Standard 4.4.3 Observe and describe that organisms interact with one another in various ways, such as providing food, pollination and seed dispersal.
Definitions Organism—any living thing. Pollination—”The process by which plant pollen is transferred from the male reproductive organs to the female reproductive organs to form seeds.” Seed dispersal—the movement of seeds from the original plant to another location. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/seed+dispersal
Objectives After instruction, student will name the parts of the food web. After instruction, student will describe the conditions that will occur if any part of the food web is disturbed. After instruction, student will identify the different methods by which plants are reproduced. After instruction, student will create a correct model of an ecosystem.
Lesson Plan Materials Needed: ball of yarn, pictures of different animals, plants, grasses, and people. Have students form a circle. Give each student a picture. Give the ball of yarn to a student with a plant. Have that student gently toss the ball to another student who has an animal that uses that plant. That student holds his end and tosses the yarn to another student who holds a picture of an animal that consumes his animal. When that web is complete, start another ball of yarn in a different color. Give to a student who is not holding a piece of yarn. Repeat the above steps until that ball of yarn has run it’s course. Give a third ball of yarn and repeat the steps. By this time there should be a real mess of tangled, colored threads.
Lesson Plan Page 2 Have students discuss with each other how the web looks to them. Ask them to describe how each color of the web connects the consumers within that web. Have them discuss how the three different colors interconnect. Have them discuss how the different organisms in the web use others. For example, the horse eats grasses and the human uses the horse for planting or the cow eats grass and the human consumes milk products, uses the hide, eats beef, etc. Finally, have students drop their string one at a time and take out the users that are affected. Give students time to think about how the web is affected by the loss of users. Give them an opportunity to discuss their thoughts.
Lesson Plan Cont. Draw and label a food web. For the second part of this lesson, talk about how different plants are reproduced via this web. Give students different seeds. Have them complete a chart about the different seeds. Chart on next slide.
Web quest and Summary Go to the web site below and watch the video of how seeds are dispersed. In your science journal, answer the following questions. http://www2.bgfl.org/bgfl2/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/science/plants_pt2/dispersal.htm What do seeds need in order to disperse? Why do seeds need to disperse? How do humans help of hurt seed dispersal? What is your favorite way for seeds to disperse? Why?
Final Project Finally, ask students how the animal web and the seed dispersal relate to each other. Allow group discussion. Give groups (3 students per group) a shoe box and supplies. Have groups construct ecosystems including the plants, animals, and seeds that work together to form a web. Allow students several days for this project.
Assessment Students will be assessed on their participation in the group web. Assessment will also be based on the how the student uses details to describe seeds and seed dispersal and on the animal web.
Interdisciplinary Links Social studies—the principles of this lesson can be applied to the consumption of natural resources, cultures, and economics (buy and selling). Art—many of the projects used art to help students visualize the web. P.E.—the principles of this lesson can be used to relate the consumption of vitamins and minerals to the use of energy. Math—the steps to solving math problems can be related to the parts of the web. Literacy Arts—Students use journaling and writing to describe their web. Technology—students use technology to research seed dispersal.
Books and Resources for Children Steve Pollock, Ecology, DK Publishing, NY 2005
Fredericks, Anthony D.. Near One Cattail: Turtles, Logs And Leaping Frogs (Sharing Nature with Children Book). Nevada City: Dawn Publications (CA), 2005. Geisel, Theodor Seuss, and Dr. Seuss. The Lorax (Classic Seuss). New York: Random House Books for Young Readers, 1971. Gibbons, Gail. From Seed to Plant. New York: Holiday House, 1991. Kaye, Cathryn Berger. A Kids' Guide to Protecting & Caring for Animals: How to Take Action! (A Kids' Guide to...). Minneapolis, Minnesota : Free Spirit Publishing, 2008.
Bibliography "Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & more." Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & more. 26 Sep. 2009 <http://amazon.com>.