What is the measurement of service
• To recap, service quality focuses on the needs and
expectations of customers to improve products
• The measurement of service quality measures the
gap between the customer’s level of expectation and
how well they rated the service(s).
• Measuring service quality in libraries can be both a
specific project as well as a continual process to
enhance and improve services.
Why to measure service quality?
The benefits of measuring service quality
• You will be able to identify where services
need improving in the view of your users.
• It will enable you to provide services that are
more closely aligned with the expectations of
• It will allow you to compare your service
quality with peer institutions in an effort to
develop benchmarks and understand best
CUSTOMER NEEDS &
OF THESE NEEDS
OF PRODUCT EXECUTION
1. THE KNOWLEDGE GAP
2. THE STANDARDS GAP
3. THE DELIVERY GAP
5. THE PERCEPTIONS GAP
ADVERTISING & SALES
RELATIVE TO EXPECTATIONS
7. THE SERVICE GAP
4. THE INTERNAL
6. THE INTERPRETATION GAP
•Lack of Marketing Research
•Improper Bottom to Top Communication
•Multiple Management Level
•Perception of Infeasibility
•Inadequate Setting of Goals
•Supervisory Control Systems
•Lack of Interdepartmental Communication
•Propensity to Overpromise
•Wrong Perception by Customers
•Absence of Tangible Evidence
•Less Confidence on the Part of Customer•Lack of Sample Distribution to Customer
•Lack of Taking Feedback from Customers
•Presence of Reasons
of Previous Six Gaps
SQ Dimensions – Refined
• KNOWLEDGE AND COURTESY OF EMPLOYEES AND THEIR ABILITY TO INSPIRE TRUST
• CARING, INDIVIDUALISED ATTENTION THE FIRM PROVIDES TO ITS CUSTOMERS.
• ABILITY TO PERFORM THE PROMISED SERVICE DEPENDABLY AND ACCURATELY.
• WILLINGNESS TO HELP CUSTOMERS AND PROVIDE PROMPT SERVICE.
• APPEARANCE OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, PERSONNEL, AND
• Negative discrepancy between perception and
expectation = performance gap>
• Positive difference = satisfaction> delight.
• Set of 22 variables based on five dimensions.
1. The Z co. will have modern looking
2. The physical facilities at the Z Co. will be
3. The employees of Z Co. will be neatly dressed
4. Materials & tools associated with the service
will be visually appealing
5. When the Z co. promises to do sth by a
certain time, the promise is always kept.
6. When the customers complain or have
problems, Z co. will show great concern for
7. The Z Co. will perform the service right from
the first time.
8. The Z co. will provide the services at the time
9. The Z co. will assist on error free records.
10. The employees of the Z co. will tell the customers the
exact time of service delivery.
11. The Z co,. Will give prompt service to the customers.
12. The employees of the Z co. will always be willing to
help the customers.
13. The employees of the Z co will never be busy to help
the customers immediately.
14. The behaviour of the employees of Z co will impress
the customers will reliability of service and instill
15.The customers will feel safe and confident when
transacting with the employees of the Z Co.
16.The employees of the Z Co. will always be
friendly and courteous.
17.The employees of the Z Co. process knowledge
to answer questions of the customers.
18.The Z Co. will pay attention to each customer
19. The Z Co. will have opening hours
convenient to their entire customer.
20. The Z Co. will have employees who give
personal attention to each other.
21.The Z Co. will have customer’s best interest
22.The employees of the Z Co. will understand
the specific needs of their customers.
• customer’s responses to their
expectations and perceptions are obtained
on a 7-point Likert Scale and are compared
to arrive at (P-E) gap scores.
• The higher the perception minus
expectation score, the higher the level of
service quality to be perceived.
• In an equation form, their
operationalisation of service quality can
be expressed as follows:
SQi = ∑ (Pij - Eij)
Where SQi = The perceived SQ of individual i
k = The no. of service attributes/items.
P = Perception of individual i with respect
to performance of a service firm
E = SQ expectation for attribute j that is
the relevant norm for individual i.
• A Likert scale is a psychometric scale
commonly involved in research that
• It is the most widely used approach to scaling
responses in survey research.
• The scale is named after its
inventor, psychologist Rensis Likert.
• When responding to a Likert questionnaire
item, respondents specify their level of
agreement or disagreement on a symmetric
agree-disagree scale for a series of
• Thus, the range captures the intensity of their
feelings for a given item.
7 Point Likert Scale
5 Point Likert Scale
• A “Likert scale” is actually the sum of responses
to several Likert items.
• These items are usually displayed with a visual
aid, such as a series of radio buttons or a
horizontal bar representing a simple scale.
• 7-point scales are a little better than 5-points—
but not by much.
• The psychometric literature suggests that having
more scale points is better but there is a
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