2010




   TRAINING IN PUBLIC
   POLICY AND
   MANAGEMENT-AN
   OVERVIEW



  By-Yatendra Kumar. The analysis is purely i...
INDEX




Sl.No.   Topic                                          Page No.
1        Introduction                          ...
INTRODUCTION


1. Public Policy: Policy formulation is a multifaceted process with an intricate association of
numerous co...
-   UNDP was expressing concerns and reluctance in funding such type of long
           term training programs.
       -  ...
Relevant information on year of commencement of programme, duration, number of
courses conducted and number of participant...
MDI Gurgaon               PGD in Public Policy and       2006               2006-07          19
                          ...
generally have higher revenue-generation potential, there is an opportunity cost in running these
programmes. Revenue defi...
associations with State Governments
and Central Ministries for conduting
studies and research.

Alt-III                   ...
2.8 Cross Subsidisation of the programme cost: Public Policy courses at IIMs/MDI/TERI are also
open to those working in pr...
Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 7 courses.




(ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-
...
B. PGD in Public Management and Policy,IIM Ahmedabad
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses ( including the c...
(ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-




(iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) s...
C. MA in Public Policy and Sustainable Development:-
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses( 2009 course not ...
Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses.




(ii)Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-

...
(i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses (2009 course not yet started) run by
MDI, Gurgaon.




Total % share o...
(ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:-




(iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) s...
Name of          Course offered                      Major Recommendations
Institution/Org
   anisation

IIM, Bangalore   ...
TERI /TERI   MA in Public   > TERI should be developed as an important resource
University   Policy and       centre for p...
IIM Ahmadabad        PGD in        > Further continuation of this programme provided the number
                     Publi...
programme. Therefore, either the course fee may be up-scaled or provision may be kept
        for block grant. Failure to ...
governance. The terms of partnership may be further extended for
                         supporting research in three to ...
Sl.     Service/Category                                  Utility
No.
                                          Immediate/...
5.3. Suggested funding pattern:-
      There could be various alternatives for funding the domestic and international comp...
Service                           Funding agency for domestic        Funding agency for
                                  ...
5.5 The ideal course duration :-
The programmes are suitable for midcareer civil servants who are on the threshold of assu...
point of the Convention:-
  (i)      Evolving a common basic core
           curriculum for all the four courses.
  (ii)  ...
IIM,
Ahmedaba
d
Programme
Advisory
Committee(
PAC) for
providing
guidance
and advise
on matters
concerning
the
programme
....
Mechanism for obtaining feedback from the participants

Current Status                                Suggested arrangemen...
5.7. Extension of period of Central deputation:-For the officers working under Central Staffing
Scheme , one year training...
6. Comparative Curriculum of the PGP in IIMA, IIMB, TERI and MDI Gurgaon



Name of        Indian Institute of Management,...
Areas

Courses



Business Policy

Competitive Strategies

Management
Communications-I
Management
Communications-II

Strat...
Name of        Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore
Institution:
Course         Post Graduate Programme in Public pol...
content   1st Semester
               - 5 core courses of 4 credits each (18 weeks)
          Summer semester
            ...
Name of         Management Development Institute, Gurgaon
Institution:
Course          Post Graduate Diploma Programme in ...
•     10) Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University
   •     10) Harris School of Public P...
•    School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University
    •    School of Government, Peking University

Colombi...
Philippines

   •     Ateneo School of Government at the Ateneo de Manila University
   •     National College of Public A...
•  Decision Making Under Uncertainty
   •  Cost Benefit Analysis
   •  Strategic Planning
Technology & Management
   • Inf...
•   Dissertation
    •   Plus two and a half units from the MPA options list below




8.3 Goldman School of Public Policy...
individuals or in small groups, on real policy problems for real “clients” under close faculty
supervision.

More specific...
Elective Course                                  PP299
                                                 Advanced     Polic...
Decision Analysis, Modeling, and Quantitative Methods (PP240A-240B)

Students learn and apply quantitative methods includi...
and to mobilize necessary energy and resources to solve or ameliorate them. The course is also
designed to help students d...
   Re-examining the Property Tax reassessment for Commercial Properties
   Children of Arrested Parents: Strategies to E...
   School of Public Health: New Boundaries for Health Policy and Planning; Legislation and
    Organization for Health an...
within and outside of an organization, monitor and fine tune innovative policy solutions, and
provide the transformational...
topics and related methods in their chosen PAC. Beyond these electives, the choice of courses
is entirely up to the indivi...
Methodological Areas at HKS
The HKS curriculum is built around the concept that future leaders and policy makers need to b...
Electives and Specialized Fields of Concentration

Students will be given the opportunity to develop substantive knowledge...
8.5 Stony Brooke University-
The program's core required courses teach skills in political, economic, quantitative and
org...
Data applications in Public Policy
Survey Research for Public Policy
Possible Concentrations (3 credits each):
Regional Pl...
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  1. 1. 2010 TRAINING IN PUBLIC POLICY AND MANAGEMENT-AN OVERVIEW By-Yatendra Kumar. The analysis is purely in personal capacity and does not reflect views of the Government
  2. 2. INDEX Sl.No. Topic Page No. 1 Introduction 2 2 Expansion of Public Policy Training 3-7 Programmes in India 3 Participant profile and relevance of the 7-14 programmes 4 Findings of the review/evaluation 15-17 committees:- 5 Way forward 17-26 6 Comparative curriculum of PG Programmes in 26-32 IIMB, IIMA, TERI and MDI Gurgaon 7 Top Programmes in US and other Countries 33-35 8 Curriculum of some well known Public Policy 36-72 Programmes 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 1. Public Policy: Policy formulation is a multifaceted process with an intricate association of numerous competing and collaborating groups which influence policy makers for advancing their aims and objectives. Sound research and data can be used to educate the public as well as policy makers for shielding against undue influences and thereby improving the public policy process. This may not be feasible in absence of an institutionalised mechanism. The dynamics of globalization and pressures for reforms have further created a demand for specialised Public Policy courses. Over the past 30 years or more there was rapid expansion of MBA programs, now, globally there is an equivalent increase of public policy programs. This is addressing the growing demand for training mid-career and senior Civil Servants in policy formulation and management principles. Indeed, Public Policy has emerged as one of the key areas in leading academic Institutions. 1.1 International scenario:- China have embarked upon a major initiative in the area of in Public Policy training. In fact, initiatives taken by China are rooted in a long term vision. A major program for local government officials has also been launched in collaboration with the State Council’s Development Research Center and the School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing. London School of Economics, with its global partners- Columbia University, New York, Sciences Po, Paris and Peking University, Beijing has launched an annual Executive Public Policy Training Programme (EPPTP) in Beijing. The area of Public Policy has also commanded attention of other Asian countries like Singapore and Malaysia. In fact, Lee Kaun Yew School of Public Policy (Singapore) established in 2004 has emerged as a premier Institution of Public Policy in Asia. Besides, there are world class Institutions of Public Policy in Australia- New Zealand, South Korea, US, Germany, Israel, and UK. Dubai Government has also established Dubai School of Government (DSG) in 2005 under in cooperation with the Harvard Kennedy School. DSG aims to promote good governance through enhancing the region’s capacity for effective public policy.. 1.2 Genesis of Public Policy Programmes in India:- - Under the Mason Programme, every year 4 to 5 government officers were trained in Public Administration and Public Policy at Harvard University. 3
  4. 4. - UNDP was expressing concerns and reluctance in funding such type of long term training programs. - Considering the usefulness of Mason programme and funding constraints from UNDP, need was felt to internalize Mason Programme in an appropriate Institution in India. Idea was afloat for building our Training Institutions for regular in service training for middle level officers. The essence was to put together a training programme suitably adapted to conditions at home and to reach out to a larger target group. It was also felt that with the same amount of UNDP grant, large number of officers could be trained in a course which is suitable to our requirement. - The concept of setting up of an Executive Centre was first floated in 1992 through a joint GoI –UNDP Training Needs Analysis conducted for a limited segment of higher Civil Service (Central Staffing Scheme and IAS officers in few State Governments). The Centre was envisaged as an autonomous body that could create synergy between management development and research and to develop a critical mass of faculty. This concept was revived in 1994/95 and a working group was set up for this purpose. In its report, the group shortlisted IIM, Bangalore for running a programme similar to the Mason Programme.. The group suggested that participants should be officers from IAS/allied Central Services and corresponding State Services. - The efforts of GoI resulted in setting up a Centre for Public Policy at IIM, Bangalore for:- o Conducting training programmes in public policy. o Carrying out research and consultancy. o Conducting workshops, seminars and other training programmes. 2. Expansion of Training Programmes in India. Training Division, Department of Personnel and Training is sponsoring candidates for the following programmes in Public Policy:- 1. PGD in Public Policy and Management, IIM, Bangalore. 2. PGD in Public Management and Policy, IIM Ahmedabad. 3. PGD in Public Policy and Management, MDI Gurgaon. 4. MA in Public Policy and Sustainable Development, TERI, University The programmes at IIMs and MDI are quite similar in nature with focus on Public policy and core management principles. The programme at TERI University is more specialized in the area of environment and sustainable development. 4
  5. 5. Relevant information on year of commencement of programme, duration, number of courses conducted and number of participants trained is given in the Table below:- Name of Institution/ Course offered Year of Number of Organisation commenceme Participants nt ( Course wise) IIM, Bangalore PGD in Public Policy and 2002 2002-03 26 Management 2003-04 30 2004-05 33 2005-06 31 2006-07 28 2007-08 26 2008-09 29 2009-10 15 26 2010-2011 5
  6. 6. MDI Gurgaon PGD in Public Policy and 2006 2006-07 19 Management 2007-08 15 2008-09 22 2009-10 10 TERI /TERI University MA in Public Policy and 2006 2006-07 14 Sustainable Development 2007-08 21 2008-09 11 *2009-10 * IIM Ahmedabad PGD in Public 2007 2007-08 10 Management and Policy 2008-09 20 2009-10 19 *-Programme not conducted. 2.1 Concerns Though the programmes have been successful in creating domain knowledge and competencies in public policy, lower representation of officers from desired streams has been of considerable concern. Certain changes are necessary for facilitating a higher participation of officers who could bring more value addition to the policy processes. The participation of IAS officers and those directly associated with policy formulation has been on decline. The programme design needs to be revisited for attracting the right kind of clientele. The selection process may need some modifications for synchronizing it with the overall programme objectives. We need to build in safeguards so that a cohort from a particular stream like engineering should not crowd out the others. The programme should focus on the broad rubrics of public policy like social sector, public accountability, transparency, sustainable development, etc. There is a need for diversification of the content in public policy for addressing the emerging areas of concern. 2.2 Need for training in public policy and role of government:- Changing scenario at global and national level mandate innovative and socially relevant approach to public policy. Unlike the past, the Civil servants need appropriate skills to function in an information society. Therefore, we need specialized training with a spotlight on governance, policy formulation and public enterprise management. 2.3 Nurturing Public Policy training programmes:-Absence of experience and resources in Government Training Institutions necessitated introduction of specialized programmes in Public Policy. The partnership with IIM, Bangalore was for setting up a Centre for Public Policy , the association with other Institutions, viz, MDI, Gurgaon; TERI, Delhi and IIM, Ahmedabad is limited to sponsorship of the participants. Other than IIM, Bangalore, no assistance has been provided in terms of infrastructure to any other training institution. Needless to mention that the Government and organized state institutions comprise the major catchment for public policy programmes. Compared to the regular management courses, revenue-generating potential of Public Policy programmes is limited. As competing programmes using similar resources 6
  7. 7. generally have higher revenue-generation potential, there is an opportunity cost in running these programmes. Revenue deficit programmes cannot be sustained without proactive intervention. The Public Policy and Management courses are specialised programmes and the Institutions running these courses invest in developing faculty positions. Further, there is a value addition with each programme, especially when it is a new area of training and research. The momentum gained by the initial success of Public Policy training programmes needs to be continued. A mutually beneficial partnership with the premier institutions is in the overall interest of all the stake holders. Most of the leading institutions in Public Policy globally have achieved international acclaim as a result of government support at initial stages. 2.4 Rationale of having a partnership with Management Institutions for running Public Policy Programmes: - Prior to commencement of Public Policy and Management programmes, thrust of the Management institutions was on Business Management. Though the premier institutions like IIM and MDI have a mandate for developing human resource in “management”, the focus remained skewed. It could be corrected by incentivizing the public policy programmes. This could leverage the strengths of management institutions. 2.5 Models of partnership:- We need to evolve a mutually acceptable framework of a long-term partnership with Management Institutions. This is essential for sustaining stake holders interest in public policy training programmes. Some of the alternatives which could be examined are listed below: Alternatives Implications/outcomes Alt-I This approach may be administratively convenient, commensurate benefits and. One time grant for setting up Centres of Public Policy followed by Quality of training programmes could largely depend on limited assistance for course fee the initiatives of the Centres/Institutes. every year. With initial investment converted as sunk cost, government could be tempted to continue the programmes which, in some cases, may be at the cost of the quality of inputs. Alt-II More flexibility in conducting training programmes within the overall framework of the MoU. Long term MoU with a commitment to provide realistic if not generous Government could have more occasion for positive support to public policy training influence on the training programmes. programmes by bearing the expenses/course fee of the It is healthier to reward high quality by periodic participants. reviews of the programmes. Encourage the institutions to capture open market candidates including PSUs. Financially viable 7
  8. 8. associations with State Governments and Central Ministries for conduting studies and research. Alt-III Absence of realistic financial model could fail to attract the apex Management Institutions ehich Government only encourages the work on a self sustainable model . participants to attend the training without any financial support. Even if the government is able to impress upon the apex institutes to play a role in public policy training, the quality of programmes may remain average. This could effectively defeat the purpose of having public policy training programme in the first place. The Alt-II above leads to a fine balance between the social responsibility of management institutions and requirement of the government. This also makes the programme more sustainable. 2.6. Balance between Public Policy and Management: - Public policy processes are not applied in isolation. Fine blending of policy process and management principles is critical to formulation of effectual programmes and policies. In fact, all the major Institutions in US/UK/China/South Korea/Australia are offering executive development courses covering both, Public Policy and Management principles. Diluting any of the two components may constrict the utility, effectiveness and appeal of the course. However, we may ensure that the balance is tilted more towards Public Policy And the curricula covers a range of public policy issues, including analytical skills in planning and implementing public economic policy. 2.7. Cost of the Programme- The first programme of this kind was started in IIM Bangalore in 2002 by setting up a Centre for Public Policy as an outcome of UNDP Scheme. Infrastructure and other capital costs for this programme were borne out of GoI budget and UNDP grant. The running cost was met by tuition/course fee. The course fee for 30 participants was suggested as:- In country training fee for 30 participants $ 160,000.00 Overseas Module- Course fee $ 54,000.00 Travel expenses and living charges $ 208,210.00 Total $ 422,210.00 Cost-Benefit:-If we compare the cost of PGP PPM at Bangalore and similar programme under Mason at Harvard, the cost per participant is about one fourth. 8
  9. 9. 2.8 Cross Subsidisation of the programme cost: Public Policy courses at IIMs/MDI/TERI are also open to those working in private sector/ public sector/NGOs and have requisite qualification. This opens the possibility of spreading the programme cost to a larger group of participants and thereby rationalize the course fee. Some of the areas covered in Public Policy and Management programme are also relevant to other coexisting courses. This also helps in rationalising the course fee. 3. Participant profile and relevance of the programmes:-. To a large extent, job outline of the participants has a bearing on the outcome of the specialized programmes . The following points are broadly indicative of the utility of PMP/PPM programmes to different sets of officers:- ≈ Category-I: Those working in Ministries under the Central Staffing scheme, derive maximum benefit out of such programmes. ≈ Category-II: Officers who are subsequently posted in the Ministries are in position to use the training inputs in policy making at a latter stage. ≈ Category-III: Those who may not work in the Ministries, could still be benefitted in the area of policy implementation/evaluation and management skills. The broad structure of such training programmes is rooted in “policy issues” and “management principles” . The richness and diversity of the curriculum makes it relevant for all the officers. However, the government could derive maximum benefit by sponsoring the first two categories. 3.1. Trends in participants profile:-We may analyse the participants mix for appreciating the demand of the course by various categories. The graphs below are indicative of trends in participants mix :-. A. PGD in Public Policy and Management,IIM Bangalore:- (i) Cumulative number of participants for 7 courses (excluding the current course of 2009) run by IIM, Bangalore. 9
  10. 10. Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 7 courses. (ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:- (iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream:- 10
  11. 11. B. PGD in Public Management and Policy,IIM Ahmedabad (i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses ( including the current course of 2009) run by IIM, Ahmedabad. Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses. 11
  12. 12. (ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:- (iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream:- 12
  13. 13. C. MA in Public Policy and Sustainable Development:- (i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses( 2009 course not yet started) run by, TERI. 13
  14. 14. Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses. (ii)Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:- (iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream:- D. PGD in Public Policy and Management, MDI Gurgaon:- 14
  15. 15. (i) Cumulative number of participants for 3 courses (2009 course not yet started) run by MDI, Gurgaon. Total % share of IAS, Engineering and others for 3 courses. 15
  16. 16. (ii) Participation of IAS Officers in different courses:- (iii) Percentage of officers from technical ( engineering) stream in MDI:- As could appear, there has been steady rise number of participants from technical streams. Further, participation of IAS officers has been on decline. Though the programmes have a wide coverage in terms of utility, precipitous decrease in the participants from IAS and other services, which are vital players in policy processes, has necessitated a rethinking of eligibility criteria. 4. Findings of the review/evaluation committees:- Initially a review was taken up for IIM, Bangalore. Later, a comprehensive review was also commissioned for the programmes at IIM (Ahmedabad), MDI Gurgaon and TERI. The reviews were basically to identify critical gaps and usefulness of the programmes. The Table below highlights some of the vital recommendations:- 16
  17. 17. Name of Course offered Major Recommendations Institution/Org anisation IIM, Bangalore PGD in Public > Setting up of Centre for Public Policy (CPP) at IIM- Policy and Bangalore was a bold and imaginative initiative Management towards enhancement of public policy training capacity in India. ( Centre for Public > The five-year-old CPP has succeeded in creating the Policy) basic edifice for a teaching-cum-research-cum-training institution, which has the promise of becoming a public think tank in due course of time. > The CPP has already come up as a strong centre for public policy debate and if adequately nursed, has the potential for expanding the network of its activities. > The teaching and training components have already gained sufficient strength and recognition even while continuous improvements are sought to be effected, almost on a year-to-year basis. The success of CPP experiment at IIM Bangalore has triggered the process of establishing a few more institutes/centres elsewhere in the country. MDI Gurgaon PGD in Public > “MDI is running an excellent course: at least that is Policy and what I found from my interactions with the participants Management of current and previous batches” > The current batch was confident that the course could benefit them. > There is certainly a need for a detailed review of the Course as well as to bring about a common core in similar courses conducted in other institutes by DoPT. > “Among the more important issues to be addressed are those of suitable placement for participants after the Course, improvement in food and recreation facility and review of the fee being paid so as to eliminate any feeling of disparity between the institutions”. > The course may be continued for another three years and a review under taken at that stage. 17
  18. 18. TERI /TERI MA in Public > TERI should be developed as an important resource University Policy and centre for public policy in the area of natural resource Sustainable management and environment. The present Development programme in Master of Arts in Public policy and Sustainable development should continue . > The present level of enrolment is sub-optimal. It should be increased by giving wider publicity among specific groups of civil servants such as the IFS as well as personnel in Pollution Control Boards, environmental NGO’s, etc. > TERI must provide residential accommodation including family accommodation to outstation participants. > Syllabus should be under continuous review from the view point of relevancy and significance to students of public policy and sustainable development. > The second year of the programme which is spent off- campus should be better structured. As participants cannot be spared from their duties for two consecutive years, this year could be There is a need for flexible structuring of this part of the programme so that those who have not read specific subjects are given basic grounding to enable them to follow the course better, while those who are proficient are offered other courses to fruitfully utilize their time. > A module on administrative law, while it is useful to civil servants, has little relevance to a programme of this nature. On the other hand, it could be useful to have a course on communications. > Foreign training should be limited to one university as the duration is only six weeks. 18
  19. 19. IIM Ahmadabad PGD in > Further continuation of this programme provided the number Public of sponsored seats remain same to maintain the quality and in Management the interest of economy. and Policy > Duration of the programme is optimal and does not require any change. > Participants may be taken to one or two short field visits which may provide a first-hand experience of current happenings in the field as also a practical exposure to what is being taught in the class rooms. > To adopt the cost plus principle bearing in mind IIMA also carries a social mandate 4.1 Summary of the conclusions arrived at by the review Committees.  Participants have derived benefit from the training programmes.  Further continuation of the Programmes. However, there is a need to review the curriculum.  The duration of programmes is optimal and there is no need for any change.  More emphasis is required on practical exposure.  The training programmes should also cover India specific case studies.  International attachment should remain as integral part of the programme.  A good family residential accommodation is essential for such programmes. 4.2 Concerns of the Institutes:-  The course fee for the initial courses was kept low as the programme was promotional in nature. The existing fee pattern is not reflective of the resources deployed for the programme. As a matter of policy, the Management Institutions has gradually shifted towards self financing mode. This has mandated revision of fee for the public policy programmes.  Some of the inputs provided in PGP, PMP are at par with those provided in the Phase-V Programme.  The PG Programmes have been quite successful and we need to take the initiative forward. The Government should invest in building capacity of Institutions within the country. This is also essential for sustained delivery of high quality programmes adapted to local conditions. With the current fee structure it could be difficult to continue the 19
  20. 20. programme. Therefore, either the course fee may be up-scaled or provision may be kept for block grant. Failure to find a financially viable model may result in the programmes getting aborted. 5. Way forward:- 5.1 Long term vision and strategy in Public Policy Training: Complexities in socio-economic aspirations and changing political landscape necessitate a paradigm shift in public policy processes. This requires an astute understanding of complexities in multi-sectoral linkages. A good policy design not only hinges on the skills and expertise but also on the collaboration and receptivity of the major players. For this, Public policy schools should serve as a platform for cross-fertilizing ideas and thoughts of all the stake holders. There is also a need for periodic reviews of the programme structure. A mutually beneficial partnership with training institutions should be the focal point of our long-term vision. We should encourage the public policy schools to emerge as think tanks and centres of excellence with a global outlook. The centres should not only play a leading role in building public policy management capability but also produce research that directly contributes to the pressing policy debates in the country. For this, we should encourage institutions to develop praxis oriented approach by active collaboration with Central Ministries and the State Governments. The institutions should also strive for inter- sectoral and multi level collaboration and partnerships for bringing a deeper insight into policy issues. Constitution of Thematic Public Policy Groups with area experts, professionals, public institutions and government agencies should be an integral part of our long term strategy. The policy Groups could analyze and devise thematic policy solutions across a range of issues --economics, security, health, poverty alleviation, infrastructure, environment, governance, and technology among others. They may organise seminars and public events, publish articles and information material, and often communicate actively modern networking tools. Public Policy programmes run by Indian institutions/centres should be capable of attracting international faculty and participants. Each Institution should focus on the following:-  Research in Public Policy and building a brand image :-There is a need to develop strong linkages between policy making and research outcomes. Besides yielding rich inputs and monographs, it could also provide recognition and add value to the research efforts in Public Policy. In the long run, the programme will get enriched and develop a brand image. Towards this end, the Government may keep a budgetary provision for funding the research efforts of partner institutions.  Core areas of specialization:-In the current setting, each of the partner- Institutions is following its syllabus. In addition to the compulsory inputs, wide choice of electives on different thrust areas of governance is also available to the participants. The institutions have also developed expertise in three to four identified sectors. However, due to limited resources, the existing arrangement is not geared to achieve the depth and insight required for building specialized knowledge in all the thrust areas of 20
  21. 21. governance. The terms of partnership may be further extended for supporting research in three to four core areas in each Institution.  Sharing of resources and knowledge: The participants may be encouraged to opt for the elective courses cutting across institutional barriers. We may encourage seamless sharing of resources for fulfilling the larger objective of developing proficiency in thrust areas of governance.  Attracting managers of public enterprises, NGOs; and executives of private sector firms engaged in public management for making the training programme more broad based and financially sustainable.  Building synergy between Ministries and Public Policy Institutions for developing training modules on policy formulation in the priority areas. 5.2. Revisiting the intake criteria/eligibility:- As per our existing terms and conditions, the programmes are open to officers of AIS, Central Services-organised and non organised, technical and non technical, faculty members of State ATIs and members of State Civil Services. Minimum service requirement for Group-A service is 7 years, whereas for State Civil Services it is 9 years. Officers attending the training are required to execute bond for a period of 5 years, failing which the officer has to pay all charges and expenses. Over the years, the programmes on Public Policy have attracted a much wider spectrum of services. Representation of Central Services has also increased. There has been a steady rise in number of participants from Technical stream. Central Services have a reasonably good share in different Ministries of Government of India under Central Staffing Scheme. Besides the Civil Services, Technical services like Central Engineering Service, Railway Engineering Service, etc. are also eligible for Central Staffing Scheme. The matrix below gives a broad classification in terms of relevance of the course for various services:- 21
  22. 22. Sl. Service/Category Utility No. Immediate/ Short Long -term term Policy Managem Policy Managemen Tools ent Tools t principles Principles 1 IAS /State Civil     Services/faculty in State ATIs 2 Civil Services other than     IAS 3 Engineering Services   (purely technical) services) when confined to parent department 4 Engineering Services    (purely technical services) Who may also be ,in future, posted under central staffing scheme 5 Engineering services   officers who are likely to be confined in PSUs- example ITS Though such programmes have a wide coverage in terms of utility, precipitous decrease in participants from IAS and other services has been a cause of concern. A revised criteria for eligibility as sponsored candidate may addresses some of the concerns related to relevance of programme and participants profile. While there is a need to keep the programme more broad based with healthy mix of participants, this should not place undue financial implication on the government. We may limit the sponsorship to the following officers/services below:- A. Officers of Indian Administrative Service when working under a State Govt with minimum of 7 years of service in IAS B. Officers of Indian Administrative who are on deputation as Director / Deputy Secretary with two years tenure in Central Staffing Scheme before commencement of the training programme. C. State Civil Service Officers and faculty in ATI with minimum 9 years of service in Group-A post(s). D. Officers of Group-A Central Services/ Indian Police Service/ Indian Forest Service when not under Central Staffing Scheme. with minimum 7 years of service in IPS/IFS/Group-A as the case may be. E. Officers of Gr-A Central Services/ Indian Police Service/ Indian Forest Service when under Central Staffing Scheme with two years tenure in Central Staffing Scheme before commencement of the training programme. 22
  23. 23. 5.3. Suggested funding pattern:- There could be various alternatives for funding the domestic and international component of the Course, some of them are listed below Sl.No. Options Implications/advantages/disadvantages 1 The entire cost to be Though it may result in better control over the borne by DoPT programme, it could result in enhancement of Budget Provision. 2 The entire cost may be It may result in inequitable representation from sponsored by respective some Cadres (CCAs) CCAs. 3 Domestic component is This pattern is followed in APPA programme for met by DoPT and foreign the reason that it suits the operational mechanism of component is met by providing maintenance grant to APPA. CCAs. The disadvantage of this option is that it could require a separate budget head or substantial enhancement of existing Budget 4 Foreign component is met This option could lead to least difficulties in terms by DoPT and domestic of DoPT’s budget. component is met by CCAs. The cost of foreign component could be met out of annual provisions DoPT is getting under the scheme of funding of foreign training. At present the following funding pattern is in vogue:- A. Cost of domestic component to be borne by CCAs B. Cost of external(foreign ) component to be borne by DoPT. For IAS Officers, DoPT meets the cost of both foreign and domestic component Suggested funding pattern:- . Funding pattern and course fee:-. The programme has a cost for both domestic and international components. The duration of training is treated on duty and the participants are eligible for salary and other allowances. The sponsoring authorities/CCAs absorb a substantial financial burden on this account. To maintain a reasonable balance, the course expenditure may be shared by the sponsoring authority/CCAs and DoPT. Accordingly, the following formulation is suggested:- 23
  24. 24. Service Funding agency for domestic Funding agency for fee international component All India Services For IAS-DoPT, Under DFFT scheme For IPS-MHA operated by DoPT. For IFS-MOEF Group-A Central Services Cadre Controlling Authority/Sponsoring agency SCS Officers and faculty of DoPT ATI, Faculty of CTIs, Cadre Controlling Authority It is also suggested that for the officers are on deputation to a PSU, the entire cost of training (including the international attachment) should be borne by the concerned undertaking. The applications of such participants should be accepted by the institution concerned only when a commitment has been made by the PSU for bearing the entire course fee. 5.4. The duration of the course:- Current status-The table below shows the programme duration at IIM(B),IIM(A),MDI and TERI:- Name of Course offered Duration of course Institution/Organisation IIM, Bangalore PGD in Public 2 years( one year at the Institution and balance Policy and period at respective workplace) Management MDI Gurgaon PGD in Public One year at the Institute followed by three Policy and months at the work place for taking up Management dissertation. TERI /TERI University MA in Public 2 years( one year at the Institution and balance Policy and period at respective workplace) Sustainable Development IIM Ahmedabad PGD in Public One year Management and Policy 24
  25. 25. 5.5 The ideal course duration :- The programmes are suitable for midcareer civil servants who are on the threshold of assuming the role of policy makers. The programmes have a wide and exhaustive curriculum and the participants are expected to understand and apply relevant concepts; develop skills to define and resolve issues in public policy and management; and construct concepts by blending theory and practice. As the programme needs rigorous inputs, the total duration of the course at the Institute could be one year. This may be followed by upto 12 months for dissertation /project work which could be undertaken at the respective work places (place of posting). However, after reporting back, at the conclusion of campus based training, the officers may be required to make two to three visits to the Training Institution for completing the dissertation work. The Cadre Controlling authorities/sponsoring authorities may permit the participants to undertake upto three visits to the Training Institute in the second year. The cumulative duration of these visits may be for two to three weeks. 5.6 Need for review and feedback:-. Current Status Suggested arrangement As per the previous MoUs, the following We may continue to have in house arrangement was in place for review of the arrangements like PAC and PCC with course- representation from Training Division for respective Institutions . We may also consider evolving a formal institutional arrangement for overall coordination of the programmes/courses in the domain of Public Policy. DoPT may sponsor and play a nodal role in the suggested arrangement. For this we may have biennial review meetings with Directors/Programme coordinators of four Institutions. The review meetings may be chaired by Secretary(P). The mandate of such reviews could be to have a shared policy goals and reaffirm whether the programmes are headed in right direction. Besides, there may be annual conference . DoPT may spearhead the annual conference by active partnership with Management Institutions/TERI. The conference may be held by rotation in each of the participating institutions. The following areas may be focal 25
  26. 26. point of the Convention:- (i) Evolving a common basic core curriculum for all the four courses. (ii) Sharing of resources in the area of Public Policy. (iii) Sharing of ideas and innovations pertaining to the curriculum. (iv) Sharing of best practices in Public Policy. (v) Sharing of international experience and knowledge on reforms and trends in public policy. (vi) Networking with various Departments of GoI and State Governments for playing an advisory role in new policy initiatives and reforms. (vii) Measures for constant improvement in the course content. (viii) Create synergy for converting these institutions as Centres of excellence in Public Policy and research. 26
  27. 27. IIM, Ahmedaba d Programme Advisory Committee( PAC) for providing guidance and advise on matters concerning the programme . IIM Ahmedaba d shall provide an annual report to the advisory committee. Executive Committee administers the programme and also has responsibili ty covering programme design, execution, admission and related matters. Both these committees have representat ion of 27
  28. 28. Mechanism for obtaining feedback from the participants Current Status Suggested arrangement At present, respective Institutions are DoPT may obtain online feedback from the obtaining feedback on course content. There participants at three stages of the course, viz,- is no structured mechanism for obtaining feedback . A. At the time of commencement of the Course. This could focus on the expectations of the participants from the course. B. After first semester/middle of first year. This could focus on the content and delivery with suggestions for improvement. C. After completion of the course. This could be a comprehensive review of the course. Training Division may obtain this feedback online. Following protocol may be followed for sharing of feedback- a. Full content of the feedback obtained at the beginning of the course. b. Suggestions for improvement as obtained during the course. c. Final feedback could be used for review of the course after completion of term of MoU which could be three years. Crucial inputs on essential changes suggested by the participants could also be made available to the Institutes for providing necessary guidance. Draft format has already been prepared. 28
  29. 29. 5.7. Extension of period of Central deputation:-For the officers working under Central Staffing Scheme , one year training period may not be counted against total tenure under Central Deputation. Such officers may be automatically eligible for one-year extension. This could allow a reasonable term in central deputation after one year’s training. A good number of officers from Central Staffing Scheme also join the above programmes; this is however after completing two (2) years at the Centre. At present, other than APPA course at IIPA, the duration/period of training is counted within the tenure of central deputation, this effectively results in curtailed tenure in Central Ministry. Barring APPA course at IIPA, the officers joining Public Policy Programmes are not given an additional matching tenure in the Central Staffing Scheme. Training Division has, in the past, requested similar arrangement for the other four Programmes. In this connection, it is felt that, if the officer opting for a long term programme is in the middle of his/her tenure, extension of tenure would give five years tenure in the Ministry to the officer concerned. It will also benefit the Central Ministry as it paves way for seamless transfer of the knowledge and skill on completion of one year training at the Institute. Further, Public Policy Programmes are specifically oriented towards improving policy formulation skills of the officials. Thus, it is necessary that the officers attending these programmes contribute back substantially in the Central Government.Needless to highlight that the complexities in socio-economic landscape, changing aspirations and emerging political economy necessitate a paradigm shift in public policy processes. This requires an astute understanding of the complexities in multi- sectoral linkages. A good policy design largely hinges on the skills and expertise of the major players. It is imperative that more and more officers are encouraged to participate in such programmes. We may, therefore, create enabling conditions to encourage more officers to take up specialised course and develop domain expertise which is essential in the changing scenario. This would entail a more proactive role of the Cadres at the State and Central level. It is, therefore, felt that the period of long term domestic training programmes is matched with an extended tenure in Central Staffing Scheme. This effectively excludes the duration of training from the 5 years tenure under Central Staffing Scheme. 5.8 Long term partnership with IIMs/MDI and TERI University:-The Public Policy and Management courses are specialized programmes and the Institutions running these courses invest substantially for developing faculty strength and courseware. Further, the institutions also invest in infrastructure resources and build partnership with foreign institutions for running these programmes. Such programmes could be more effective and viable when a long term there is a long-term commitment. Considering that there is a substantial degree of value addition to these programmes especially in the initial years, we need to have a long-term partnership with these institutions. A joint initiative of both the institutions and the Department is necessary for positioning the public policy programmes at global level. Therefore, the duration of the MoUs should be for five years, with a provision for a mid-term review after three years. 29
  30. 30. 6. Comparative Curriculum of the PGP in IIMA, IIMB, TERI and MDI Gurgaon Name of Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Institution: Course Post Graduate Programme in Public Management and Policy Course The programme has three modules – a core management (CM) module content that would be equivalent to a similar module in any leading international one-year executive management programme, a core public management and policy (CPMP) module, and electives leading to concentration in a number of areas. In addition, an international attachment/exchange module would provide the necessary exposure to working at senior levels in public policy and management. The years of experience of IIMA in research and consulting for governments, regulatory bodies, and the public sector are being brought to bear upon to offer this unique executive programme. The programme’s core management module is similar to the ‘building blocks’ of the Post-Graduate Programme in Management for Executives (PGPX) of the Institute. Courses in the Core Management Module 30
  31. 31. Areas Courses Business Policy Competitive Strategies Management Communications-I Management Communications-II Strategic Management of IT Firms and Markets Open Economy Macroeconomics Costing and Management Control Systems Financial Reporting and Analysis Financial Management-I Financial Management-II Customer Management I Customer Management II Leadership in Organizations Organizational Behaviour Human Resource Management for Organizations Data Analysis Operations Management Quantitative Approaches to Decision Making Communication 31
  32. 32. Name of Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore Institution: Course Post Graduate Programme in Public policy and Management Course Term 1: June – July (8 Weeks) (15 Credits) content • Policy Process and Analysis • Decision Analysis • Micro and Institutional Economics • States, Markets and Globalization • Social Marketing • Financial Accounting Term 2: August – September (Co-terminus with PGP Term 1) (8 Credits) (15 Credits) • Managing People and Performance • Macroeconomics • Strategy and Organizations • Corporate Finance • Research Methods • Legal & Institutional Dynamics Term 3: October-December – Maxwell/Gothenburg/Internship (8 Weeks) (8 Credits) Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, USA • Public Administration and Policy in International Comparative Perspective • Or • Internship/Alternative Overseas Component Term 4: (December- February middle) (Synchronized with E-PGP Term 5) (6 weeks) (6 credits) • Open Electives – E-PGP Term 5 (Mid February to April end) (7 Weeks) (8 credits) • Public Finance • Indian Social and Human Development • Designing Projects and Programmes • Electives A SERIES OF PUBLIC POLICY SEMINARS WILL BE ORGANISED THROUGHOUT THE ACADEMIC YEAR Name of TERI University, New Delhi Institution: Course MA in Public Policy & Sustainable Development Course First Year 32
  33. 33. content 1st Semester - 5 core courses of 4 credits each (18 weeks) Summer semester - Select modules on public policy of 3 credits (6 weeks at Universities in USA) 2nd Semester - 1 core course - 4 elective courses (3 credits each) - 1 minor project Second Year - Major Project (About 3 weeks at the TERI and the rest at participants workplace) ________________________________________________________________ Semester I Core courses (4 credits each) - Basic statistics - Public policy processes and institutions - Principles of economics - Public finance and international trade - Challenges for sustainable development and policy-making Semester 2 Core course (4 credits) - Research methods Elective courses (3 credits each comprising policy areas of concentration) Environmental science, policy and management - Resource and environmental economics - Environmental law and policy - Natural resources policy and management - Ecology and biodiversity - Environmental pollution, impacts and control Social policies: development challenges and key initiatives - Population, gender and development - Public health, nutrition, food security and development - Human resources development and education - Social security and development - Poverty and development Governance aspects of public policy - Federalism and the changing patterns of governance - Issues in local government administration (including decentralized development and local governance) - Administration of public and non-profit organizations - Administrative law - Public budgeting systems 33
  34. 34. Name of Management Development Institute, Gurgaon Institution: Course Post Graduate Diploma Programme in Public Policy and Management Course Micro-economics Macro-economics content Comparative Governance Paradigms Socio-political trends Dimensions of Policy Disinvestment Policies for national competitiveness Managing collectivities Public finance and budgeting Project Management Policy and programme evaluation Contracts management Designing citizen-centric organizations WTO and its implications Communication for advocacy Principles of social Marketing Decision-making techniques Ethics and Governance ICT and e-governance Managing social conflict Essential of strategic thinking Indian Securities markets Quantitative and scientific methods Leadership Logistics management Organizational culture and change Technology and Law Talent and performance Management 7The top programs in the United States U.S. News & World Report provides rankings of Public Affairs (Master's) schools, as of 2008, via a peer reviewed process. The top 25 schools are:[1] • 1) Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University • 2) John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University • 2) School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University Bloomington • 4) Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University • 4) School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia • 6) Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley • 7) University of Kansas Department of Public Administration at the University of Kansas • 7) Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan • 7) School of Policy, Planning, and Development at the University of Southern California • 10) H. John Heinz III College, School of Public Policy & Management at Carnegie Mellon University • 10) Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University 34
  35. 35. • 10) Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University • 10) Harris School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago • 14) School of Public Affairs at American University • 14) School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University • 14) Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at The George Washington University • 14) Public Policy Institute at Georgetown University • 14) Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy at the University at Albany, SUNY • 14) School of Public Affairs at the University of California, Los Angeles • 14) Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota • 14) University of North Carolina School of Government at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • 14) Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin • 14) Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington • 14) Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin- Madison • 25) School of Public Affairs at Arizona State University • 25) School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park • 27) Askew School of Public Administration and Policy at Florida State University 7.1Top programmes in other Countries Australia • Crawford School of Economics and Government at the Australian National University • Discipline of Government and International Relations at The University of Sydney Canada • School of Public and International Affairs at the Glendon College York University • School of Public Policy and Administration at York University • Queen's School of Policy Studies at Queen's University • MA Public Policy and Administration, Department of Political Science at the University of Guelph • School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Toronto • Faculty of Public Affairs at Carleton University China, P.R. • Zhou Enlai School of Government, Nankai University 35
  36. 36. • School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University • School of Government, Peking University Colombia • Escuela de Gobierno, Universidad de los Andes • FIGRI, Universidad Externado de Colombia France • Master of Public Affairs, Sciences Po Paris Germany • Hertie School of Governance, Berlin • Erfurt School of Public Policy • NRW School of Governance • Department of Public Management and Governance, Zeppelin University Hungary • Department of Public Policy, Central European University Italy • Master of Public Policy Analysis, COREP, Turin, Italy • Institute for Public Administration and Health Care Management (IPAS), Milan, Italy • Master of Public Management, Bocconi University, Milan, Italy Iran • Faculty of Law and Political Science at the University of Tehran Israel • The Federmann School of Public Policy and Government at the Hebrew University Japan • Osaka School of International Public Policy at Osaka University • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS) Netherlands • Maastricht Graduate School of Governance [2] at Maastricht University [3], • Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management at the Delft University of Technology 36
  37. 37. Philippines • Ateneo School of Government at the Ateneo de Manila University • National College of Public Administration and Governance at University of the Philippines, Diliman Singapore • Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at National University of Singapore United Kingdom • MPA Programme at the London School of Economics • MPA Programme at the University of Liverpool • Manchester Business School MPA at the University of Manchester • School of Sociology & Social Policy MPA at the University of Nottingham • School of Public Policy at the University College London • Warwick Business School MPA at the University of Warwick • Department of Politics at the University of York Brazil • Public Policy Management at the University of São Paulo 8.Curriculum of Some of the apex Programmes in Public Policy 8.1 Carnegie Mellon Heinz College Australia Duration-21 months Courses • Policy Analysis • Applied Economic Analysis I • Applied Economic Analysis II • Empirical Methods for Public Policy and Management • Policy Analysis I • Policy Analysis II • Policy Seminar • Convocation • Program Evaluation Management • Organizational Management 37
  38. 38. • Decision Making Under Uncertainty • Cost Benefit Analysis • Strategic Planning Technology & Management • Information Technology for Public Policy and Management Finance • Financial Analysis Project Application • Systems Synthesis (Project Course) Electives * Electives vary by semester. Consult the schedule for specific semester offerings. • Project Management • Ethics and Public Policy • Introduction to Geographic Information System 8.2 London School of Economics MPA Public Policy and Management This stream focuses on understanding decision making and management in the public sector and budgetary processes. Students receive a core training in political science, economics and quantitative methods in the first year, which is complemented by compulsory courses in public management and public budgeting and financial management and further option courses. This stream particularly equips students to pursue careers in public management, public sector consulting, and governance related work in international organisations or think tanks. Year 1: • Political Science and Public Policy • Micro and Macro Economics (for Public Policy) • Quantitative Approaches and Policy Analysis • Public Management – Strategy, Innovation and Delivery • Public Budgeting and Financial Management † † may be postponed to year 2 and replaced by a course from the MPA options list below. Year 2: • Group Working and Leadership* • Capstone (see below) 38
  39. 39. • Dissertation • Plus two and a half units from the MPA options list below 8.3 Goldman School of Public Policy, Berkeley The MPP degree is earned in a two-year, full-time program consisting of a core curriculum, a policy internship in the summer after completion of the first year, a second-year policy analysis project, and elective courses chosen from those available on the campus (including but not limited to those offered by the School). The program emphasizes practical and applied dimensions of policy-making and implementation, encouraging students to develop skills in:  Defining policy issues to make them more intelligible to officials in the public or private sector  Providing a broader perspective for assessing policy alternatives  Examining techniques for developing policy options and evaluating their social consequences  Developing strategies for the successful implementation of public policies once they have been adopted Given the relatively small class size, the School's approach to teaching emphasizes teamwork, cooperation, and interaction among students and with the faculty. Students work, either as 39
  40. 40. individuals or in small groups, on real policy problems for real “clients” under close faculty supervision. More specifically, the curriculum is designed to enable students to achieve the following:  Skill in written communication and in verbal reporting  An understanding of political institutions and processes, strategies, and skills associated with policy creation and adoption  Knowledge of the organizational and bureaucratic structures involved in program development and implementation  Skill in application of economic analysis to questions of economic trade-off and policy choice and efficiency  Familiarity with cost-benefit analysis and other applications of quantitative analysis and modeling, as well as the use of statistical software  An understanding of social science methodologies for dealing with problems of data collection, analysis, and program evaluation  The ability to apply legal analysis where appropriate to the creation and implementation of public policy and to recognize the role of courts and administrative law in program development and implementation Course Structure for the MPP First Year Fall Spring PP220 PP200 Law and Public Policy Introduction to Policy Analysis PP210A PP210B The Economics of Public Policy Analysis The Economics of Public Policy Analysis PP250 Elective Course Political and Agency Management Aspects of Public Policy PP240A PP240B Decision Analysis, Modeling, and Decision Analysis, Modeling, and Quantitative Methods Quantitative Methods Summer Policy Internship (required) Second Year Fall Spring PP260 PP205 Leadership & Strategy Advanced Policy Analysis (Thesis Seminar) 40
  41. 41. Elective Course PP299 Advanced Policy Analysis (Thesis Independent Study) Elective Course Elective Course The Core Curriculum First-Year Core Courses The core courses emphasize practical applications of analytical skills and encourage students to “learn by doing” through numerous exercises and projects conducted in teams and individually. Fieldwork activities are also a part of the core curriculum, involving real clients, a written report, and oral briefings on the report. In addition, colloquia with outside speakers are frequently held that further examine some of the policy issues treated in the core courses. Introduction to Policy Analysis. (PP200) Students bring together the skills learned in other core courses working in teams to solve real-life problems for off-campus clients. The 48-Hour Project: Each year, first-year students write an “issue memo” to a postulated, but real, “client” about some issue they know little or nothing about and do so on a 48-hour deadline. Topics are developed by the faculty and assigned to students randomly. The exercise is intended to simulate a real-life work environment in which rapid-response and “land-on-your-feet” skills are at a premium. Designed by Professor Eugene Bardach of the GSPP faculty, the 48-hour project is an annual rite of passage signaling the beginning of the students’ second semester. The Economics of Public Policy Analysis (PP210A-210B) Concepts of microeconomic behavior of producers, consumers, and government agencies are applied to specific policy areas. The effects of policy alternatives are assessed by such criteria as the efficiency and equity of resource allocation, impact on income distribution, and effectiveness in achieving policy goals. Law and Public Policy (PP220) Materials including court decisions, legislation, and administrative regulations are used to examine important legal aspects of public policy. Legal research, interpretation and draftsmanship skills are developed. Relationships among lawmaking agencies and between law and policy are explored through specific cases. 41
  42. 42. Decision Analysis, Modeling, and Quantitative Methods (PP240A-240B) Students learn and apply quantitative methods including cost-benefit analysis; statistical and econometric analysis of policy-relevant data; survey design and interpretation; and formal policy models based on decision theory. Political and Agency Management Aspects of Public Policy (PP250) Political and organizational factors involved in developing new policies, choosing among alternatives, gaining acceptance, assuring implementation, and coping with unanticipated consequences. Includes case studies, theoretical, empirical, and interpretative works from several disciplines. Summer Policy Internship Students are required to complete a policy internship during the summer between the first and second year of study. Students choose positions as apprentices to policy practitioners in international, federal, state, or local government agencies; non-profit organizations; or private sector corporations and consulting firms; in the United States and abroad. Students enrolled in concurrent degrees with Public Health and Law are exempt from this requirement, since they are already required to do a summer internship with their concurrent degree program. Student Internships, Summer 2008: Public Sector 45% Federal Government 46% State Government 11% Local Government 37% International Governmental Organizations 6% Non-Profit Sector 42% Domestic Non-Profits 56% International Non-Profits 44% Private Sector 13% The Core Curriculum Second-Year Core Courses Leadership & Strategy (PP260) This course is designed to acquaint students with the basic principles and practices of leadership – defined as the ability to focus an organization's or a public's attention on common problems 42
  43. 43. and to mobilize necessary energy and resources to solve or ameliorate them. The course is also designed to help students develop their own capacities for leadership. We will be examining public agencies and not-for-profit organizations, advocacy groups, and individual “change agents,” all seeking either to improve service delivery, institute new policies, or empower those who need more voice. Advanced Policy Analysis (PP205, PP299) The second year comprises two required courses, Advanced Policy Analysis (APA) and Political and Organizational Aspects of Public Policy Analysis, plus a number of electives. The APA project is an intensive study of a significant policy issue of the student’s choice. The project is often done for a specific client in a public or private policy organization, and sometimes the student is paid for the work. For some students, the project is an outgrowth of the summer internship or may lead to a post graduation position with the client organization. Students conduct their projects as members of an APA seminar, which provides them with a faculty supervisor and a peer group able to supply constructive suggestions. When the completed analysis is found satisfactory by the faculty, it then serves as the student’s required thesis. Frequently, the specific policy recommendations made in these analyses have been adopted by the student’s client. The Following List of APA Titles, Drawn From Projects Completed During Recent Years, Illustrates the Range and Variety of Suitable Projects:  Countering Joe Camel and the Marlboro Man: The relative Efficacy of Anti-Smoking Ads  Cracking Down on Identity Theft: new Challenges for Law Enforcement Agencies  Designing Local Welfare-to-Work Systems: Federal Funding Options  Pros and Cons of Privatizing Solid Waste Collection Services in Mexico  The Costs and Benefits of Job Training in the Elder Care Market  Analysis of Frequent Winners in Small Business: A Case Study of Californian Firms  Health Information and the Internet: Protecting Consumer Privacy Online  Poverty Alleviation in Rural Nicaragua  Ensuring Contraceptive Supply in Ethiopia and Sudan: The Role of the Packard Foundation Population Program  Reducing Waiting Time in Public Hospitals in Hong kong: Private Insurance Approach  Controlling Street Prostitution in Oakland: What the Oakland Police Department Can Do to Improve Current Law Enforcement Policies  Supporting California’s Wildlife: An Evaluation of Funding Alternatives for California's Department of Fish and Game.  Raising Low Pay in a High Income Economy: The Economics of a San Francisco Municipal Minimum Wage 43
  44. 44.  Re-examining the Property Tax reassessment for Commercial Properties  Children of Arrested Parents: Strategies to Ensure Their Safety and Well-Being  Russia’s regional nuclear Warhead Storage Facilities: Problems and Solutions  Safe Routes to School: Where exactly are we going?  Delinquency Risk Assessment: Improving the Performance of Home Mortgages  Addressing California's Overcrowded Schools: Equity in the State’s Distribution of Funds for School Construction  Fuel-Efficient replacement Tires: Guidelines for Transforming the Marketplace  Housing voucher Portability in Alameda County: A Caseload Analysis of Clients and Cost Pressures  Estimating the External Costs of Driving in San Francisco  The Emergency Food Assistance Program in California: Opportunities for Reform Elective Courses Most of the students’ second-year program consists of elective courses of individual choice relevant to the study of public policy. The School provides students with information on course possibilities around the campus, and each student determines a set of courses in consultation with a faculty adviser. Students can choose electives from the full array of courses offered by Berkeley’s academic departments and professional schools and colleges, as well as courses taught by GSPP faculty. With nearly 300 degree programs, Berkeley offers opportunities for advanced study in a vast range of fields. The following list, far from exhaustive, indicates some of the courses of particular relevance for public policy students:  Energy and Resources Group: Energy and Society; The Politics of Energy and Environmental Policy; Energy Economics.  Department of Economics: Economics of Public Enterprises; Public Finance.  Department of Political Science: Public Organization Theory; Public Policy and Decision Theory; The Politics of Taxation; Science and Politics.  Department of City and Regional Planning: The Urban Planning Process; Planning and Governmental Decision-Making; Introduction to Housing Analysis; Community Development Theory and Practice; Policy Analysis and Program Evaluation for Social Planning.  School of Education: Education Policy Analysis; Education and the Law; Organizational Aspects of Planning and Regulation; Economics of Education; Education, Politics and Government. 44
  45. 45.  School of Public Health: New Boundaries for Health Policy and Planning; Legislation and Organization for Health and Social Services; Organization Theory and Health Institutions.  School of Social Welfare: Social Policy and Social Welfare; Development of Social Service Programs; Processes of Community Planning and Organizing; The Management Cycle in Social Welfare Administration.  School of Business Administration: Business and Public Policy; Management in the Public and Not-for-Profit Sectors; Labor-Management Relations in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors; Collective Bargaining; The Interaction of Business and Government.  Public and Nonprofit Management: Various colleges and schools on campus offer courses in this area such as: Public Sector Accounting; Financial Management; Managers and Management; Techniques of Management Control; Organizational Understanding for Managers; Advanced Seminar in Public and Nonprofit Management; Applied Microeconomics; Technology, Tasks and Politics; Organizational Skills for Managers; Information Resource Management; Management of Professionals in Organizations. For more information, call the GSPP Admissions Office at (510) 642-1940.  GSPP Elective courses offered by GSPP also provide opportunities for focused study in specific policy fields. Most courses are taught by regular GSPP faculty and some by visiting faculty, often policy practitioners. See the section on graduate electives for details. 8.4 Kennedy School Master in Public Policy The two-year Master in Public Policy (MPP) program provides future public leaders with the conceptual framework and practical skills necessary to succeed in public service. The MPP core requirements are built upon strong foundations in three methodological areas: analysis, management, and leadership. These requirements are designed to help students solve complicated and unfamiliar challenges — by asking the right questions, determining the nature and dimensions of the problem at hand, exploring the range of possible solutions, and assessing the capacity of public institutions to implement one or more of these solutions. Through the MPP core, students sharpen their powers of analysis and their knowledge base. They build the confidence and judgment needed to weigh competing demands and choose the most appropriate action. They become skilled at shaping effective and practical solutions and building consensus and ownership in support of those solutions. They learn to marshal resources 45
  46. 46. within and outside of an organization, monitor and fine tune innovative policy solutions, and provide the transformational leadership that generates success. Prospective students interested in the MPP program are encouraged to review the prerequisites for academic and work experience prior to applying One credit hour of class contact time per week equals on credit for the semester. If a course is listed a a three credit course, that means it will meet for three hours per week for the semester. This however, is for a college or university that operates on a regular two semester academic years. If you look at this in total hours for the semester, it is approximately 48 hours of class contact time for a three credit course for the semester. Curriculum MPP Requirements The MPP program requires two years (four terms) of full-time study in residence at Harvard Kennedy School. MPP candidates complete eighteen units of academic credit, eight of which are required courses. MPP candidates also need to complete a distribution requirements in Financial Management. Of the remaining ten credits, two must be earned in a specific Policy Area of Concentration. Please note, IGA concentrators must earn six credits and SUP concentrators must earn four credits. Our required course work builds a broad perspective and sharpens specific skills. First-year required courses develop the following core skills to prepare our students for public service: • Economics • Quantitative analysis • Politics and advocacy • Financial management • Strategic management • Ethics • Leadership Additional requirements of the program such as Spring Exercise, selection of a PAC, the PAC Seminar, and the Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) are described below. Spring Exercise During the last two weeks of the spring semester, all first-year MPP students participate in Spring Exercise. This simulation provides practice in integrating the skills of the core by requiring students to develop and present a professional simulation of a real policy problem. Selecting a PAC In most cases, students select a Policy Area of Concentration (PAC) by selecting an introductory survey course in their first term from the list of HKS Policy Areas. They develop the concentration further in the second year through the required PAC seminar focusing on advanced 46
  47. 47. topics and related methods in their chosen PAC. Beyond these electives, the choice of courses is entirely up to the individual. Policy Analysis Exercise In the second year, all MPP students engage in the Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) in which they examine an existing public or nonprofit sector problem presented by a real-life client organization. The PAE is a professional product, usually around 40 pages in length, where second-year MPP students have the opportunity to integrate the technical skills and specialized knowledge they have gained primarily from the MPP core (required) curriculum. Each student serves as an unpaid consultant to the client organization where, through working with the client, the student defines the problem, designs a strategy to address the problem, gathers data, formulates and evaluates options, and finally, makes recommendations to the client to solve the problem. The PAE is carried out within each student’s chosen policy area of concentration. Additional MPP/UP Requirements Students in the MPP/UP program are required to participate in a two-week preparatory module at the Graduate School of Design in September before starting their second year of coursework. The additional course requirements include a studio design course, two courses from an approved list, and two or more other courses with special relevance to urban planning. MPP/UP candidates write their Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) on an urban planning topic. Please note, the MPP/UP degree is available only to students who enrolled in the MPP program in the fall of 2009 or earlier. Students who enroll after fall 2009 can apply for concurrent MPP and MUP degrees. This concurrent degree program requires separate admission by the Graduate School of Design (GSD) and the Harvard Kennedy School and takes three years. Joint and Concurrent Degrees Students in the MPP program frequently pursue joint or concurrent degrees allowing them to work toward two degrees simultaneously. Harvard Kennedy School Curriculum Teaching and Learning at HKS Classes at the Harvard Kennedy School are taught by the case method, the more traditional lecture format, or a mixture of both. Students work together in small groups on projects and will have assistance from course assistants, teaching fellows, and faculty members in a collaborative and non-competitive working environment. 47
  48. 48. Methodological Areas at HKS The HKS curriculum is built around the concept that future leaders and policy makers need to be adept in analytical, management, and leadership skills in order to serve the public good. The three foundational methodological areas at HKS are: • Quantitative Analysis • Strategic Management • Leadership and Advocacy Whether as distribution requirements for graduation or as part of a core curriculum, these three areas are the foundation upon which the HKS education is built. No matter what policy area students focus on while studying, HKS graduates depart the school with a powerful complement of skill to increase their effectiveness in working in their chosen field. Policy Areas at HKS Teaching and research at HKS are organized around a framework of policy areas that reflect the evolving research of the HKS faculty, the needs of policy makers, and the interests of the HKS student body. Please see HKS Policy Areas for listing. Core Curriculum Required Courses (First Year) Markets and Market Failure (1 credit) Economic Analysis of Public Policy (1 credit) Quantitative Analysis and Empirical Methods (1 credit) Empirical Methods II (1 credit) X Spring Exercise (0.5 credit) Mobilizing for Political Action - American Politics & Comparative Politics (1 credit) The Responsibilities of Public Action (1 credit) The Strategic Management of Public Organizations (1 credit) Public Service Retreat Both fourth year and fifth year students will participate in a required public service retreat immediately before classes begin in the fall. The retreat will feature small group interactions with prominent public leaders, debriefings by fifth year students' on their summer internships, and workshops on the challenges and opportunities of public service. View pictures from the 2008 Public Service Retreat.-Univ of Virginia. Core Curriculum for strong analytical foundations Five core public policy courses are required in the fifth year Research Methods and Data Analysis (II); Policy History; Legal and Moral Reasoning for Public Policy; Economic Analysis of Public Policy (II); and the Advanced Policy Analysis seminar. 48
  49. 49. Electives and Specialized Fields of Concentration Students will be given the opportunity to develop substantive knowledge about their areas of interest. Students are free to take electives in any Arts and Sciences Department as well as in selected other university departments and schools. Concentration fields include international relations, development policy, health policy, education policy, and environmental policy. The Curriculum comprises of course work and dissertation. The course work is spread over 6 terms during the first year. Core courses are supplemented by electives, which will be offered during the fourth and fifth terms. On successful completion of these courses, participants could work on their dissertations. Term 1: June – July (8 Weeks) (15 Credits) • Policy Process and Analysis • Decision Analysis • Micro and Institutional Economics • States, Markets and Globalization • Social Marketing • Financial Accounting Term 2: August – September (Co-terminus with PGP Term 1) (8 Credits) (15 Credits) • Managing People and Performance • Macroeconomics • Strategy and Organizations • Corporate Finance • Research Methods • Research Methods Term 3: October-December – Maxwell/Gothenburg/Internship (8 Weeks) (8 Credits) Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, USA • Public Administration and Policy in International Comparative Perspective Or • Internship/Alternative Overseas Component Term 4: (December- February middle) (Synchronized with E-PGP Term 5) (6 weeks) (6 credits) • Open Electives – E-PGP Term 5 (Mid February to April end) (7 Weeks) (8 credits) • Public Finance • Indian Social and Human Development • Designing Projects and Programmes on • Electives A SERIES OF PUBLIC POLICY SEMINARS WILL BE ORGANISED THROUGHOUT THE ACADEMIC YEAR 42 credits-one year 49
  50. 50. 8.5 Stony Brooke University- The program's core required courses teach skills in political, economic, quantitative and organizational analysis, with a practical focus on the solutions to complex public policy problems. With this foundation, students take one or more courses in a specialized concentration and a related internship or research assignment. The entire program of 30 credit hours can be completed in one calendar year by full-time students, and within two years by those attending part-time. Required Core Courses (3 credits each): Public Policy Analysis and Evaluation Introduction to Statistics for Public policy Intermediate Statistics for Public policy Administrative Law for Policy Analysts Advanced Policy Courses (3 credits each): Public Budgeting and Finance Public Management and Organizational Behavior Personnel Systems for Public Policy 50
  51. 51. Data applications in Public Policy Survey Research for Public Policy Possible Concentrations (3 credits each): Regional Planning Environmental Politics and Planning Health Policy (offered by the School of Health Technology and Management) Concentration elective (with program approval) Capstone Experience (6 credits): Internship in Public Policy or Master's Paper Directed Policy Research (6 credits) This course entails a student research paper prepared under supervision of faculty member on a significant public policy issue. Approval of program director required. Master's Paper in Public Policy (6 credits) For a student already employed in a related field, in lieu of internship, this course requires a policy paper applying theory and methods to a specific issue possibly related to, but going beyond, their normal employment duties. Approval of program director required. Master's Thesis This course entails a student thesis paper under supervision of faculty member on a research project related to public policy. Approval of program director required. 8.6 George Washington University- Ability to think clearly and analytically about social and economic problems and public policy. Students not only learn the basic analytical and methodological tools to engage in policy analysis; they also develop an understanding of the political processes through which policy is made and the social, economic and historical context in which problems arise and are addressed. Each student chooses a policy field that serves as an area in which he/she can apply these skills and gain substantive knowledge. However, the program is generalist rather than highly specialized; it provides students with the ability to quickly and successfully come to grips with policy problems across a wide range of issues. The MPP program is interdisciplinary; the course of studies focuses on problems, policy alternatives, and solutions rather than on methodologies and approaches that are associated with a single academic discipline. Students have the opportunity to combine academic training with a 51

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