GE498-ECI, Lecture 3: Let's play

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GE498-ECI, Lecture 3: Let's play

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GE498-ECI, Lecture 3: Let's play

  1. 1. Enterprise Collaboration and Innovation Support Systems (GE/ IE 498 ECI): Let's Play! Xavier Llora Illinois Genetic Algorithms Lab & National Center for Supercomputing Applications University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign xlLo: a@uiuc. edu
  2. 2. Where did we leave it? - Explored creativity blocks - Reviewed your answer to the homework question - Analyzed some definitions about creativity and innovation - Gave some definitions we will use in this course GE/ IE 498 ECI Spring 2007 Xavier Lloré -1.1 Spring 2007 2
  3. 3. What's the plan for today? - Review our definitions of creativity and innovation - Present one of the long-lasting models of creativity - Introduce the evolutionary model of innovation and creativity we will rely on - Brainstorm about you projects GE/ IE 498 ECI Spring 2007 Xavier Lloré -1.1 Spring 2007 3
  4. 4. Definitions of creativity - Definitions: — My Mac: “The use of imagination or original ideas, especially in the production of artistic work. ” — Wikipidea: “Creativity (or creativeness) is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts. ” — Google: - “An increasingly rare crime. ” GE/ IE 493 ECI - Spring 2007 Xavier Llora -3: Spring 2007 4
  5. 5. o u‘. o The basic pieces that kept repeating - Imagination « Mental process - Ideas (original ideas) - New associations among existing ideas - Problem solving oriented (What about Jackson Pollock, Salvador Dali, Edgar Degas? ) - Problems worth to solve (Who decides? ) - Only possible in presence of a problem (What about activities? ) - Sharing! (Very few consider it a social process) - Iterative process (old gets revamp into something new) - Reality construction - Diversity! !! (Very few, remember the dancing and tomato chunks) ” Z (‘IE 43% [C SN rig 2:07 Xavier Llora -0 Spring 2007
  6. 6. o n‘. o Creativity strata — Individual activity - How we can boost individuals creativity - Group activity If it can be boosted in individuals, why not to boost it in groups - Social component - Creativity and its diffusion processes ": ‘IE 413 [C Eur rig ZCICIV Xavier Lloré in Spring 2007
  7. 7. o u‘. o Creativity and innovation? - Let’s make one distinction - Creativity: Act of generating a new idea, concept, or association of ideas, from scratch or pre-existing ones. - Innovation: “Creativity + commercialization = innovation” - Why most of the previous definitions focus on individuals? 6: I‘IE 47-E. EC Snr rig ZCICIF Xavier Llora In Spring 2007
  8. 8. The genius approach 0 Wallas, G. (1926). The act of thought. Harcourt, Brace and Company - Background social psychologist and educationalist - Model creative processes using four basic steps; 1. Preparation (What? ) 2. Incubation (Also take advantage of unconscious processes) 3. Illumination (Eureka! ) 4. Verification (Test your idea) - Individual process - Remember: Innovation = creativity+commercialization - Are you the measure of the world? GE/ IE 493 ECI Spring 2007 Xavier Llcira -1.1 Spring 2007
  9. 9. Extensions to an even bigger genius - Several extension of Wallas’ model. Edmund, N. W (2006). “The scientific method today” Curious observation The problem Goals, planning Search--Explore Alternate solutions Evaluate evidence Guess--Hypothesis Challenge Hypothesis . Reach conclusion 10. Take action 11. Procedural principles 12. Attributes--Thinking - Mmh, something is missing (incubation through the window in favor of a more rational approach) GE I‘ IE 4-T-E. EC S; ir rig 203.7 Xavier Llora -in Spring 2007 9 ‘°9°. “.°‘S"": “E*’. '". "
  10. 10. o u‘. o Ci§i‘l[ ~17-E-[C Groups Osborne realize that a group can be a powerful force Proposed the brainstorming method (see the reading material) Massively adopted (even in every day's language) Needs careful usage Moderator is crucial to the success - Participants need to follow exact rules — Avoid personality interferences in the process Problem: people has proposed different models for different strata (idem with the social one and the studies about innovation) You may never guess what discipline has a long tradition of studding innovation Xavier Llora in Spring 2007 ‘ 0 Ear rig 2C .7
  11. 11. o n‘. a What? Genetic Algorithms? - John Holland — A book: “Adaptation in natural and artificial systems”, MIT Press, 1975. — Population-based search methods (diversity) - Based on natural evolution principles (social and environment driven selection) * David E. Goldberg — A book: “The design of innovation”, Kluwer/ Springer, 2002. — Methods with sound theory about how to properly design them — Proposed the innovation intuition = GAs as models of human innovation - Let’s look at the basics "E ‘IE 413 EC Ear rig EC-CI? Xavier Llara in Spring 2007 ‘I
  12. 12. o n‘. a Two modes of GA innovation (I/ II) - Selection + mutation = Continual improvement. - Selection and mutation working together are a form of hill- climbing — Mutation suggests variants in the neighborhood of the current solutions - Selection acts as the decision process which accepts improving changes with a high probability — This simple model describes one of the facets of human innovation, the so called continual improvement in total quality management literature, or as Japanese call it, kaizen "E ‘IE 413 EC Eur rig EC-CI? Xavier Llara in Spring 2007
  13. 13. o 1" a Two modes of GA innovation (II/ II) - Selection + crossover = innovation. — Another facet of human innovation is the so called cross-fertilizing innovation. — People usually grasp a set of good solution features in one context, and a notion in another context and juxtaposing them, thereby speculating that the combination might be better than either notion taken individually. — Taking together selection and crossover, GAs are a computation model of cross-fertilizing innovation. GE I‘ IE -HE. EC Snr rig 203.7 Xavier Llor'a -in Spring 2007
  14. 14. o u‘. a Key elements of GAs as models 0 Can address the different levels of creativity and innovation identified in the previous lecture Individual activity o Individuals can propose new ideaslconceptl solutions - Group activity - Recombination of ideas/ concept/ solutions has group activity connotations — Social component - By definition, GAs are a population method embedded in an environment GE i‘IE 47-E. EC SN rig 2:07 Xavier Llara -D Spring 2007 ‘4
  15. 15. Lessons from competent GAs - Goldberg's recipe to success — Know what GA processes: Building blocks (BB5) — Ensure BB supply — Ensure BB growth and speed (takeover time, to) — Ensure good BB decisions — Ensure good BB mixing (innovation time, ti) - Know BB challengers - Theory show how to design such process to work properly (e. g. t, >t°) - Now replace BB by idea or concept. Replace GA by social creativity/ innovation. GE/ IE 493 ECI Spring 2007 Xavier Llcira -1.1 Spring 2007 15
  16. 16. o n‘. o Decomposing the facets of creativity - Facets of creativity — Know what social creativity processes: Conceptual Abstractions (CA5) — Ensure CA supply (get a good start) - Ensure CA growth and speed (avoid diversity lost and drift) — Ensure good CA decisions (individual, group, social) — Ensure good CA mixing (no unjustified/ emotional criticism) — Know CA challengers (creativity blocks) GE ‘IE 475. EC Eur rig ZCICIV Xavier Llara in Spring 2007
  17. 17. o n‘. a Enough theory! Let’s play! - Your projects for the course - Your interests - Our brainstorming session GE ‘IE 475. EC S; ir rig EC-CI? Xavier Llara in Spring 2007
  18. 18. o n‘. a What will we do in the next lecture? —i Start the review of people-centered technologies - We will focus on the web — Blogs — Wikis - Broadcast sites — Etc. - Complicated technologies? GE ‘IE 475. EC S; ir rig EC-CI? Xavier Llara in Spring 2007
  19. 19. Something to think about - Review the materials generated during the brainstorm. - Homework: Post the proposal of your course project in the DISCUS communities system (look for the appropriate post). The proposal needs to be a general outline identifying: — Background Purpose - Roadmap of the required steps to achieve the goals of such a proposal GE IE 4 3E. [C Eur ng ZCICIV Xavier Llcira -1.1 Spring 2007

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