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6.4 agri food industry and its unsustainability
 

6.4 agri food industry and its unsustainability

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    6.4 agri food industry and its unsustainability 6.4 agri food industry and its unsustainability Presentation Transcript

    • course SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY subject 6. Design exercise – sustainable system concept for eating in IIT Delhi and Guwahati campuses learning resource 6.4 AGRI-FOOD INDUSTRY AND ITS (UN)SUSTAINABILITY contributors: fabrizio ceschin, carlo vezzoli, daniel metcalfe & hussain indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dpt. / Italy LeNS, the Learning Network on Sustainability: Asian-European multi-polar network for curricula development on Design for Sustainability focused on product service system innovation. Funded by the Asia-Link Programme, EuroAid, European Commission. Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • CONTENTS 1. THE FOOD PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION CHAIN 2. MAIN ISSUES IN FOOD PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION CHAIN 3. KEY SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES OF FOOD SYSTEM 4. SUSTAINABLE FOOD? source available even on LeNS / OLEP The presentation is based on the work did by TISCHNER, U. & KJAERNES, U., „Sustainable consumption and production in the agriculture and food domain‟, in LAHLOU. S., EMMERT, S. (ed.), Proceedings: SCP cases in the field of food, mobility and housing, Proceedings of the Sustainable Consumption Research Exchange (Paris), June 2007, pp. 201-237 part of the SCORE! EU funded project Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • 1. THE FOOD PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION CHAIN Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • THE FOOD PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION SYSTEM LANDSCAPE Societal, Economical and Technological trends CONTEXT AND REGIME CONDITION Influence of Policy, Research centres, Media, NGOs… Production and supply of auxiliary materials, machines, packaging etc. by DIVERSE SUPPLIERS FARMERS FOOD RETAILERS: COMMERCIAL CONSUMERS CONSUMERS AND PROCESSORS: Different types of, CUSTOMERS: OR OTHER OR OTHERS, CATTLEMEN: Several stages: also directly from Prepare food and offer to ORGANISATI MUNICIPALI Crops and cattle growing Refinement of farmer to consumer: consumers ONS: TY: (raw food raw materials, Sell food to Remove and Final disposal/ production of commercial and PRIVATE CONSUMERS: reuse food composting of production) end products private customers Consume food with or leftovers food waste. without own preparation TRANSPORT AND PACKAGING between every production step and normally also at all different stages of processing, retail and between commercial customers and private consumers. Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • FARMERS AND CATTLEMAN INDUSTRIALISED FOOD AND GLOBALISATION OF ITS CHAIN - food production has become an industry: additional processing steps and intermediaries have been added between farmer and consumer -conventional agriculture worldwide is still becoming more intensified with a greater use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides, and automated technical devices -farms are growing in average size - food materials are being transported over large distances, being processed in countries with low labor cost Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • FARMERS AND CATTLEMAN FARMERS UNDER PRESSURE (LOOSING POWER IN THE FOOD CHAIN) - industrial agriculture: farmers are increasing their dependency on energy and synthetic fertilizer inputs; belong and complex marketing chain of which they are a tiny part (with big food processors dictating the prices) Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • FOOD PROCESSORS POWER CONCENTRATION IN FEW HANDS - most of the agricultural goods produced are transformed into food industry products (e.g. in EU more than 70%) - in food processing there are fewer and fewer companies sharing the market, thus power is concentrated in fewer hands in the system Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • RETAILERS POWER CONCENTRATION IN FEW HANDS - fewer and fewer, larger and larger retail chains share the market and fight mainly using low price policy - small stores can only survive, if they have special quality products or services and are innovative, or very much embedded in local culture and traditions - often big retailers can dictate prices to agricultural producers and processors in the mainstream industrial system Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • CONSUMERS CONSUMPTION TRENDS - unhealthy diets (over-consumption of calories per capita in industrialised contexts, and unbalanced and poor diets in emerging and low-income contexts) - consumption of highly processed food (fast and cheap food), accompanied by a decreasing knowledge about food - reduction of the average preparation time for meals - increasing awareness on hunger and obesity/ health aspects of food - declining trust in food safety Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • CONSUMERS CONSUMPTION CONTRA-TRENDS - slow food movement, to preserve and strengthen the cultural cuisine and tradition, safeguard the local food plants and seeds, and small local farmers and food producers (in industrialised contexts) - increasing organic food consumption - increasing awareness (in industrialised contexts) of fair trade relationships with stakeholders in emerging and low-income contexts Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • CONSUMERS, MUNICIPALITY & OTHERS DISPOSAL - it depends from context to context; in industrialised contexts the separate collection of rubbish (organic, plastic, metal, glass & undifferentiated) is generally diffused and effective - problem of food disposed because has not been consumed (food remnants) or because it has gone out-of-date (high quantity in industrialised contexts) Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • 2. MAIN ISSUES IN AGRI-FOOD SECTOR Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • A. Moving towards cereal mono-culture crops “If you are what you eat, and especially if you eat industrial food, as 99% of Americans do, what you are is corn...” Michael Pollan Cereals like corn and soya are crops that are easy to be industrialized, and therefore are taking the place of many traditional crops, reducing biodiversity. The access of these cereals in industrial countries is diverted towards the livestock industry (and later to the biodisel industry). Industrial agriculture on mono cultures is highly dependent on artificial fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, pesticides which are the main cause of water and soil Pollution. Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • A. Moving towards cereal mono-culture crops cereal consumption 700-1000 Kg (Kg of cereals consumed in one year per capita) Industrial products there is an over-production of cereals, but each person cannot Alcohol drinks eat more than 150 kg in one year. for this reason cereals are used to feed livestock (even if this is not the natural feed for some 150 Kg animals), produce industrial Animal products drinks and other industrial food. Direct consumption Industrial Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • B. Fuel dependency high quantity of liters of oil equivalents are expended annually to feed each person (in a industrialised country (US) ~ 250.00 liters). agricultural energy consumption is broken down as follows: 31% for the manufacture of inorganic fertilizer 19% for the operation of field machinery 16% for transportation 13% for irrigation 08% for raising livestock (not including livestock feed) 05% for crop drying 05% for pesticide production 08% miscellaneous (energy costs for packaging, refrigeration, transportation to retail outlets, and household cooking are not considered in these figures) Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • C. Meat industry and un-sustainability “Meat production is the most important contributing factor to the un- sustainability of food in Western countries. We have known for a long time that in terms of using natural resources, a lot is lost by feeding animals with food, which we could actually eat directly ourselves”. Animal protein production requires more than 8 times as much fossil- fuel energy than production of plant protein. Energy input to protein output ratio of beef is 54:1, of lamb is 50:1, for eggs its 26:1, for pork its 17:1, for milk protein 14:1, for turkey meat it is 13:1, and finally chicken meat is 4:1. Some data (industrialised comntexts): Meat and dairy production account for 13.5% of total GHG emissions in the EU25. Agriculture accounts for 80% and livestock production alone consumes 50% of all water used in the U.S. Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • D. Genetic Modified Organism (GMO) Corn and soya were the first crops to be genetically modified, and by the year 2000 more then half of corn and soya grown in the US was genetically modified. Strong multinational companies lobby for GMO (farmers are dependent from these companies because GMO plants often yeld sterile seeds. GMO seeds can contaminate regular crops. There is also the possibility that GMOs could introduce new allergens into foods, or contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. The risk connected to the use of GMO seed, for environment and human health, is however unclear. Nevertheless there should be the adoption of the “precaution” principle. Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • 4. KEY SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES OF FOOD SYSTEM Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF FOOD SYSTEM (mainstream industrialised conventional food chain) NOT ENOUGH LAND FOR FEEDING THE WORLD’S POPULATION - it is expected that in 2050 9 billion people would require between 1.8 and 2.2 Earth-sized planets in order to sustain their consumption of crops, meat, fish, and wood - the problem here is not (only) the growing population but (especially) the very unsustainable mainstream conventional industrialised production and consumption system Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF FOOD SYSTEM (mainstream industrialised conventional food chain) - the main environmental impacts are determined by the PRIMARY PRODUCTION STAGE (growing crops and cattle); these impacts are due to land and pesticide use, over-fertilisation and energy consumption for inputs such as agricultural equipment cattle fodder - (for energy use) there are relevant contributions from: MEALS PRODUCTION, STORAGE (cooling) and TRANSPORTATION - (for energy use) PACKAGING generally contributes less than 5% to the total energy consumption - SEPARATE COLLECTION OF RUBBISH (organic, plastic, metal, glass & undifferentiated) is generally diffused in industrialised contexts - problem of FOOD LOSSES that are disposed because have not been consumed (food remnants) or because it has gone out-of-date Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • Environmental dimension BIODIVERSITY - habitats and species are under increasing threat from intensive agriculture due to the emphasis on increasing yields Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • Socio-ethical dimension HAVING GOOD FOOD FOR ALL - Having enough healthy food for all: this is a key problem both in emerging and low industrialised contexts (where people often have to little food and/or unbalanced diets), and in industrialised contexts (where people often get diseases related to over-consumption and unbalanced diets) Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • Socio-ethical dimension FAIR TRADING RELATIONSHIPS Between the different stakeholders of the value chain. - We have to consider the relations between farmers on one hand, and food processing companies and supermarket chains on the other - Between the North and the South of the world the problem is between small scale producers in the South and big multinational corporate buyers from the North Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • Socio-ethical dimension CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND FOOD TRADITIONS - Another issue to be considered is the continuing loss of cultural diversity and food traditions, mainly caused by the one-dimensional food offers determined all around the world by multinational food producers Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • Socio-ethical dimension INFORMATION AND TRANSPARENCY IN RELATION TO THE FINAL USER - Sometimes the complexity of the food chain determines for consumers the difficulty in gathering information on the involved stakeholders, and so in having information (for example about trading relationships with farmers in the South, animal conditions, use of GMO, etc.). Therefore it is quite hard for consumers to take responsibility of their choices and behavior. Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • 4. SUSTAINABLE FOOD? Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • DEFINING SUSTAINABLE FOOD “sustainable food consumption can be defined as access and use by all present and future generations of the food necessary for an active, healthy life, through means that are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable.” Lefin (2008) Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy
    • DEFINING SUSTAINABLE FOOD “Food consumption and its sustainability cannot be considered as such, but in a broader system including the production, processing, transportation, packaging, preparation, and disposal of food, each of the various stages being possibly analyzed both in terms of their impact on the environment and on human health. The goal cannot be to reduce consumption of food as much as possible, but to figure out which kinds of food, produced and processed where and in what way, prepared how and by whom, consumed, digested, with leftovers disposed off or even reused in what way etc. are the most sustainable options for different regions and cultures, different productions systems and consumers/ citizens.” Tischner and Kjaernes (2007) Fabrizio Ceschin, Carlo Vezzoli, Daniel Metcalfe & Hussain Indorewala Politecnico di Milano / Faculty of Design / INDACO Dept. / Italy