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Local foodforglobalfutureeindhoven10nov2015

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Presentation: 'Local Food for Global Future' at the Design Department Food Non Food of the Design Academy Eindhoven

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Local foodforglobalfutureeindhoven10nov2015

  1. 1. Local  Food  for  Global  Future                                                          Presenta3on  at  the                              Design  Department                                      Food  Non  Food  at                          Design  Academy  Eindhoven   Harry  Donkers     10  November  2015  
  2. 2. Headlines       Industrial  and  local  food  systems     Prac3cal  examples  in  The  Netherlands  and  in  Russia   Structured  approach:  classifica3on  and  governance     Knowledge  and  innova3on  
  3. 3. Successful:   produc4on   volumes  and   finance   Successful:  efficient   use  of  natural   resources,  less   waste   Unsuccessful:   social  aspects   Unsuccessful:   social  and   ecological   values  Industrial   agriculture   and  food   New  paradigm:     Sustainable  food  security   (explicit  men4on  of   sovereignty  and  safety)   Local  focus   Local   agriculture   and  food   Linear  economy  (no  true  costs):   Circular  economy  (partly  true  cost):   New  food  economy  (true  costs):   Industrial  and  local  agriculture  and  food  
  4. 4. Large  distance  between  producers  and   consumers   Up-­‐scaling  leads  to  an  exodus  of  smaller   farmers  and  culture   Entrepreneurs  become  employees   Loss  of  awareness  of  food  quality   Miles  and  miles  of  monocultures   Use  of  chemical  fer4lizers  and  pes4cides     Loss  of  biodiversity     Oligopolis4c  compe44on:  worldwide     and  na4onwide   Mega-­‐farms,  industrial  processing     Food  products  treated  as  commodi4es   No  fair  prices  for  farmers  (European   protests)   Too  far-­‐bred  animals   Social:  Far  removed   Ecological:  Mono   Economic:  Mega  Global   Cheap  and  poor  quality  basic  food  commodi4es,  ‘synthe4c  enriched’  by  the  processing  industry     Hunger  on  the  one  hand  and  obesity  on  the  other  hand     Current  industrial  system  
  5. 5. Concentra3ons  within  the  Dutch  food  chain   Infographic  |  17-­‐08-­‐2014   Source,  PBL,    Netherlands  Environmental  Assessment  Agency   Managers  of  supermarkets  have  a  great  deal  of  power!  
  6. 6. People   Profit   Planet   Sover-­‐ eignty   Safety   Embeddedness   Fair  prices   Biodiversity   and  climate   Health   Right  to  food  and  right   to  food  produc4on   Sustainability     (Brundtland)   Food  security   (Shiva)   The  paradigm  of  sustainable  food  security  
  7. 7. The  paradigm  of  sustainable  food  security     requires  a  focus  on  local  resources   Social  well-­‐being:        A  reconnec4on  of  producers  and  consumers  requires  a  local  basis.     Economic  features:  Fairer  incomes  for  farmers  require  fundamentally  new  forms  of                                                                    capital  that  people  can  arrange  locally.       Ecological  features:  The  local  framework  is  the  best  op4on  for  careful  ecological                    processes,  resources  and  energy  cycles  largely  to  be  closed,  and  crop                  growing  and  animal  husbandry  to  be  interconnected.       Food  sovereignty:      Regions  or  na4ons  to  decide  themselves  on  their  produc4on  and                consump4on  of  food,  requires  na4onwide,  regional  and  ul4mately                local  governance  of  food  systems.     Food  safety:                          Monitoring  locally  is  less  complex  than  monitoring  global                    industrial  chains.  
  8. 8. Reconnecting producers and consumers (people and nature)   Control of local food production and consumption   Access to sufficient food     Fair prices   Local/regional production   Micro machinery and small scale processing   Food is not seen as a commodity     Access to the countryside   Biodiversity     Right to food and right to food production   Local/regional production ensures access to food for all people in the region   Awareness of food impact on health and well- being   Social:  Proximity   Economic:     Micro/Regional   Ecological:  Mul3   Food  Sovereignty:   Access  for  all   Food  Safety:  Resistance  and   Nutri3onal   Local  and  regional  agriculture  and  food  systems  
  9. 9. The  industrial  and  local  trap  in   solving  the  world  food  problem     Industrial  system   Solving  the  world  food  problem  needs   more  volumes  of  produc4on   Do  the  increased  volumes  reach  the  poor?   Local  system   Solving  the  world  food  problem  is   equivalent  to  the  paradigm  of  Sustainable   food  security  that  implies  a  local  focus   Do  the  local  systems  meet  the  features  of   the  paradigm?   Defends:   Claims:   Industrial              trap   Local                  trap  
  10. 10. Largest  and  broadest  farmer  side  by  side  in  Bunschoten   Eemlandhoeve  is  an  organic  farm  with  40  beef   ca`le  (sucklers)  and  extra  func4ons:  mee4ng   facili4es,  family  days,  educa4on,  care,  a  shop   and  more  ….   Hoeve  het  Wi`e  Schaap  is  a  modern   dairy  farm  with  about  400  dairy  cows   and  robots  for  milking,  feeding  and   manure  handling.   Jan  Huigen  and  Gerrit  Schaap  are  organizing  the  excursion:  ‘Largest  and  broadest  farmer'  
  11. 11. Largest  and  broadest  farmer     Largest  en  broadest  farmer  side  by  side  in  Bunschoten     Hoeve  het  Wi`e  Schaap     Hypermodern  dairy  farm  ca.  300  dairy   cows,  with  robots  for  milking,  robots   for  feeding  and  robots  for  stall  mucking   In  an  excursion  to  both  farms,  farmer  and  philosopher  Jan  Huijgen  shows  the   differences  and  makes  it  clear  that  both  forms  of  business  can  coexist   De  Eemlandhoeve     Apart  from  ca.  40  beef  ca`le  also  other   markets,  conference  center,  kitchen   gardens,  apiary  and  educa4on  center  
  12. 12. Recommenda3ons:  Bo`om-­‐up  regional  ini4a4ves;  Profiling  agriculture  in  spa4al  debate;  Develop  added   value;  Farming  with  nature  /  landscape  and  recrea4on  /  tourism  and  hospitality  industry;  Develop  specific   regional  research  and  policy;  Encourage  regional  branding   Crop growers: Arable farmers Horticulture Nature organizations Hotels/Rest./Catering Processors/shops Animal farmers Products for self cooking Animal contacts Landscape: Grain fields Crop growing Horticultural products Outdoor eating R e c r e a t i o n e m p l o y e r s producers consumers tourists arrangement arrangement arrangement Vechtdal  Food  Community  
  13. 13. Organic/natural  food  chain  in  Krasnodar,  2012   Chain  partners:   –  Producers,  small  farmers   –  Organic  shop   –  Catering   –  Internet  shop   –  Cafetaria   –  Restaurant   Support  needed:   –  Facilitate  lead  farms  to   demonstrate  successes   and  to  serve  as  a   model  farm  for  small   farmer   –  Be`er  knowledge  and   training  for  be`er   quality   –  Be`er  mutual  co-­‐ opera4on   –  Possibili4es  to  invest  
  14. 14. Classifica3on  of  food  systems   Combina3on  of  geographic  and  social  aspects     /Cooperation
  15. 15. Short  chains   Examples:   Farm  shops,  farmers  markets,  experiences,  food  teams,  CSA,  Web  shops,   Short  chain  governance: Aiming  at  a  be`er  coopera4on  between  consumers  and  producers.   . Raw  milk  produc;on  and  consump;on  
  16. 16. Local  food  systems   . Urban  food  systems:   Rural  food  systems:   Food  provision  in  the  rapidly  growing  city  of  Dar  es  Salaam   Examples:   Local  food  system  governance:   Employment  opportuni4es  and  a`rac4ve  rural  areas,    urban  challenges  and  opportuni4es   for  sustainability  and  biodiversity.   Rural  and  urban  food  systems  should  not  stand  alone.   Policy  support  to  establish  linkages  between  rural  and  urban  food  systems,  reducing  the   rural-­‐urban  divide.     Slow Food Communities Impact  of  small  and  private  farmers  on  rural  development  in  Russia   Urban  Agriculture   Localfoods.org.uk  
  17. 17. Producers/ entrepreneur-­‐ ship   Consumers/   ci4zens  and   ins4tu4ons   Local   governments/   Societal     organiza4ons   Regional   Embedded   Slow  Food   Convivia     Transi4on   Towns     Regional   coopera4on   Slow  Food   communi4es     Food  Strategies   Food  Policy  Councils   S4mula4ng  knowledge   Sustainable   regional   development   Suppor4ng   governance   Interac4on     Rural-­‐urban   environment   Characteris3cs  of  regional  food  systems   General  example  of  regional   food  governance:  Regional   (typical)  products  in  bids  for   local  and  regional   governments  
  18. 18. Regional  food  systems   Amsterdam   Ro`erdam   The  Hague   Utrecht   Randstad  region   Metropolitan  food  systems:   Conurba3on  food  systems:   Countryside  food  systems:   Cityside  food  systems:   Corridor  food  systems:   Connected  ci3es  food  systems:   Food  security  in  Belo  Horizonte   Twin  ci;es  Local  Food  Ini;a;ves   Minnesota/Saint  Paul   Eindhoven  cityside  region   The  Area  Coopera;ve   Oregional  in  the  Connected   ci;es  Arnhem-­‐Nijmegen   Boerenhart   Examples:   Regional  food  system  governance:   These  ‘core’  systems  flourish  when  producers,  consumers  and  local  governments  cooperate.   Natural  development;  self  sufficiency  and  sustainable  food  security.   Regional  coopera4on  is  a  cri4cal  factor.   Instruments:  Integral  regional  planning,  joint  building  of  regional  food  strategies.     Boerenhart   Vechtdal  region   Groene  Woud:     green  area  between  town-­‐trangle  Eind-­‐ hoven,  ‘s-­‐Hertogenbosch  and  Tilburg  
  19. 19.         City  gates  Karpen,  Strijp  and  Genneper  Parken  connec3ng   Eindhoven  with  Peel,  Meierij  and  Kempen   Meierij   Kempen   Peel   Karpen   Strijp   Genneper  Parken   Groendomein  Wasven   Philips  FruiWuin   Genneper  Hoeve   Example  of  a   cityside  region  
  20. 20. Coopera4ng  Regional  ini4a4ves:     Interests  bundling,  s4mulate   regional  mul4func4onal,   value  forma4on,  knowledge-­‐ embedding,  supra-­‐regional   development  agenda:   Food  Hubs  =  infrastructure  for  upscaling   regional  ini4a4ves   Interregional  or  na3onal  food  systems   Examples:   Interregional  food  system  governance:   Increasing  efficiency;    exchange  informa4on,  products  and  services.   Suppor4ng  the  various  regional  food  systems.   Solving  the  region  transcending  problems.   Crea4ng  logis4cs  hubs,  regula4ons,  interregional  coopera4on.   Toward  a  regional  food  policy  in  Europe  
  21. 21. Transregional  or  global  food  systems   Border  regions:   Vecht/Vechte   Brabant+  Oost-­‐Nederland,     Niedersachsen  en  Wesnalen   Policymaking  bodies  and  movements:   Doha-­‐round  2001,     s4ll  busy   OECD:    EU:  Commi`ee   for  the  Regions   Regions  that  are  not  adjacent  to  each  other:   Coopera4on     Netherlands/  Germany     and  South  Africa/   Swaziland/Mozambique    around  Vecht/Vechte  and  Koma4  river   Examples:   Transregional  food  governance:   Promo4ng  interna4onal  coopera4on  between  regional  food  systems.   Handling  confronta4ons  between  established  ins4tu4ons  and  societal  movements.   Elimina4ng  global  barriers  by  interna4onal  bodies  and  stakeholder  representa4ves.   Crea4ng  favourable  condi4ons  for  na4onal,  regional  and  local  interests.   Mi4ga4ng  the  power  of  monopolis4c/oligopolis4c  elements  by  governed  interna4onal  trade.   Building  interna4onal  connec4ons  and  agreements;  transregional  coopera4on,  twinning.   Rio+20  and  beyond  
  22. 22. Building  Food          Building  a  more     Strategies                      equitable  world     From  government    From  one-­‐   to  governance                dimensional  flow                                                                      to  dialogue                             Applica4on  areas  of  sustainable  food  security   Implementa4on  of  knowledge  and  innova4on   Policy  and  Aid   Basic   disciplines   Local   produc4on   and   processing   Social   sciences   Ecological   sciences   Economics   Food   sciences  Technology  and   Organiza4on   Social   From  far   away  to   nearby   Economic   From  global   to  local     Ecological   From  mono   to  mul4     Sovereignty   Right  and   access  to   food   Safety   Building   resistance                                                                                  Holis4c  approach   Knowledge                  Innova4on          ICT                                        Financial                    Logis4cs     management          methods   From                                    From     mega                                  hierarchy  to     to  micro                        community   Crea4ve                  Reciprocal   modera4on      solidarism  
  23. 23. Applica3on  areas,  challenges  and  aspect  disciplines   Applica3on   areas   Challenges   Aspect  disciplines     Topics/levels   Social     From  far  away   to  nearby   Soci(et)al  sciences     Social  nearness:  How  social  is  a  system?   Trust:  Basic  element  of  coopera4on   Food  sovereignty:  No  unwanted  interference  from  outside   Food   sovereignty   Right  and   access  to  food     Food  science  (health  and   nutri3on,  safety  and   gastronomy     Health  and  nutri;on:  Rela4onships  local  food  and  health   Safety:  Building  resistance  in  stead  of  monocultures  under   sanitary  control  (Béchamp  in  stead  of  Pasteur)   Gastronomy:  Study  of  flavour  and  taste   Food  safety     Building   resistance   Economic     From  global  to   local   Local  produc3on  and   processing     On-­‐farm  impact:  Small-­‐scale  processing   Local  and  regional  impact:  Rural  employment  and   livelihoods   Economics     Micro:  Crea4ng  value  added  at  the  farm   Meso:  Farm  par4cipa4on  in  local  and  regional  economy     Macro:  Absence  of  free  compe44on,  TTIP  and  CETA,   disturbs  food  sovereignty   Ecological   From  mono  to   mul4   Ecology  and   environmental  sciences     Soil:  All  biomass  needed  for  soil  fer4lity,  no  biofuels   Landscape  and  nature:  Rehabilitate  large-­‐scale  damaged   ecosystems  (Loess  plateau,  Thomas  Loronjo)   Climate:.  Focus  on  low  la4tude  regions  with  most  problems;   helping  ‘The  Great  Wall’  with  fer4le  lands  marching  up   north  
  24. 24. Individual  skills   flourishing  culture   Collec;ve  capaci;es   inspiring  crea;vity   Renewal   Control   Compe44on   Coopera4on   Capabili;es  of  the  self   with  an  eye  on  room  for   the  other   Competences  of  the   other  with  an  eye  on   room  for  the  self   Technology  and  organisa3on   1.  Crea4ve  modera4on   Organiza3on  Technology   2.  Equipment  and  precision  technology   3.  Energy  sources   4.  Animal  and  plant  breeding  technologies   5.  Alterna4ve  farming  systems  (such  as  ecological,   agro-­‐ecology,  permaculture,  agroforestry)   6.  Technologies  for  on-­‐farm  value  added   7.  Nanotechnology   8.  Biotechnology   9.  Technology  assessment   1.  Reciprocal  solidarism   2.  Organiza4on  of  produc4on,  processing   and  marke4ng  at  farm  level   3.  Network  coopera4on  and  communi4es   4.  Increasing  regional  capaci4es             (Educa4on,  Science,   Technology,  Esthe4c,     Value  crea4on)   (Life,  Bodily  health,     Bodily  integrity,  Senses,   Control  over  one’s   environment)   (Ins4tu4onal,  Tradi4ons,   Cultural,  Apprecia4ve)   (Awaking,     Transparency,   Knowledge,  Human   measure,  Dialogue)  
  25. 25. Policy  and  aid   Aid  Policy   1.  Policy  objec4ves:  awareness,  health,   safety,  product  quality,  animal  welfare,   environment,  inclusion  of  food   sovereignty  and  food  safety,  condi4ons   for  free  compe44on,  etc.   2.  Regional  food  strategies:  Governance   bodies  sitng  together  developing  a   plan  to  achieve  the  goals  in  a  regional   setng.   3.  Ensuring  ‘real’  free  compe44on.     1.  Building  coopera4on,  enhancing  a   professional  dialogue  between  local   farmer  and  knowledge  workers.   2.  View  knowledge  produc4on,  sharing   and  dissemina4on  as  a  two-­‐way   traffic.   3.  Assist  countries  to  iden4fy  and   develop  their  own  human  resources   and  capaci4es.  
  26. 26. Implementa3on  of  knowledge  and  innova3on         Knowledge  management   1.  Bundling  interests     2.  S4mula4ng  mul4func4onal  developments     3.  Embedding  knowledge   4.  Maintaining  regional,  inter-­‐  and  transregional  contacts   5.  Develop  local,  regional  and  supra-­‐regional  agendas,   Innova3on  methods   Various  methods,  ‘Open  innova4on’,  Out-­‐of-­‐the-­‐box  thinking     ICT   1.  Web-­‐sites  and  social  media   2.  On-­‐line  available  scien4fic  informa4on.   3.  Special  web  sites,  planorms   Financial   1.  New  financing  forms  and  techniques,  local  money  systems,  such  as  LETS   2.  Other  ownership  rela4ons   Logis3cs   1.  Logis4cs  services  to  achieve:  small-­‐scale  local  logis4cs   2.  Food  hubs.  
  27. 27. Food  aspects  and  design   Balancing  and  posi4oning   •  Food  basics:      commodity                                      intrinsic  basic  need   •  Food  tradi4ons:    local,  regional,  na4onal,  interna4onal   •  Food  crea4on:      rela4onships  soil,  fer4lity,  crops,  animals     •  Food  partners:      producers,  processors,  consumers,  recyclers   •  Food  systems:      industrial                                      local     •  Food  stages:      produc4on,  processing,  consump4on,  recycling     In  global  chains                                          local  cycles   •  Food  markets:      firms,  contracts,  coopera4ves,  communi4es   •  Food  technology  renewal                                          control   •  Food  organiza4on:    coopera4on                                      compe44on     •  Food  governance:    role  of  producers,  consumers  and  governments     •  Food  policies:      goals  
  28. 28. Thanks  for  your  a`en4on  !  

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