAC
In most cases, students select a Policy Area of Concentration (PAC) by selecting an introductory
survey course in their first term from the list of HKS Policy Areas. They develop the
concentration further in the second year through the required PAC seminar focusing on advanced
topics and related methods in their chosen PAC. Beyond these electives, the choice of courses
is entirely up to the individual.
Policy Analysis Exercise
In the second year, all MPP students engage in the Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) in which they
examine an existing public or nonprofit sector problem presented by a real-life client
organization. The PAE is a professional product, usually around 40 pages in length, where
second-year MPP students have the opportunity to integrate the technical skills and specialized
knowledge they have gained primarily from the MPP core (required) curriculum.
Each student serves as an unpaid consultant to the client organization where, through working
with the client, the student defines the problem, designs a strategy to address the problem,
gathers data, formulates and evaluates options, and finally, makes recommendations to the client
to solve the problem. The PAE is carried out within each student’s chosen policy area of
Additional MPP/UP Requirements
Students in the MPP/UP program are required to participate in a two-week preparatory module at
the Graduate School of Design in September before starting their second year of coursework.
The additional course requirements include a studio design course, two courses from an
approved list, and two or more other courses with special relevance to urban planning.
MPP/UP candidates write their Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) on an urban planning topic.
Please note, the MPP/UP degree is available only to students who enrolled in the MPP program
in the fall of 2009 or earlier. Students who enroll after fall 2009 can apply for concurrent MPP
and MUP degrees. This concurrent degree program requires separate admission by the Graduate
School of Design (GSD) and the Harvard Kennedy School and takes three years.
Joint and Concurrent Degrees
Students in the MPP program frequently pursue joint or concurrent degrees allowing them to
work toward two degrees simultaneously.
Harvard Kennedy School Curriculum
Teaching and Learning at HKS
Classes at the Harvard Kennedy School are taught by the case method, the more traditional
lecture format, or a mixture of both. Students work together in small groups on projects and will
have assistance from course assistants, teaching fellows, and faculty members in a collaborative
and non-competitive working environment.
Methodological Areas at HKS
The HKS curriculum is built around the concept that future leaders and policy makers need to be
adept in analytical, management, and leadership skills in order to serve the public good. The
three foundational methodological areas at HKS are:
• Quantitative Analysis
• Strategic Management
• Leadership and Advocacy
Whether as distribution requirements for graduation or as part of a core curriculum, these three
areas are the foundation upon which the HKS education is built. No matter what policy area
students focus on while studying, HKS graduates depart the school with a powerful complement
of skill to increase their effectiveness in working in their chosen field.
Policy Areas at HKS
Teaching and research at HKS are organized around a framework of policy areas that reflect the
evolving research of the HKS faculty, the needs of policy makers, and the interests of the HKS
student body. Please see HKS Policy Areas for listing.
Core Curriculum Required Courses (First Year)
Markets and Market Failure (1 credit)
Economic Analysis of Public Policy (1 credit)
Quantitative Analysis and Empirical Methods (1 credit)
Empirical Methods II (1 credit)
X Spring Exercise (0.5 credit)
Mobilizing for Political Action - American Politics & Comparative Politics (1 credit)
The Responsibilities of Public Action (1 credit)
The Strategic Management of Public Organizations (1 credit)
Public Service Retreat
Both fourth year and fifth year students will participate in a required public service retreat
immediately before classes begin in the fall. The retreat will feature small group interactions
with prominent public leaders, debriefings by fifth year students' on their summer internships,
and workshops on the challenges and opportunities of public service. View pictures from the
2008 Public Service Retreat.-Univ of Virginia.
Core Curriculum for strong analytical foundations
Five core public policy courses are required in the fifth year
Research Methods and Data Analysis (II); Policy History; Legal and Moral Reasoning for Public
Policy; Economic Analysis of Public Policy (II); and the Advanced Policy Analysis seminar.
Electives and Specialized Fields of Concentration
Students will be given the opportunity to develop substantive knowledge about their areas of
interest. Students are free to take electives in any Arts and Sciences Department as well as in
selected other university departments and schools. Concentration fields include international
relations, development policy, health policy, education policy, and environmental policy.
The Curriculum comprises of course work and dissertation. The course work is spread over 6
terms during the first year. Core courses are supplemented by electives, which will be offered
during the fourth and fifth terms. On successful completion of these courses, participants could
work on their dissertations.
Term 1: June – July (8 Weeks) (15 Credits)
• Policy Process and Analysis
• Decision Analysis
• Micro and Institutional Economics
• States, Markets and Globalization
• Social Marketing
• Financial Accounting
Term 2: August – September (Co-terminus with PGP Term 1) (8 Credits) (15 Credits)
• Managing People and Performance
• Strategy and Organizations
• Corporate Finance
• Research Methods
• Research Methods
Term 3: October-December – Maxwell/Gothenburg/Internship (8 Weeks) (8 Credits)
Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, USA
• Public Administration and Policy in International Comparative Perspective
• Internship/Alternative Overseas Component
Term 4: (December- February middle) (Synchronized with E-PGP Term 5) (6 weeks) (6
• Open Electives – E-PGP
Term 5 (Mid February to April end) (7 Weeks) (8 credits)
• Public Finance
• Indian Social and Human Development
• Designing Projects and Programmes on
A SERIES OF PUBLIC POLICY SEMINARS WILL BE ORGANISED THROUGHOUT
THE ACADEMIC YEAR
42 credits-one year
8.5 Stony Brooke University-
The program's core required courses teach skills in political, economic, quantitative and
organizational analysis, with a practical focus on the solutions to complex public policy
problems. With this foundation, students take one or more courses in a specialized concentration
and a related internship or research assignment. The entire program of 30 credit hours can be
completed in one calendar year by full-time students, and within two years by those attending
Required Core Courses (3 credits each):
Public Policy Analysis and Evaluation
Introduction to Statistics for Public policy
Intermediate Statistics for Public policy
Administrative Law for Policy Analysts
Advanced Policy Courses (3 credits each):
Public Budgeting and Finance
Public Management and Organizational Behavior
Personnel Systems for Public Policy
Data applications in Public Policy
Survey Research for Public Policy
Possible Concentrations (3 credits each):
Environmental Politics and Planning
Health Policy (offered by the School of Health Technology and Management)
Concentration elective (with program approval)
Capstone Experience (6 credits):
Internship in Public Policy or
Directed Policy Research (6 credits)
This course entails a student research paper prepared under supervision of faculty member on a
significant public policy issue. Approval of program director required.
Master's Paper in Public Policy (6 credits)
For a student already employed in a related field, in lieu of internship, this course requires a
policy paper applying theory and methods to a specific issue possibly related to, but going
beyond, their normal employment duties. Approval of program director required.
This course entails a student thesis paper under supervision of faculty member on a research
project related to public policy. Approval of program director required.
8.6 George Washington University-
Ability to think clearly and analytically about social and economic problems and public policy.
Students not only learn the basic analytical and methodological tools to engage in policy
analysis; they also develop an understanding of the political processes through which policy is
made and the social, economic and historical context in which problems arise and are addressed.
Each student chooses a policy field that serves as an area in which he/she can apply these skills
and gain substantive knowledge. However, the program is generalist rather than highly
specialized; it provides students with the ability to quickly and successfully come to grips with
policy problems across a wide range of issues.
The MPP program is interdisciplinary; the course of studies focuses on problems, policy
alternatives, and solutions rather than on methodologies and approaches that are associated with
a single academic discipline. Students have the opportunity to combine academic training with a
wide array of practical experiences available in our nation's capital. The faculty have extensive
professional contacts to aid students in job placement.
40 credits (9 for field study, 7 for electives)
Capstone Seminar (3 credits)
Policy theory and typologies; policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation; ethics and
practice in policy analysis, policy processes, content, and contexts; and policy linkages to
multiple disciplines. Students submit an analysis of a substantive policy primarily utilizing
resources in the D.C. region.
8.7 University of Maryland Course Descriptions
Leading and Motivating People-Explores the theories, models, and research findings concerned
with human motivation and behavior most relevant to the task of leading people to achieve
positive and timely results. It includes an introduction to leadership theory, cognitive
development and human motivation theories. It then applies this knowledge to the development
of self-mastery and interpersonal skills, the enhancement of employee morale, and the building
of healthy and effective teams
Managing Public Organizations-Begins with a discussion on the nature of public
administration and moves to organization theory and the effect of structure on organizational
behavior. The course is designed to go beyond a conceptual framework of public management by
helping students develop the insights and skills necessary to manage daily and to lead
government organizations. Case studies are examined to provide real life context for the course
Financial Information for Managers-Presents the principal concepts in public financial
management - focusing on the national, state and local levels of government. The course
examines how budgeting is a process whereby various competing interests and programs are
reconciled through a series of analytic discussions, detailed program analyses, as well as political
Moral and Ethical Dimensions of Management and Leadership-Explores the moral issues
involved in public policy and management questions: the limits and usefulness of decision-
making tools; problems of choosing and using criteria to judge a program's success; ethical
issues involving income distribution; and possible obligations beyond one's political community.
Case studies emphasize the dilemmas that managers face in making and communicating
Policy Analysis and Microeconomics for Managers-Develops skills in the use of data and data
presentation that is valuable in the everyday work of public managers. The course emphasizes
the underlying themes and trends behind information and how to persuasively present arguments
Tactics and Principles of Negotiation-Introduces the concepts of interest based negotiations
and equips students to conduct negotiations successfully. Domestic and foreign policy examples
are used to demonstrate how to analyze the negotiating techniques of others. The course blends
skill-building exercises, theory discussions, and dialogue.
21st Century Policy Challenges-Provides an overview to the policy development process in the
context of a number of key areas: defense policy, social policy, America's role in the world, and
environmental policy. The course focuses on how managers must lead within a larger policy
context and how knowledge of broader agency issues impact management.
Managing Across Sectors: Public, Profit, and Nonprofit-Reviews the concept of cross-sector
governance and provides both theoretical understanding and practical grounding. The course
focuses on the roles and relationships of institutions in each of these sectors in pursuing public
purposes such as emergency management, economic development, environmental protection,
transportation, education, and human investment.
Leadership in Groups and Organizations-Emphasizes how an understanding of group and
organizational life is a critical leadership competency. Through interactive dialogue, this course
offers a strategic understanding of group relations associated with the exercise of leadership and
authority in group, inter-group, networked, and organizational settings.
Information Policy and Technology -Examines the policy challenges posed by the
“Information Revolution,” especially the growth of the global Internet and the digital economy.
The course explores the evolving public policies regarding information and information
technology especially as they are used in the public sector. Emphasis is on U.S. Federal policies
although comparisons and contrasts to other nations as well as state and local government are
discussed as well. In addition, contrasts and similarities are drawn between public and private
sector strategic information management.
8.8 YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Introduction to Public Policy and Public ManagementThe development of public policy
requires an understanding of stakeholder interests and a methodology to assess, evaluate and
recommend policy options. Public sector management utilizes many of the approaches
developed by the private sector. However, public sector managers also face unique managerial
challenges resulting from such factors as political considerations, annual expenditure cycles and
a highly unionized workplace. Government programs and services must strive to meet multiple
objectives and satisfy various stakeholders. An integral component of public sector management
is effective program evaluation.
This introductory course has three principal objectives:
(1) to ensure a thorough understanding of the public policy creation process in the
Canadian context, with particular attention to Canadian federalism and inter-
(2) to assist with an evaluation and assessment of the best public sector management
tools, techniques and practices;
(3) to provide an introduction to public sector program and policy evaluation
APPROACH-The course will be conducted in seminar format. Students will be expected to
assist in leading class discussions and to participate fully in consideration of the reading and
The grading for this course will be determined as follows:
-- Term Paper 60%
-- Course participation 40%
COURSE OUTLINE: Week 1 An introduction to public administration and public policy.
Public administration is defined, and the alternative theories of public policy making are
Week 2The Canadian public administration system will be detailed, and the role of departments
and central agencies will be described. There will be a discussion of the executive, the
bureaucracy, and the roles of pressure groups and political parties with respect to the
Week 3The first part of this session will consist of an explanation of the expectations for the
research papers, followed by a round table on research intentions. The remainder will focus on
alternative forms of government organization and public administration, and implications for
accountability and responsibility by Ministers and senior public servants.
Case Study: Polidano, Charles, “The Bureaucrat Who Fell under a Bus:
Ministerial responsibility, executive agencies and the Derek Lewis affair in Britain.” in
Governance. April 1999, Vol.12, No. 2. pp 201-229.
Week 4 This session will focus on the role of technology in public sector management,
and the use of management tools and techniques in public administration, including total quality
management and re-engineering..
Required Reading: Jeremy Cowper and Martin Samuels, 1997,“Performance
Benchmarking in the Public Sector: The UK Experience”, in
Benchmarking, Evaluation, and Strategic Management in the
Public Sector: Papers Presented at the 1996 Meeting of the
Performance Management Network of OECD’s Public
Management Service. OECD Working Papers Volume V No.67.
Tapscott, D, "The digital media and the reinvention of
government", in The Journal of the Institute of Public
Administration of Canada. Summer 1997, Vol. 40, No. 2. pp
Daniels, Art, 2000. “Customer-Centred Government from the
Outside In,” in The New Public Management, International
Developments. Toronto, Ontario: Captus Press, pp 7-16. (Not
available in course kit.)
Langford, John and Harrison, Yvonne. “Partnering for e-
government: Challenges for public administrators” in Canadian
Public Administration. Institute of Public Administration of
Canada. Winter 2001, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp 393-416.
McInerney, Rosemary & Barrows, David,
“Management Tools for Creating Government Responsiveness:
The Liquor Control Board of Ontario as a Context for Creating
Change” in Evaluation and Accounting Standards in Public
Management. Proceedings of the 3rd International Public Sector
Management Symposium. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-
Badem 2002, pp 123-136.
Case Study: IPAC Case Study 2.07, “The Road to E-Democracy”, by K.C.
Week 5-The budgetary process.Required Reading: Kernaghan and Siegel, Chapter 26.
Peters, Erik, 2000.“Accounting and Public Management, Canadian
and International Developments” in The New Public Management,
International Developments. Toronto, Ontario: Captus Press, pp
Case Study: Leger, Paul, 1987. Resource Allocation in a Provincial
Government: The Frustration of Respecting Global Expenditure
Levels. Toronto: The Institute of Public Administration of Canada.
Week 6-The role of alternative service delivery mechanisms.
Required Reading: Kernaghan and Siegel, Chapter 11
Ford, Robin, and David Zussman, 1997. "Alternative Service
Delivery: Transcending Boundaries" in Alternative Service
Delivery: Sharing Governance in Canada. Toronto: KPMG:IAPC.
Mulgan, Richard. “Public accountability of provider agencies: the
case of the Australian ‘Centrelink’” in International Review of
Administrative Sciences. IIAS. Sage Publications. March 2002,
Vol 68 pp 45-59.
Eichhorn, Peter and Greiling, Dorothea, 2000. “European Union
Policies Towards Services of General Interest, Within the
Framework of Public Management” in The New Public
Management, International Developments.Toronto,Ontario: Captus
Press, pp 81-104. (Not available in course kit.)
Lois Bain, Mazlin Darsi and Jackie Stothers, Ontario Public
Service, Restructuring Secretariat, Cabinet Office, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada “Delivering Results Through Quality: The
Ontario Public Service Reaps the Benefit of its Quality Service
Week 7The New Zealand approach to public sector renewal and management.
Required Reading: Walker, B. "Reforming the public sector for leaner government
and improved performance: The New Zealand Experience" in
Public Administration and Development: The International Journal
of Management Research and Practice. Editor: P. Collins. October
1996, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp 353-375.
Evans, Lewis, et al. “Economic Reform in New Zealand 1984-95:
The Pursuit of Efficiency” in Journal of Economic Literature.
December 1996, Vol. XXX1V, No.4, pp 1856-1902.
Winfield, Mark, Whorley, David and Kaufman, Shelley Beth.
“Public safety in private hands: A Study of Ontario’s Technical
Standards and Safety Authority” in Canadian Public
Administration. IPAC. Spring 2002 Vol. 45, No. 1 pp. 24-51.
Petrozzi, Wayne, 2000. “Some Reflections on the (Un)Scientific
Nature of the New Public Management,” in The New Public
Management, International Developments.Toronto, Ontario:Captus
Press,pp 125-150. (Not available in course kit.)
Case Study: Alternative Service Delivery in Allegheny County
The Ice Skating Study
Week 8-The first part of this evening will consist of a discussion of the status of the student
research papers, followed by presentation and discussion of two case studies.
Case Studies: IPAC Case Study 2.13, “Implementing Performance
Measurement”, by Wendy Paynter.IPAC Case Study 2.14, “Establishing Performance
Assessment”, by Bill Reid.
Week 9 Guest Lecturer. A senior person from the public sector will describe some of his/her
experiences and integrate the issues raised in the readings and cases to date.
Week 10The role of privatization and similar approaches to public management.
Required Reading: Professor H. Ian Macdonald. “Public-Private Partnerships: Old
Wine in New Bottles”. Workshop One: Cooperation And Partnership of Public Administration
and Private Enterprise. 3rd Specialized International Conference of IIAS, Berlin, Germany,
September 20, 2005.Howard Husock, Director, Case Study, Kennedy School of Government.
Fighting Crime in Downtown Oakland: A Public-Private Partnrship.
Case Study: McQuillan, Claire E., and Cynthia Williams. 1991. Privatizing the
Canadian Maple Products Corp. Toronto: The Institute of Public
Administration of Canada in cooperation with the Canadian Centre
for Management Studies and the Canadian Government Publishing
Centre, Supply and Services Canada.
Week 11-Public service ethics and codes of conduct.
Required Readings: Kernaghan and Siegel, Chapter 14
"Developing a public service code of conduct", in Current Good
Practices and New Developments in Public Service Management,
The Commonwealth Portfolio. Commonwealth Secretariat, 1996.
Hulme, David and Nimal Sanderatne. 1997. The Toothless and the
Muzzled: Public accountability, public expenditure management
and governance in Sri Lanka. University of Manchester: Institute
for Development Policy and Management.
Auditor General of Canada (June 2000). The IIAS Conference on
Public Administration and Globalisation; International and
Supranational Administrations. “Globalisation and Administrative
Activity” Towards New Principles and a Path for Action. Sub-
Topic 1 “Involving Others in Governing: Safeguarding the Public
Interest.” Bologna, Italy.
Case Study: Harrison, Roy A. “Making Money from Disaster in Oklahoma
City” in American Society for Public Administration. October
1998, Vol 21, No. 10.
Week 12 Wrap-up, evaluation and discussion.
8.9 University of Maryland
Leading and Motivating People
Explores the theories, models, and research findings concerned with human motivation and
behavior most relevant to the task of leading people to achieve positive and timely results. It
includes an introduction to leadership theory, cognitive development and human motivation
theories. It then applies this knowledge to the development of self-mastery and interpersonal
skills, the enhancement of employee morale, and the building of healthy and effective teams
Managing Public Organizations
Begins with a discussion on the nature of public administration and moves to organization theory
and the effect of structure on organizational behavior. The course is designed to go beyond a
conceptual framework of public management by helping students develop the insights and skills
necessary to manage daily and to lead government organizations. Case studies are examined to
provide real life context for the course content.
Financial Information for Managers
Presents the principal concepts in public financial management - focusing on the national, state
and local levels of government. The course examines how budgeting is a process whereby
various competing interests and programs are reconciled through a series of analytic discussions,
detailed program analyses, as well as political compromise.
Moral and Ethical Dimensions of Management and Leadership
Explores the moral issues involved in public policy and management questions: the limits and
usefulness of decision-making tools; problems of choosing and using criteria to judge a
program's success; ethical issues involving income distribution; and possible obligations beyond
one's political community. Case studies emphasize the dilemmas that managers face in making
and communicating decisions.
Policy Analysis and Microeconomics for Managers
Develops skills in the use of data and data presentation that is valuable in the everyday work of
public managers. The course emphasizes the underlying themes and trends behind information
and how to persuasively present arguments using data.
Tactics and Principles of Negotiation
Introduces the concepts of interest based negotiations and equips students to conduct
negotiations successfully. Domestic and foreign policy examples are used to demonstrate how to
analyze the negotiating techniques of others. The course blends skill-building exercises, theory
discussions, and dialogue.
21st Century Policy Challenges
Provides an overview to the policy development process in the context of a number of key areas:
defense policy, social policy, America's role in the world, and environmental policy. The course
focuses on how managers must lead within a larger policy context and how knowledge of
broader agency issues impact management.
Managing Across Sectors: Public, Profit, and Nonprofit
Reviews the concept of cross-sector governance and provides both theoretical understanding and
practical grounding. The course focuses on the roles and relationships of institutions in each of
these sectors in pursuing public purposes such as emergency management, economic
development, environmental protection, transportation, education, and human investment.
Leadership in Groups and Organizations
Emphasizes how an understanding of group and organizational life is a critical leadership
competency. Through interactive dialogue, this course offers a strategic understanding of group
relations associated with the exercise of leadership and authority in group, inter-group,
networked, and organizational settings.
Information Policy and Technology
Examines the policy challenges posed by the “Information Revolution,” especially the growth of
the global Internet and the digital economy. The course explores the evolving public policies
regarding information and information technology especially as they are used in the public
sector. Emphasis is on U.S. Federal policies although comparisons and contrasts to other nations
as well as state and local government are discussed as well. In addition, contrasts and similarities
are drawn between public and private sector strategic information management.
9.Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at National University of Singapore
The two-year Master in Public Policy (MPP) programme offers pre- and early-career
professionals the fundamental skills of public policy analysis and explores key concepts from the
disciplines of politics, economics, and public management. Students also enjoy a wide range of
elective and advanced modules.
Areas of Concentration
In particular, MPP students deepen their understanding of a specific field by focusing on one of
five areas of concentration:
• development studies
• economic policy and analysis
• international relations and security studies
• social and environmental policy
• public management and governance
To obtain direct practical experience, students also undertake a public policy or management
study, called the Policy Analysis Exercise, for a client in the public, private, or non-profit sector.
Most students also take internships with organisations that are relevant to their studies, such
as the United Nations Environment Programme (Bangkok); National Economic Development
Authority (Philippines); World Bank (Washington, DC); Government Investment Corporation
(Singapore); and Standard Chartered Bank
Curriculum of Master in Public Policy Programme Core Courses
PP5101: Economics and Public Policy I
This course is designed to develop an appreciation of how microeconomics concepts and tools
can be utilised to analyse public policy issues. The course covers traditional microeconomics
topics, such as theory of consumer behaviour, choice under uncertainty and behaviour of firm
under various market structures. Economic theory is applied to a wide range of policy issues.
The course emphasises application rather than formalism.
PP5102: Economics and Public Policy II This course examines the essential features of key
macroeconomic policy instruments used in the attainment of policy objectives such as full
employment, price stability, and economic growth. Short-term policy tools such as monetary
and/or exchange rate policy, government expenditure and levy policy, wages and foreign labour
policy will be examined. Longer-term policies such as saving and investment policy, ways of
achieving international competitiveness, human resource policy and policies aimed at promoting
economic growth and factor productivity will also be covered. Emphasis will placed be on
designing appropriate policy mixes to achieve desired policy targets.
PP5103: Political and Organisational Analysis-This course teaches students to look beneath
the seemingly placid surface of governmental policy-making processes to identify and
understand the complex array of factors which influence policy outcomes. Course participants
learn to recognise the role that organisations and individuals play in determining the direction of
government policies, and learn the importance of studying policy issues within the relevant
social, cultural and historical context.
PP5104: Empirical Analysis for Public Policy-This course is an introduction to statistical
methods. Topics covered include descriptive statistics, sampling, inference and bivariate and
multiple regression analysis. Emphasis is on the application of these statistical techniques to
public policy issues. Students will be introduced to statistical software packages.
PP5105: Public Policy Research and Evaluation-This course introduces students to the basic
concepts and methods in social science research and their application in public policy analysis. It
focuses on the development of students’ professional skills in research design, data collection
techniques, and analysis for the purposes of conducting policy research and evaluation. Main
topics for the course include measurement, experiments, sampling, survey research, qualitative
data collection and analysis, and methods for secondary analysis. A strong emphasis will be
given to cost-benefit analysis, an important tool of policy research and evaluation. Theoretical
foundations and methodologies in conducting cost-benefit analysis will be examined.
PP5110: Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) [2units]-The Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) is a
client-based public policy or management study. PP5110 looks at the policy analysis process and
framework: defining problem and goal, identifying appropriate research techniques, gathering
and using information, formulating alternatives and systematically comparing and evaluating
alternatives. It includes the skills of effectively communicating the analysis in a PAE genre and
making oral presentation of key findings. The final product is a 40-page document which
demonstrates student’s ability to integrate the skills developed through the MPP programme and
to complete a substantial analysis similar to that in professional practice.
PP5111: Introduction to Public Policy and AnalysisThis course is an introduction to public
policy process and is meant for the beginning analyst or the person starting the study of policy
analysis. It considers a number of fundamental questions: 1) rationales for collective interference
in private affairs; 2) limitations to collective action; 3) generic instruments of public policy; 4)
how social costs and benefits can be measured; and 5) what appropriate roles for policy analysts
in democratic societies are. The course seeks to sharpen basic skills in analytical thinking,
information gathering, and writing, as students attempt to answer the questions above.
PP5137: Public Management and Leadership-This course surveys major strategies for
improving the performance of public sector organisations. It critically examines the so-called
“New Public Management” (NPM) approaches to reform, exploring the conditions in which
these may be successfully applied to a range of country contexts and organisational settings. The
role of leadership in redefining organisational missions, building operational capacities and
mustering political support for reform is a cross-cutting theme. The course introduces practical
tools for organisational diagnosis and change management while cultivating through case study
analysis an appreciation of the challenges inherent in their application.
PP5138: Statistical Techniques for Public Policy-This course provides students with a solid
grounding on quantitative techniques used to analyse public policy. At the end of the course,
students will be able to use advanced statistical tools on real life case studies and draw
appropriate policy conclusions. The major topics covered are: Sampling and survey design,
linear regression and the classical model, model building for regression analysis, multiple
regression analysis, time series analysis and forecasting, and dummy dependent variable models.
Electives (Please note that not all electives will be offered in any one semester.)
PP5136: Applied Public Sector Economics-This course is concerned with economic analysis of
the public sector. It covers topics such as economic boundaries of the state; public choice theory;
government budgeting systems and their implications; economic effects of various taxes; the role
of user charges; fiscal incentives; government expenditure policies; tax and expenditure reform;
as well as economics of multilevel government. The course also examines the privatisation
PP5205 Economic Policy in a Global Economy-In the current economic environment national
policy must position countries to be competitive in a world economy. This module aims at
conferring a better understanding of a world that is increasingly integrated through markets and
informing the design of economic policies in such a world. The module is organized around three
broad areas: Globalization & Economic Development, Trade and Factor Flows, and Macro
Policy for the Open Economies of Asia.
PP5206: Politics and Policy in Southeast Asia-This course is designed to help students
understand contemporary politics and policy in Southeast Asia in a comparative perspective. It
will focus on the question of political stability and various government policies to achieve this
goal. The policies include national integration, promotion of national ideology and values,
promotion of political development and economic equity, and restrictions on political
participation. The course will also introduce various theoretical frameworks in political science
which explain the cause of conflict and their resolution with special reference to Southeast Asia.
PP5214: Ethics and the Public Official-The public official is constantly confronted with
choices that have ethical dimensions. An obvious one is the attempt to influence officials’
decisions by corrupt means. However, ethical issues facing public officials are usually more
subtle. They range from the way officials define their political mandate to how they think about
policy options that profoundly affect the lives of others. This course will explore the range of
ethical issues and choices that confronts public officials and develop skills in recognising and
PP5220: National Science and Technology Policy Analysis-This course examines the
contribution of science and technology (S&T) to national economic development and identifies
the public policy roles of government in science and technology. It develops the concepts and
analytic techniques for formulating and evaluating public policy towards science and technology,
and analyses alternative institutional structures and processes for policy implementation.
Comparative case studies on actual national S&T planning systems as well as specific policy
experiences in selected advanced industrialised countries and newly-industrialised economies
will be examined and their lessons and relevance for Singapore discussed.
PP5222: Southeast Asia in International Relations-As the Asia-Pacific region grows in
political and economic power and prominence, its role in international relations becomes more
important. This course will provide a basic framework for analysing international relations, and
use it to consider Southeast Asia's current and future role in the world.
PP5224: Negotiation and Conflict Management-This course considers theories and concepts
in conflict and conflict resolution, and examines the processes of negotiation and mediation. It
seeks to apply principles in conflict management and negotiation to specific case situations and
cultural contexts. This course is experiential-based and students will have the opportunity to
participate in negotiation and conflict management exercises, case discussions and practice
PP5226: Social Policy: Issues and Options-This course deals with social policy issues with
special reference to Southeast Asian countries. The policies analysed include those relating to
ethnicity, urbanisation, housing, migration, labour, poverty and its alleviation, education and
health. The ideas of state responsibility to provide for basic needs and of a social safety net are
PP5227: Environmental Policy and Natural Resource Management-The environment - along
with the closely linked issue of natural resource management - is a topic of growing concern
throughout the world. Southeast Asia is no exception. The Asia-Pacific region contains forest,
mineral and petrochemical reserves, the management of which is of great importance to the
region and the world. This course deals with the economic principles and political issues
involved in protecting the environment and managing natural resources effectively. This module
is targeted at students who are interested in environmental policy and natural resource
PP5230: Strategic Management in Public Organisations-Organisations, including government
agencies, must create value through the actions of people. Public policies are only ideas until
they are implemented by real agencies facing real constraints. Managers have the unique
responsibility of co-ordinating workers and creating an environment in which they will
understand the work to be done, and learn to do it better and more efficiently. Managers use a
variety of tools to accomplish this task (for example, personnel policy, budgeting, production and
operations analysis). This course examines these tools in a series of case discussions and
readings. This module is for those interested in learning strategic management skills.
PP5235: Development Policy in Southeast Asia-This course begins by examining the recent
history of national development in the “Third World” and competing models of development. It
reviews the importance of policy reform in many countries, and considers which policies and
circumstances are likely to promote growth. It then examines the role of various sectors, such as
agriculture, industry, social welfare, and suggests roles for the public and private sector in
promoting development and providing basic services to its citizens. This module is targeted at
students who are interested in development policy in Southeast Asia
PP5237: Strategies for Poverty Alleviation-This course aims to provide students with an
understanding of how policy analysis can be applied to challenges of economic growth and
poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia. The course discusses about the history of economic
growth, and examines several theories of growth process. It will examine how government
policy affects the pace and pattern of economic growth and levels of poverty. Students will
develop a better understanding of how economic principles can be applied to a wide range of
policy issues, and will practise applying those principles in class exercises and presentations.
PP5238: Urban Development and Policy-This course examines the development of urban areas
and the public policies that lead to rational and effective urban structures and institutions. The
course begins with an examination of the theories and principles that explain the existence of
regions and cities. These principles will then be used to establish criteria for evaluating urban
policies and to look at several urban problems. Substantive areas which will be explored in the
course include land use, housing, transportation, economic development, the environment, urban
public finance, and intergovernmental organisations/institutions.
PP5239: Law and Economics-The major purposes of the course are to review and discuss the
incentives created by legal rules and their relationship to economic behaviour and activity, and to
demonstrate the use of these analyses in the design of legal institutions. The objectives will
include better understanding of the relationships between law and economic activity, improved
ability to analyse public policy opinion, further an appreciation of potential complementarities
between fields such as law and economics; and a greater awareness of recent research related to
law, economics, regulations, and economic development.
PP5240: Topics in Applied Policy Analysis-The course provides students with knowledge and
skills to understand and effectively manage different aspects of the policy process: recognising
problems; developing alternatives to address the problems; devising criteria for choosing
alternatives; gaining support and acceptance from stakeholders; crafting implementation
strategies; evaluating implementation; and dealing with unexpected consequences. The class
discussions are contexts in realistic scenarios and current events. They present problem-solving
skills in specific policy areas, such as health care, environment, transportation, science and
technology, housing, social policy, etc. Specific contents of the course vary from year to year
depending on interests of faculty and students, and current events.
PP5241: Topics in Economics or Quantitative Analysis-The course examines different
economic principles and theories and quantitative techniques helpful to policy analysis. The
focus can range from statistics and econometrics to survey design decision analysis, operations
research and risk analysis depending on the policy issues and kind of theories and data relevant
to the policy discussed. The course may also teach economic principles and their application to
such areas as health care, environment, transportation, science and technology, housing and
social policy. Specific contents of the course vary from year to year depending on the interests of
faculty and students, and current events.
PP5242: Topics in Institutional or Political Analysis-The course deals with various ways in
which institutional and political analysis can improve the policy process. Among the various
issues examined are factors that advance or deter policy agendas, the determinants of decision-
making, and the politics of implementation. The course teaches students how politics and
institutional relationships shape the policy-making process in different areas of public policy,
such as environment, health care, transportation, science and technology, education, housing, and
social policy. This course helps students learn and apply leadership, managerial and analytical
techniques to enhance their understanding of public institutions and the political environment
they operate in. Readings and class discussions focus on the application of concepts, frameworks
and techniques in realistic scenarios. Specific contents of the course vary from year to year
depending on the interests of faculty and students, and current events.
PP5243: Infrastructure Policy-This course takes a multi-disciplinary approach to public policy
on infrastructure with a focus on dilemmas and topical controversies. Infrastructure systems are
crucial elements in development strategies. However, infrastructure policy involves formidable
dilemmas and has been a focus of many key public policy debates, including controversies over:
privatisation and deregulation; cost-recovery and cross-subsidy issues; access for the poor to
infrastructure-based services; corruption; environmental and social impacts; as well as public
spending and investment priorities. This module is targeted at MPP students who are interested
in learning more about infrastructure.
PP5244: Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries-Government performance
everywhere – but especially in developing countries – often disappoints. “Public sector reform”
is the label given to diverse attempts to achieve fundamental improvements in government
performance. This course examines 10 controversial reform strategies that dominate
contemporary debate over how to improve government performance in developing countries,
including among others decentralisation, democratisation, and administrative and civil service
reform. It will train students in three areas: 1) diagnosing causes of poor government
performance; 2) analysing opportunities for, and constraints on, use of reforms that dominate
public-sector reform debate; and 3) crafting realistic strategies from a public-manager’s
PP5245: Project Management for the Public SectorThe ability to effectively manage projects
is one of the key skills for managers in today’s bare-bones, hyper-speed workplace. Yet, in most
public organisations, comprehensive project management training programmes remain more the
exception than the rule, leaving public managers to make up the rules - and pick up the pieces -
as each project takes on a life of its own. This module will introduce students to spearheading
every stage of a project: from developing goals, setting up project plans, assigning and
scheduling work, monitoring progress, and exercising control to achieve desired project results.
PP5246: Public Policy and Management of Health Systems-This module is an introduction to
public policy in health care management, with a special focus on health care systems in Asia. It
examines the roles and relationships between policy planning, implementation and evaluation
processes, and different approaches of national systems in providing, regulating and paying for
health care. Regional innovations in the organisation and financing of health care systems will be
analysed through selected country case-studies. Seminar topics on current topical issues include
comparative health care systems and health sector reforms, private-public participation, health
care evaluation, and the future of health care in Asia.
PP5247: International Economic Policy This course is an introduction to international
economics and is conducted in two parts. The first part focuses on international finance theory
and open economy macroeconomics policy while the second part deals with international trade
theory and policy. The broad topics that will be examined include: theory of international trade
and commercial policies; balance of payments accounting and its determinants; and the basics on
foreign exchange. Extensive examples will be drawn from experiences of Asian economies.
PP5248: International Conflict Resolution-This module provides an introduction to
contemporary cases in and analyses of international conflict resolution with a view to
understanding responses to conflict at international, state, regional and nongovernmental levels.
The module covers three main components: 1) conflict analysis (sources, actors, dynamics of
emerging, current and post-conflict situations); 2) policy and material responses (international,
state and regional) mandate, timing and scope; relation between Tracks I & II; and 3) capacity
development and peace building: material, political, policy, and training issues. The principal
learning objective is the development of a sound understanding of the range of policy and
practical responses to conflict.
PP5249: Media, Public Opinion and Public Policy-This practice-based media and
communication course will help them understand media management, marketing public policies,
public opinion management, public consultation principles and the application of effective
communication strategies. The aim is to ensure participants are equipped to manage public
perception that affects the implementation of public policies. It will be case study mode of
training based on the experiences of a practitioner. Students are expected to actively participate
in the discussions and class work.
PP5250: Economic Development Policy-This course introduces the theoretical foundations of
economic development policies, and analyses the political and historical factors influencing
national developmental paths and public policy choices towards equitable and sustainable
economic development. The four main themes covered are: 1) policy frameworks for economic
development in a changing world; 2) the role of markets, governments and development
organisations in the policy arena; 3) successes and failures of agricultural, industrial, trade and
social welfare policies; and 4) the impact of regional integration, global interdependence and
environmental degradation on the national and international policy arena, towards global
economic growth and development..
PP5251: Institutions and Public Policy The main purpose of this module is to assist students in
developing systematic views regarding how institutions affect public policies. This module is
based on the premise that public policies can be characterised as political equilibria determined
by strategic interactions among self-interested agents in some political processes. This module
covers the following main topics: normative and positive theories on the origin of government;
political regimes of different types as policy-making mechanisms; rent-seeking models; roles of
interest groups and bureaucracy in policy-making and policy implementation; relations between
institutions and economic development.
PP5252: Ethnic Politics and Governance in Asia-Ethnicity and religion are some of the most
powerful political forces in the world. In many instances they decide whether a country enjoys
domestic stability and political/economic development, and more recently, they have been
central in determining whether regions of the world are at peace or at war. Ethnic politics can
take many forms, ranging from increased political assertiveness of minority ethnic groups to
violent ethnic conflicts, genocide and secessionist movements. This module examines the
intersection of ethnicity and politics in Asia. It will explore several dimensions of ethnic politics:
the sources of ethnic politics and ethno-political conflict in Asia as well as the management and
containment strategies used to regulate conflict in multi-ethnic polities in select Asian countries.
The case studies will include ethnic politics in China, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Singapore and Thailand.
PP5253: International Financial Policy & Issues-This course is aimed at providing a more in-
depth understanding of important international financial issues and public policy challenges that
confront Asia. Focus will be both on the analytics and public policy issues relating to the foreign
exchange market, effects of a devaluation, import and export elasticities; international capital
flows; the balance of payments; crisis management and prevention; and international monetary
regionalism in Asia. Unlike narrow discipline-oriented courses that only focus on analytics, this
course is interdisciplinary in nature, linking the analytics to real-world conundrums.
PP5254: Nuclear Weapons and International Security-This course will cover the basic
scientific and policy issues concerning nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and implications
for national, regional and international security. The course will help students to understand the
historical evolution of the role of nuclear weapons in military strategy and international
diplomacy and their relevance for civilian nuclear programmes worldwide. The course will
provide required technical and political background to understand the contemporary relevance of
nuclear weapons and material for arms control regimes, counter-proliferation initiatives, export
control, and counter-terrorism. Special emphasis will be provided to issues specific to the Asia-
PP5255: Energy Policy and Security in Asia-This module will illustrate the role of various
energy resources (especially mineral resources) in national policy planning and the perceived
security concerns of external energy dependence and imports. Geological resource availability
and utilisation will be discussed for Asian countries and regional aggregates against the backdrop
of global and regional developments in energy security and policy challenges. Topics covered in
this module include global and regional fossil and non-fossil energy endowment, technological
challenges facing global energy future, national energy security policies of Asian countries,
civilian nuclear electricity in Asia, policy issues concerning coal utilisation and the future of oil
and natural gas markets in the region, and the implications for regional and global security.
PP5256: Financial Regulation and Development-This course could seek to provide an in-
depth understanding of the important role played by the financial sector in a modern economy,
including the potential contribution of a vibrant financial sector to economic growth and
financial stability. The course could examine the preconditions for a strong financial sector and
measures available to policy-makers for strengthening the financial sector. Particular emphasis
could be placed on the special challenges of building strong financial sectors in developing
countries. Much of the course could focus on financial regulation and supervision, its rationale
and relationship to financial sector development. The two broad types of financial regulation,
prudential and market conduct could be examined and consideration could be given to the
characteristics of an effective system of regulation and supervision. Attention could also be given
to financial crises, their capacity to undermine economic development and techniques available
to policy-makers, central bankers and regulators for minimising the risks and consequences of
PP5257: Water Policy & Governance-This module will provide a fundamental understanding
of the root causes of current mismanagement of water at a massive scale, both in terms of
quantity and quality, as well as in terms of economic, environmental and health implications. It
will explore the direct interrelationships between water and population dynamics, urbanization,
ruralisation, globalization, free trade, technological developments, economic growth and other
similar issues. The course will assess the impacts and relevance of current global water policy
dialogues on issues like poverty alleviation, environment conservation and regional income
distribution. Issues like improper and inadequate water quality management in the entire
developing world, management of transboundary and interstate rivers and lakes, economic
instruments, legal frameworks and institutional arrangements will be considered. The roles of
stakeholder participation, public-private partnerships and non-governmental organizations will
PP5258: International Relations and Diplomacy-This course is designed for students with no
previous background in international relations. As such, the course will introduce students to the
institutional, structural and political mechanisms that condition relationships between states and
between states and non-state actors. The aim of the course is to provide students with a broad
overview of the frameworks of analysis, actors, institutions, issues and processes responsible for
international relations, the causes of war, inter-state economic competition, and the structural
configuration of power in the international system.
PP5259: Crisis Management-This course will be focused on three main areas: 1) the nature and
characteristic of crises from the international, nation-state, organisational (including
bureaucracies and corporations), and the individual standpoints; 2) introduction to the theoretical
and practical literature on crises, their management and prevention methodologies with an
emphasis on negotiation strategies, causes and magnitudes of crises, and consequence
management; and 3) a review of key case studies in crisis management and how lessons can be
applied to respond more effectively to a range of crises and catastrophes.
While government responses to a range of political-military crises will be reviewed in the course,
an emphasis will also be placed on a comparative assessment of how corporations have dealt
with crises, in addition to the role of leadership in the heat of a crisis. The highlight of the course
will be focused on a “Simulation Exercise” or a “Gaming Exercise” during the last week of class.
PP5260: Intelligence, National Security and Policy- making-This course will focus on three
main areas: 1) the changing characteristic and nature of “information” and “intelligence” in the
“Information Age”; 2) the breakdown of traditional information boundaries and hierarchies, i.e.,
the accelerated proliferation of information through the internet, and ramifications in the public
and private sectors; and 3) the impact of the “Information Revolution” on national security
including decision-making, organisational behavior, and the role of the nation-state. Emphasis is
also going to be placed on excavating “real-life” intelligence problems including the intelligence
cycle that led to major failures, the use and misuse of corporate intelligence, and the increasing
emphasis on IT in the realm of intelligence and national security planning.
PP5261: International Security: Concepts, Issues and PoliciesThis course offers a birds-eye-
view of international security including traditional and non-traditional sources of conflict,
problems associated with conflict management, and newly emerging global security challenges
including post-911 dynamics. International security is a critical component of international
relations but since its formulation as a discipline in the post-World War II era but particularly
during the Cold War, international security grew into a more independent discipline. Today, the
ever-changing field encompasses aspects of traditional international relations, military studies
and defense planning, arms control and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction,
economic and energy security, international law and regimes, and human and environmental
PP5262: Frontiers of Social InnovationGovernments no longer govern alone. Corporations and
a wide range of civil society groups now confound, constrain, and/or complement the work of
governments on virtually all international issues. This course addresses a host of issues raised by
the rapidly changing roles of governments, civil society, and the private sector. Who does, and
who should, make what decisions? How can decision makers be held accountable? Can the three
sectors work together more effectively in the public interest? After a thorough grounding in the
relevant history and theory, students will undertake a role-playing exercise based on current
PP5263: Global Issues and Institutions What roles can and should Asian countries play in a
world that increasingly is beset by problems that respect no national boundaries and that is
governed by global, not just national, rules? This course provides a solid understanding of those
global issues and rules, the institutions through which rules are negotiated, and the processes by
which global rules are made and implemented. The course covers the broad global agenda, from
security to environment to economics. Students will learn to design global systems that can
tackle these issues effectively.
PP5264: States, Markets and International Governance-This course introduces students to
some of the most important contemporary structural changes in the global political-economy and
the reconfiguration of power relations between nation-states and non-state actors occasioned by
the advent of private sector authority in the international system. The course begins with an
outline of the dominant modes of thinking about international political and economic relations,
surveys the main theoretical schools of thought, and then examines the contemporary global
political-economy; the emergence of international regimes and international organisations, and
the advent of global capital markets and their implications for state capacity.
PP5265: Law and Public Policy-This interdisciplinary course examines the intersections
between law and the making and implementation of public policy. It will provide a theoretical
and international context before focusing on Asia and Singapore. The course considers law as an
instrument for making and implementing policy effectively and efficiently. It also debates
characteristics, values and processes in law that should be considered by policy makers.
PP5266 Global Health Policy and Issues- This module gives an overview of global health
policy and issues, with special focus on changing social, economic, technological and political
conditions across the diverse countries and populations of Asia. It examines the roles and
relationships among major players at the global level, and different approaches taken by various
international organisations and national governments in tackling health and related problems.
This module will examine global health trends and issues using a macro policy framework.
Significant challenges in the organisation of global health programmes and the complexities
involved in international cooperation will be analysed through selected case-studies. Topics on
current issues will include:- population health and development, role of international health
organizations, international aid and development assistance, emerging epidemics and disasters,
cross-border health issues, migration of health human resources (brain drain), international trade
in health services and the future of global health.
PP5267: Urban Transport Policy: A Global View-This course links public policy principles
with key contemporary urban transport choices. It aims to help students from diverse countries
become discerning consumers or supervisors (although not producers) of urban transport policy
analysis, with enough understanding to engage critically with technical analysts. A comparative
policy perspective and cases from a variety of situations (in terms of income, motorization, city
size, urban structure, institutions, etc.) help reveal both universal principles and a need for local
knowledge. Key sections include: 1) Introduction to fundamentals; 2) Supply and demand
choices regarding urban traffic; 3) Multimodal approaches; and 4) Links with urban planning.
PP5268 Institutional Design and Analysis-This course is designed to enable participants to
become familiar with the role of institutions in politics, economics and the law and to begin to
address the consequences of alternative institutional design. The course begins with a discussion
and development of the concept of “institutions” in law, economics and politics. These include
the notion of a market, developed, the concept of property, an institution that straddles law,
economics and politics, and political institutions such as voting systems and regime types.
Building on the concept of preferences in economics, we examine the concept of “social
welfare” often used to justify political action and the public choice alternative explanations
grounded in self-interest. These concepts are further developed in an examination of regulation.
The course concludes by examining the “big” picture institutional questions of democracy and
capitalism and reform.
PP5269 Environmental Economics and Public Policy-This module is based on the premise
that the sustainability of the natural environment is a necessity for the sustainability of the
economic system. Hence the module commences with how specific definitions and models in
economics need to be modified in cognizance of certain laws of thermodynamics. The module is
divided into four blocks. The first block concerns the introduction of pertinent concepts in
economics and their adaptation in the context of the relevant laws of thermodynamics The
second and third blocks deal with the application of the adaptations to policy issues respectively
at the microeconomic level and the macroeconomic level. The fourth block deals with the
synthesis between microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses and the synergy between
policies at the different levels
PP5270 Economic Policy in China-The purpose of this module is to examine the economic
policies that have promoted China’s growth and development during the reform era and to
consider the current policy challenges that now loom. Policy areas to be covered include
agriculture & rural development; population and employment; enterprise reform; financial sector
development; international trade; exchange rate & currency convertibility; public finance;
macroeconomic stabilisation; social equity & social security; and environment & sustainability.
PP5271 Political Risk Analysis-This course introduces students to the problem of political risk;
its causes, modes of articulation, measurement and analysis. Specifically, the course explores
political risk in terms of its impact on cross-border commercial transactions and foreign
investment, and analyses issues such as expropriation, nationalization, malfiescence, corruption,
regulatory risk, contract repudiation, investment guarantees, and political risk insurance. The
course begins with an examination of risk theory, surveys the theoretical literature on political
and country risk assessment techniques, and then surveys the various forms of political risk
through case examples. The course will use problem-based simulation exercises to introduce
students to political risk analysis.
PP5272 Energy Systems and Climate Policy-This module will provide a basic understanding
of various energy systems fuelling modern economic growth, and the growth potential and
environmental constraints for their increased utilization. Description of various power generation
systems and supply infrastructure will be provided in a way accessible to non-technical (science/
engineering) majors. For those with technical background, discussion on policy aspects of energy
production and consumption (economic, social, and political) will be more instructive. The
overall objective is to provide a broader understanding of various energy options available for
the future and their individual limitations.
PP5273 Political Islam and Governance-This module addresses the rise of political Islam and
Islamism, and its impact on governance in the contemporary Muslim world. It aims to deepen
our understanding regarding the inherent complexities of the Islamist movement and heighten
our awareness of this new global political and policy issue. The module begins with a brief
overview of rise of political Islam and Islamism and examines the potential reasons for its
success. We then examine the impact of political Islam on governance in various Muslim
countries. We will consider the different strategies embraced by states towards the Islamist
movement – ranging from total exclusion to full incorporation into the governance structures.
Finally, the module will consider the more transnational manifestations of these movements
including those which are clearly more militant and politically violent, and question the resulting
policy implications for the state.
PP5274 Financial Management for Policy Makers-This course equips students with the
fundamental concepts and techniques of financial management with a special focus on their
applications and implications for policy making and public management. The main topics
covered in this course include: Fundamental Concepts in Financial Management, which includes
Time Value of Money, Interest Rates and Bond Rating, Risk and Rates of Return, and Capital
Asset Pricing Model; Assessment of Business Performance Valuation of Bonds and Stocks;
Capital Budgeting; Derivatives and Risk Management; Mergers and Acquisitions; Investment
Strategy; Applications of financial management concepts and techniques to policy analysis and
PP5275 Central Banks and Economic Management-This course is aimed at providing an in-
depth understanding of how central banks in the region implement monetary policy and maintain
systemic financial stability. Particular attention will be paid to the instruments of monetary
policy, the monetary transmission process, inflation targeting frameworks, monetary
independence and transparency, the instruments to maintain systemic financial stability, and how
the growth of capital markets and globalisation are influencing central bank operations.
PP5276 Advanced Negotiation -This course builds on and expands the basic building blocks of
skills and art developed in their first negotiation course. This course is divided into two sections.
In the first section, students will be introduced to more advanced material relating to: (a) multi-
party negotiations; (b) three-dimensional negotiation; (c) international and global negotiations;
and (d) apparently intractable conflicts. These classes will occur over several weekends. In the
second part of the course, students will be expected to delve into one particular context
(regulatory, ethnic or identity-based, global treaty negotiations, etc…) of negotiation and/or
conflict resolution in much more detail, producing a significant paper and presenting their
findings to the class at the end of the semester.
PP5277 Singapore’s Development: A Comparative Analysis-This course analyzes
Singapore’s remarkable economic development experience and explores what other countries
might learn from it. Topics include economic and social outcomes, initial conditions, proximate
causes, and growth-enhancing policies, institutions, values, and political leadership. The class
will dissect the lecturer’s recent book on Singapore, derive general underlying principles, and
master operational concepts in a hands-on manner. In parallel with each week’s discussion of
Singapore, students will work independently on a paper, evaluating the economic development
experience of another country of their choice against the backdrop of Singapore’s case history.
PP5279 Clusters and National Competitiveness-This course explores the determinants of
national and regional competitiveness from a bottom-up, microeconomic perspective. The course
probes the ultimate determinants of a nation’s or region’s productivity, rooted in the strategies
and operating practices of locally-based firms, the vitality of clusters, and the quality of the
business environment in which competition takes place. The course examines both advanced and
developing economies and addresses the competitiveness of nations and particular clusters. It
also examines the role that economic coordination among neighboring countries plays in
competitiveness. The course is concerned not only with government policy but also with the
roles that firms, industry associations, universities, and other institutions play in competitiveness.
In modern international competition, each of these institutions has an important role that is
shifting. Moreover, the process of creating and sustaining an economic strategy for a nation or
region is a daunting challenge. The course explores not only theory and policy, but also the
organisational structures, institutional structures, and change processes required for sustained
improvements in competitiveness.
PP5280 Politics and Development: Approaches, Issues and Cases-The module provides and a
clear and comprehensive introduction to the main analytical approaches to the study of the
politics of the developing world and development. The module (i) outlines the difficulties in the
various analytical approaches to the study of development and location of the role of political
science to the field; (ii) gives a critical overview of each of the main schools of thought in the
development process; and (iii) introduces the key contemporary issue of democratisation to
illustrate how students can apply a framework for research and critically develop their own
PP5282 Macroeconomic Programming and Policies-Growth-oriented macroeconomic policy
programs can assist development. This module lays out the analytical framework, techniques and
choices that arise when designing and implementing such a program. Topics covered include: (i)
the key features of, and interrelations among, the national income, balance of payments, fiscal
and monetary accounts, and forecasting methods for these sectors; (ii) a diagnosis of the impact
of policies in these areas on output, the price level and the balance of payments; and (iii) the
preparation of a macroeconomic policy program. Lectures alternate with workshops in which
students evaluate macroeconomic developments and policy alternatives, apply forecasting
techniques in a hands-on manner using actual historic data, and formulate a coherent
macroeconomic program for an Asian country in 2002 as a case study. The course aims to help
students: (i) understand behavioural relations and accounting concepts and their interconnections
as a means for evaluating macroeconomic developments; (ii) master basic techniques for
constructing forecasts and preparing a quantified economic policy program; (iii) think creatively
about the complementarities and trade-offs facing policy makers in their pursuit of macro-
economic stability, economic growth and poverty alleviation; and (iv) appreciate the strengths
and limitations of the approach followed.
PP5285 State-Society Relations in Singapore-In 1991, Minister George Yeo famously declared
that the banyan tree needed pruning for the undergrowth to thrive: Singapore’s strong state,
deemed necessary for rapid post-colonial growth and development, had, it seemed, stunted the
growth of contemporary civil society. This module explores the evolving relationship between
state and society in a global city that appears to be liberalizing in some respects, and yet not
others. Students will acquire a conceptual vocabulary for thinking about the state, governance,
democracy, and civil society, through which case studies on issues including gender, class,
welfare, the arts, and public morality can be discussed critically.
PP5286 Comparative Public Management Reform-Public management reform is important to
ensure effective governance, better delivery of public services, and successful implementation of
public policies. In practice, governments around the world continuously strive to improve its
governance by incorporating different reform approaches that are based on values such as
efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability, and participation. Different governments’
experiences are great learning platforms to understand and overcome problems related to
managerial reform. The knowledge of surrounding theoretical debates concerning reform and the
skills to do comparative analyses of the different approaches are vital for public administrators
and policy-makers who are or could be leading reformers in governments around the world.
PP5288 Labour Market Policy Issues-This course provides an understanding of how the labour
market works using the tools of economic analysis. It will examine how public policy and
institutions forces shape the arrangements, terms and conditions under which individuals supply
and firms demand labor. The module will highlight important trends and developments in the
world of work and examine contemporary labour market issues. Major topics covered include
labour force participation/nonparticipation, implications of income security programmes and
minimum wages, education and training policies, the impact of immigration and emigration,
labour market effects of trade unions, linkages between productivity and pay systems and the
labour markets challenges arising from globalisation.
PP5289 Women, Leadership and Public Policy-This module explores the issue of gender as it
pertains to politics and public policy. Students will learn to identify and analyze the gendered
social construction of politics and public policies. The course will also increase the
understanding of the different roles that women play in the political/public sphere. The role of
women’s political leadership will also be examined. Upon completion of the course, students
will also be proficient in at least one area of public policy important to women.
PP5312 Public Financial Management-Knowledge of a public institution's financial operations
is crucial to understanding the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. PP5290
Policymaking in China: Structure and Process-This course is designed for students who
desire to have in-depth knowledge about China’s policymaking structure and process. The course
will examine how the policymaking process is structured, what are the internal dynamics, and
how they impact on policy outcomes, given the China’s political system. The aim is to provide
students with a clear understanding that policymaking in China, as in the other politics, is
essentially a process of compromise making, in which the actors (policy makers) make decisions
according to not just their interests but also their structural positions and the procedures they
have to follow in policymaking.
PP5291 Security in Asia-Pacific-This course examines the key security issues in the Asia-
Pacific region. The principal questions include: the tension between the two Koreas, the nuclear
issue and its impact, the tension between Mainland China and Taiwan, the policies and
interactions of the United States, China and other powers in the region, and the future prospect of
the reunifications of the two Koreas and China/Taiwan. It will enhance students’ research and
analytical ability and deepen their knowledge on Asia-Pacific affairs generally. It also aims at
helping students to gain insights into how security policies are produced and implemented.
PP5292 The EU and Regional Economic Integration-Using the European Union as an
example, we will study the opportunities and challenges posed by regional (economic)
integration. In particular, we examine the EU’s institutional setup, its core policies, and its place
on the international stage as the largest common market in the world, and what lessons can be
drawn for Asia and other world regions pondering closer integration.
PP5293 Ruling the Net: IT and Policy Making-Digital information and communication
technologies have brought about the reshaping of entire business sectors, organizations rethink
their structures, and politics seem to be altered by the rise of the global Internet; Policymakers
face challenges for which conventional regulatory mechanisms are inappropriate. In this course
we aim to understand the fundamental changes that are taking place, and develop suitable policy
PP5294 Dynamic Modelling of Public Policy Systems-This module covers the methods and
underlying philosophy of system dynamics and its application to problems relevant to public
policy. Students will also learn STELLA software and build models for understanding and
improving behaviour of complex systems. The module will draw many examples from
demographics, economic growth, water and natural resources management, and environmental
systems. The objective, however, is not to learn just the software but to learn a new method for
thinking and solving complex problems.
Developed by Prof. Jay Forrester in the 1960s and popularized by the Club of Rome’s Limits to
Growth in the 1970s, system dynamics is already popular in some universities’ curricula. This
module will use the generality and flexibility of system dynamics tools to build and study models
that are of interest to public policy. Special emphasis will be provided for understanding the
interaction of water, energy and food policies.
PP5311 Globalisation and Public Policy-The module analyses how globalisation affects and is
affected by domestic public policy. The objective of the module is to understand the
opportunities that global structures and processes make available to national policy makers as
well as the constraints they impose. Topics to be covered include international investment,
production, trade, security and global governance. Students will be introduced to both theoretical
and empirical materials on the covered topics.