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Sq measurement

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  • 1. • Measurement of SQ
  • 2. What is the measurement of service quality? • To recap, service quality focuses on the needs and expectations of customers to improve products and/or services. • The measurement of service quality measures the gap between the customer’s level of expectation and how well they rated the service(s). • Measuring service quality in libraries can be both a specific project as well as a continual process to enhance and improve services.
  • 3. Why to measure service quality? The benefits of measuring service quality include: • You will be able to identify where services need improving in the view of your users. • It will enable you to provide services that are more closely aligned with the expectations of your users. • It will allow you to compare your service quality with peer institutions in an effort to develop benchmarks and understand best practice.
  • 4. SQ MEASUREMENT SCALES
  • 5. CUSTOMER NEEDS & EXPECTATIONS MANAGEMENT DEFINITION OF THESE NEEDS TRANSLATION INTO QUALITY STANDARDS SERVICE STANDARDS DELIVERED CUSTOMER PERCEPTIONS OF PRODUCT EXECUTION 1. THE KNOWLEDGE GAP 2. THE STANDARDS GAP 3. THE DELIVERY GAP 5. THE PERCEPTIONS GAP ADVERTISING & SALES PROMISES CUSTOMER INTERPRETATION OF COMMUNICATIONS CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE RELATIVE TO EXPECTATIONS 7. THE SERVICE GAP 4. THE INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS GAP 6. THE INTERPRETATION GAP SERVICE QUALITY GAP MODEL •Lack of Marketing Research •Improper Bottom to Top Communication •Multiple Management Level •Management Commitment •Perception of Infeasibility •Inadequate Setting of Goals •Task Standardisation •Role Ambiguity •Role Conflict •Employee-Job Misfit •Technology-Job Misfit •Teamwork •Supervisory Control Systems •Lack of Interdepartmental Communication •Propensity to Overpromise •Wrong Perception by Customers •Absence of Tangible Evidence •Less Confidence on the Part of Customer•Lack of Sample Distribution to Customer in Advance •Lack of Taking Feedback from Customers Regarding Promises/Offers/Proposals •Presence of Reasons of Previous Six Gaps EXTERNAL GAP
  • 6. SQ Dimensions – Refined • KNOWLEDGE AND COURTESY OF EMPLOYEES AND THEIR ABILITY TO INSPIRE TRUST AND CONFIDENCE. ASSURANCE • CARING, INDIVIDUALISED ATTENTION THE FIRM PROVIDES TO ITS CUSTOMERS. EMPATHY • ABILITY TO PERFORM THE PROMISED SERVICE DEPENDABLY AND ACCURATELY. RELIABILITY • WILLINGNESS TO HELP CUSTOMERS AND PROVIDE PROMPT SERVICE. RESPONSIVENESS • APPEARANCE OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, PERSONNEL, AND COMMUNICATION MATERIALS. TANGIBLES
  • 7. SERVQUAL Scale • Negative discrepancy between perception and expectation = performance gap> dissatisfaction. • Positive difference = satisfaction> delight. • Set of 22 variables based on five dimensions.
  • 8. SERVQUAL QUESTIONNAIRE 1. The Z co. will have modern looking equipment. 2. The physical facilities at the Z Co. will be visually appealing. 3. The employees of Z Co. will be neatly dressed and appearing. 4. Materials & tools associated with the service will be visually appealing
  • 9. SERVQUAL QUESTIONNAIRE 5. When the Z co. promises to do sth by a certain time, the promise is always kept. 6. When the customers complain or have problems, Z co. will show great concern for solving them. 7. The Z Co. will perform the service right from the first time. 8. The Z co. will provide the services at the time agreed on.
  • 10. SERVQUAL QUESTIONNAIRE 9. The Z co. will assist on error free records. 10. The employees of the Z co. will tell the customers the exact time of service delivery. 11. The Z co,. Will give prompt service to the customers. 12. The employees of the Z co. will always be willing to help the customers. 13. The employees of the Z co will never be busy to help the customers immediately. 14. The behaviour of the employees of Z co will impress the customers will reliability of service and instill confidence.
  • 11. SERVQUAL QUESTIONNAIRE 15.The customers will feel safe and confident when transacting with the employees of the Z Co. 16.The employees of the Z Co. will always be friendly and courteous. 17.The employees of the Z Co. process knowledge to answer questions of the customers. 18.The Z Co. will pay attention to each customer individually.
  • 12. SERVQUAL QUESTIONNAIRE 19. The Z Co. will have opening hours convenient to their entire customer. 20. The Z Co. will have employees who give personal attention to each other. 21.The Z Co. will have customer’s best interest at heart. 22.The employees of the Z Co. will understand the specific needs of their customers.
  • 13. • customer’s responses to their expectations and perceptions are obtained on a 7-point Likert Scale and are compared to arrive at (P-E) gap scores. • The higher the perception minus expectation score, the higher the level of service quality to be perceived. • In an equation form, their operationalisation of service quality can be expressed as follows:
  • 14. SQi = ∑ (Pij - Eij) Where SQi = The perceived SQ of individual i k = The no. of service attributes/items. P = Perception of individual i with respect to performance of a service firm attribute j E = SQ expectation for attribute j that is the relevant norm for individual i. k J=1
  • 15. Likert Scale • A Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. • It is the most widely used approach to scaling responses in survey research. • The scale is named after its inventor, psychologist Rensis Likert.
  • 16. Likert Scale • When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement or disagreement on a symmetric agree-disagree scale for a series of statements. • Thus, the range captures the intensity of their feelings for a given item.
  • 17. Likert Scale 7 Point Likert Scale 5 Point Likert Scale
  • 18. Likert Scale • A “Likert scale” is actually the sum of responses to several Likert items. • These items are usually displayed with a visual aid, such as a series of radio buttons or a horizontal bar representing a simple scale. • 7-point scales are a little better than 5-points— but not by much. • The psychometric literature suggests that having more scale points is better but there is a diminishing return.