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- 1. Scaling Technique Jacob John Panicker MBA SMS@CHMMC Jacob John Panicker 1
- 2. Chapter Outline 1. Overview 2. Measurement and Scaling 3. Primary Scales of Measurement i. Nominal Scale ii. Ordinal Scale iii. Interval Scale iv. Ratio Scale 4. A Comparison of Scaling Techniques 5. Comparative Scaling Techniques i. Paired Comparison ii. Rank Order Scaling iii. Constant Sum Scaling iv. Q- Sort & Other Procedures Jacob John Panicker 2
- 3. Measurement and Scaling Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre-specified rules. One-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being measured. The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly. Rules must not change over objects or time. Jacob John Panicker 3
- 4. Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located. Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. Each respondent assigned a number from 1 to 100, with 1 = Extremely Unfavorable, and 100 = Extremely Favorable. Measurement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent. Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward department stores. Jacob John Panicker 4
- 5. Scale Characteristics Distance The characteristic of distance means that absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and may be expressed in units. Origin The origin characteristic means that the scale has a unique or fixed beginning or true zero point. Description By description we mean the unique labels or descriptors that are used to designate each value of the scale. All scales possess description. Order By order we mean the relative sizes or positions of the descriptors. Order is denoted by descriptors such as greater than, less than, and equal to. Jacob John Panicker 5
- 6. Primary Scales of Measurement Jacob John Panicker 6
- 7. Nominal Scale The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. When used for identification, there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects. The numbers do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the objects. The only permissible operation on the numbers in a nominal scale is counting. Only a limited number of statistics, all of which are based on frequency counts, are permissible, e.g., percentages, and mode. Jacob John Panicker 7
- 8. Ordinal Scale A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects possess some characteristic. Can determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object, but not how much more or less. Any series of numbers can be assigned that preserves the ordered relationships between the objects. In addition to the counting operation allowable for nominal scale data, ordinal scales permit the use of statistics based on centiles, e.g., percentile, quartile, median. Jacob John Panicker 8
- 9. Interval Scale Numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal values in the characteristic being measured. It permits comparison of the differences between objects. The location of the zero point is not fixed. Both the zero point and the units of measurement are arbitrary. Any positive linear transformation of the form y = a + bx will preserve the properties of the scale. It is not meaningful to take ratios of scale values. Statistical techniques that may be used include all of those that can be applied to nominal and ordinal data, and in addition the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and other statistics commonly used in marketing research. Jacob John Panicker 9
- 10. Ratio Scale Possesses all the properties of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales. It has an absolute zero point. It is meaningful to compute ratios of scale values. Only proportionate transformations of the form y = bx, where b is a positive constant, are allowed. All statistical techniques can be applied to ratio data. Jacob John Panicker 10
- 11. Primary Scales Measurement Jacob John Panicker 11
- 12. Classification of Scaling Techniques Jacob John Panicker 12
- 13. Comparison of Scaling Techniques Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects. Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties. In non-comparative scales, each object is scaled independently of the others in the stimulus set. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled. Jacob John Panicker 13
- 14. Paired Comparison Scaling A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion. The data obtained are ordinal in nature. Paired comparison scaling is the most widely-used comparative scaling technique. With n brands, [n(n - 1) /2] paired comparisons are required. Under the assumption of transitivity, it is possible to convert paired comparison data to a rank order. Jacob John Panicker 14
- 15. Rank Order Scaling Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. It is possible that the respondent may dislike the brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense. Furthermore, rank order scaling also results in ordinal data. Only (n - 1) scaling decisions need be made in rank order scaling. Jacob John Panicker 15
- 16. Constant Sum Scaling Respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance. If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent assigns it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it receives twice as many points. The sum of all the points is 100. Hence, the name of the scale. Jacob John Panicker 16
- 17. Continuous Rating Scale Example Jacob John Panicker 17
- 18. The Likert Scale Extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree/disagree with statements. Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”. Generally use either a 5- or 7-point scale Jacob John Panicker 18
- 19. Semantic Differential Scales A series of numbered (usually seven-point) bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives (for example, “good” and “bad”), anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3. Jacob John Panicker 19
- 20. Stapel Scales Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer. Jacob John Panicker 20
- 21. A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -1 -2 -3 Jacob John Panicker 21
- 22. Graphic Rating Scale Jacob John Panicker 22
- 23. Relationship of Measurement and Scaling to the Marketing Research Process Jacob John Panicker 23
- 24. THANKS Jacob John Panicker 24

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