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Insights Preview: The Potty Project Insights Preview: The Potty Project Presentation Transcript

  • Insights Preview The Potty Project Ahmedabad Bangalore Mumbai New Delhi Pune UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India Quicksand Design Studio >> OCTOBER 201 0
  • Framework For Reporting Insights CORE CONCERNS PERIPHERAL CONCERNS Defecation Hygiene Individuals & Households Community >> Use >> Habits >> Living & Housing >> Identity ___Special users & needs >> Taboos & Beliefs ___Access to resources ___Self & community ___Access >> Health Perceptions ___Access to services ___Symbols & icons ___Rituals >> Self & community ___Aspirations >> Influence & Control ___Artifacts >> Family Structures ___Power structures & leadership ___Schedules & Routines Infrastructure ___Roles & responsibilities ___Collective action & ownership ___Hacks >> Design ___Extended structures >> Image & Perceptions ___Evolution of use >> Complimentary services >> Consumption ___Status >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Organizational Structures ___Spending habits ___Habits ___Privacy ___Brands & self-image ___Awareness ___Aspirations ___Reputation >> Information ___Cleanliness ___Awareness ___Risk ___Access ___Convenience ___Cost UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad Bangalore Mumbai New Delhi Pune UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India Quicksand Design Studio >> OCTOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Profiles >> Location Profile Mirzapur Mirzapur slum comprises of a majority of Muslims, while 20-30% of the community is Hindus, mostly from Gujurat. The houses are ‘Pucca’ and are connected to a sewer system. Most of the real estate is owned by the Muslims, and the Hindus live as tenants paying meagre rents (Rs. 7 pm) that were set by their ancestors and haven't been revised to date. There is a huge strife between the 2 communal groups, as a reason of which the Muslims, all of whom have private sanitation, have curbed any infrastructural improvements because they want the Hindus (who only have access to the 3 community toilets in the area) to relocate. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Khodiyar Nagar Profiles >> Location Profile Khodiyar Nagar Khodiyar Nagar is a slum comprising of 2000 households in the heart of the city, part of which was displaced by the recent development of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system. Some other parts of the slum are also going to be evicted because of the upcoming Sabarmati Riverfront Project that aims at beautifying the river bank into a promenade. The slum has a mixture of sanitation options ranging from open defecation, free community toilets, pay per use Sulabh toilet and individual toilets being evangelized by a SEWA (Self-Employed Women's Association) under the Gujarat government’s Slum Networking Program. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Special Users & Needs For women, menstrual waste is a bigger shame than feces Example 1 Even though the toilet facilities are free to use for women, they contribute money once a week to pay the cleaner for cleaning all their sanitary waste UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Convenience Open defecation as an alternative to toilets has extremely low barriers of use - socially, economically and psychologically “If I don’t open it early in the morning, people will defecate right outside” CARETAKER OF TOILET FACILITY, MIRZAPUR Older people defecate outside the toilets. They disregard the pleas of the caretaker on the pretext that: “Our forefathers use to defecate outside - why shouldn’t we. We don’t like the stuffiness inside - we’d rather do it in the open” RESIDENT, MIRZAPUR UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Cost Users are conscientious about payments but at a periodicity that suits them Example 1 Some users pay periodically at an interval of a few days instead of paying every day. On being asked by the caretaker, the response is – “We don’t have money today, We’ll pay later”. Some people use this as a pretext, while others genuinely mean it Example 2 Mobile toilet block, Pitampura, New Delhi Caretaker stands outside his designated place in order to collect money from users who would otherwise leave without paying Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15528227 UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Hygiene >> Taboos & Beliefs People’s understanding of cleanliness is mostly superficial Example 1 The sweeper does a thorough cleaning of the toilets once a week with acid and water. He uses the same brush to clean the latrine and then the walls of the toilet Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15531084 UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Design People in the community see toilet facilities merely as designated defecation points Sanitation facilities serve to mark out a space that different members of the community use to defecate - either inside or outside. Example 1 Children almost invariably defecate outside a toilet facility UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Design Design of enclosed facilities establishes the rules of use more clearly When users walk into a facility, there is a clear demarcation between the outside and the inside. Also the space inside is more directly under the supervision of a caretaker hence people are more conscious of maintaining it. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Design Design of enclosed facilities establishes the rules of use more clearly For toilets that open directly outside, the boundaries between outside and inside are not as distinct and the direct supervision of a caretaker is absent. People therefore tend to defecate right outside the door. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Organizational Structures Sharing responsibility amongst close family helps tide over financial inadequacy Example 1 The caretaker makes his son who is visiting from the village fill in for his absence. Sharing of responsibility amongst close family or friend allows for supplemental income by creating additional time for other jobs. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Living & Housing >> Aspirations The pace of improvement in lifestyle does not correspond to the pace of improvement in sanitation The cost to improving personal sanitation is one large step process while improvement of other lifestyle variables maybe more gradual. Noteworthy transition for households with respect to sanitation happen when they move from other options (open or public toilets) to privately owned toilets. If they could help it, an improvement in financial status would correspond to an improvement in sanitation but that’s usually not possible. Example 1 Saraswati Ben has been using the public toilet, in one form or another, for all her life until 2004 when she could save enough money to build a private toilet. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad >> Mirzapur Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Living & Housing >> Aspirations On the aspirational ladder, sanitation is only a subset of better housing Example 1 People are staying in houses their forefathers use to stay in. Some who have built private bathrooms have done so only a few years back along with renovation of their house. Saraswati Ben in particular, built a room on top and a toilet along with it as part of her house renovations. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad Bangalore Mumbai New Delhi Pune UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India Quicksand Design Studio >> OCTOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Ashwathpura Slum, Peenya Profiles >> Location Profile Ashwathpura slum Ashwathpura is a 30 year old slum comprising of nearly 400 households, located in the industrial area of Peenya. The slum mostly comprises of “Kuccha” houses with a few “Pucca” houses. All of the residents here belong to one of 3 districts of Gulbarg, Yagiri and Raichur in Karnataka and are all employed in different capacities in the construction industry. There are no toilet facilities in Ashwatpura and everyone who lives here engages in open defecation. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Mathikere Slum Profiles >> Location Profile Mathikere Slum During the construction of the Mathikere flyover and the expansion of the road, in early 2010, 75 houses were demolished. To temporarily rehabilitate the families, the slum board constructed 40 1-room accommodations with shared bathrooms and toilets under the newly constructed flyover. This community of 43 houses, has 8 sets of bathrooms & toilets with each set being assigned to a row of 6 houses. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Ashwathpura Slum, Peenya Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Schedules & Routine Much like open defecation itself, accompanying activities are almost therapeutic Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15521109 Example 1 Surya carries his mobile to the fields to listen to songs that he has downloaded on it Example 2 Brushing one’s teeth is a long monotonous activity that starts when people head out from their homes to defecate and finishes when they come back, wash their hands and then rinse their mouth Example 3 Men smoke cigarettes while they sit down to defecate UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Ashwathpura Slum, Peenya Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Privacy Amongst men, privacy is mostly a state of mind For men, the act of defecation in the open signifies a space which momentarily is not encroached by anyone – it is a private space even if physically it means being in the midst of others. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Mathikere Slum Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Hygiene >> Health Perceptions Health outcomes are perceived to link directly with water quality more than with quality of sanitation Example 1 Ratna has severe asthma and her children remain sick frequently. She along with many other members of the community, blames their ill health on the quality of water UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Mathikere Slum Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Design Responsibility towards a shared toilet is evident through symbols of ownership Example 1 The space between the toilet and the bathroom is used to wash and dry clothes Example 2 House owners lock the toilets when not in use UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Ashwathpura Slum, Peenya Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Living & Housing >> Access to Resources Resource scarcity makes frugality a norm Example 1 The water cans people carried to defecation sites were small (0.5-1 liter), which too were only half filled UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Mathikere Slum Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Consumption >> Spending Habits Extreme frugality is intertwined with small indulgences Example 1 On special occasions like a function, a full tank of water is hired for Rs. 500 Example 2 Surya paid Rs. 100 for 120 songs to be loaded onto his mobile which he carries to the fields in the morning Example 3 Ratna buys small amounts of groceries to manage cash-flow while Chandrashekhar her husband frequently spends Rs. 15 for a hot water bath at a bath-house. Example 4 Manjunath, who lives alone, pays Rs. 300 pm (8 % of his income) for his laundry. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Mathikere Slum Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Consumption >> Brands & Self Image Association between use of household sanitation products and an improved self-image is missing Users tend to identify with almost all personal hygiene products like shampoo, oil, soap, toothpaste. Sanitation products, on the other hand, are mostly seen as generic or unbranded products and are referred to by the function they perform and not the name of the brand. Example 1 When purchasing toothpaste, people would ask for Colgate, but bleaching powder and acid were not remembered by brands. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Mathikere Slum Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Information >> Access Information asymmetry is a hurdle in availing substantial benefits Ratna knows that she could save Rs. 400 - 500 pm (20% of her monthly income) if she has a ration card but she does not have one and is not keen to get one made as she feels it is a tedious and time consuming process. "I will go and get the ration card made sometime. These days the baby takes up a lot of my time and also I don't have the money to get the card made" RATNA TALKING ABOUT GETTING A RATION CARD UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Bangalore >> Ashwathpura Slum, Peenya Peripheral Concerns >> Community >> Identity >> Self & Community Social identity establishes prevalent behavior and breeds conformity Example 1 Somanna and his friends who live and work together in the slum, also have a common routine around defecation UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad Bangalore Mumbai New Delhi Pune UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India Quicksand Design Studio >> OCTOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Profiles >> Location Profile Janta Chawl Janta Chawl is a small community of 200 household, near to Carter Road in Mumbai. It largely comprises of inhabitants who have been there for as long as 30 years. New migrants live in houses leased from the original settlers. There are two toilets in the community, each shared by a smaller sub-community who have different self- governing systems in place. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Gautam Nagar, Govandi Profiles >> Location Profile Gautam Nagar, Govandi Gautam Nagar, Govani is a large slum of 5000 households, near the Ghatkopar-Mankhurd link road. Two new SPARC (Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres) toilets have been built 50m apart as a result of the political aspirations of two ‘Samiti’ leaders. There are MHADA (Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority) toilets in the settlement which are used by people who do not have access to the SPARC toilets. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Access Gender-wise division of access is required in cases where there is a certain anonymity between users Example 1 In a unique case in Janta Chawl, where the community is small, the toilets are unisex. Because of lack of anonymity amongst the residents there are no untoward or inappropriate situations. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Schedules & Routines Behavior and adoption of practices are imitated and accepted over time Example 1 Users of the toilet started locking the toilet to restrict access Example 2 Instead of waiting, users place water cans as proxies to mark their place in the queue, at the toilet UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Schedules & Routines Individual schedules establish community routine Example 1 The semi-private toilets in Janta Chawl are cleaned by the women of the families using them. These toilets are cleaned on sundays, as most of the women are working and are free only on sunday. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Hacks Homogenous system starts falling into place when behaviors are imitated Virendra Talking About How People In His Slum Imitate Behavior Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15521364 UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Gautam Nagar, Govani & Janta Chawl Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Cost Perception of cost for using or running a toilet depends on the way it is incurred A pay per use model is deemed expensive as users usually tend to relate money spent daily to facilities used by them. In a model where users pay for supplies, they feel that they have control over quality of cleaning even though it is a time consuming task. “Since we buy the supplies ourselves, we know where the money goes, and are accountable for things getting over” VAISHALI, JANTA CHAWL UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Complimentary Services Physical placement of amenities related to the toilet impact behavior Example 1 A well situated very close to the toilet block is used as the primary source of water by people using the toilet. The community has kept fish in the well which keeps the water clean and free of mosquitoes UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Gautam Nagar, Govandi Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Living & Housing >> Aspirations Domestic status dictates actions and aspirations “We want to build a community playground for the kids, but the church doesn’t allow us to access the land with trucks” MONISH YOUNGSTER IN THE CHAWL “I sent my family back to the village, and am earning money and sending it to them” MAHESH GUPTA, AUTO RICKSHAW DRIVER UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Janta Chawl Peripheral Concerns >> Community >> Influence & Control >> Collective Action & Ownership Collective maintenance leads to more considerate use of a toilet The model of collective ownership over the toilet, forces user to use the toilet in a more considerate manner, and clean the toilet properly, as they feel responsible for the same. “It was constructed as a public toilet but since we have started managing it, it is like our own toilet” VIRENDRA, JANTA CHAWL Virendra Carrying Extra Water To Clean The Toilet After Using It UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Mumbai >> Gautam Nagar, Govandi & Janta Chawl Peripheral Concerns >> Community >> Image & Perceptions >> Habits Real or imaginary boundaries within a community influence access to amenities and subsequent adoption Example 1 In both Gautam Nagar and Janta Chawl, sub-communities have a more distinct identity than the collective ‘Basti’. These communities can be identified by factors such as time of inhabitation, shared infrastructure like water source and toilets. The New Settlers Who Live At A Short Distance From The Original Slum UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad Bangalore Mumbai New Delhi Pune UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India Quicksand Design Studio >> OCTOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Profiles >> Location Profile GP Block, Pitampura GP Block in Pitampura is a slum comprising of nearly 1,500 houses with approx. 6,000 residents. Most families are living in houses that are 10-12 sq meters in area. Many of the residents are migrants from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and have been living here for 20 years. Men work as rickshaw pullers, construction workers and drivers while many women work as housemaids. There are 3 community toilet blocks at GP Block with around 80 toilet seats. All of these are pay-per-use toilets with one of them being a mobile toilet block. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> Zamrudhpur Profiles >> Location Profile Zamrudhpur Zamrudhpur is a vertical slum, with a largely migrant population from West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. It is located next to a upper-middle class residential area, and many people who live here work as maids or drivers for this neighboring community. The vertical slums have several rooms to a floor, and usually one or two toilets and bathrooms per floor. One room may be rented out by a family or a group of 3-10 people. Due to the large numbers of people who live on a floor, the toilets become very dirty with overuse. There is also a pay per use toilet nearby which many people, particularly men, prefer to use. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Access “Pay as and when” instead of “pay and use” is the prevalent model where enforcement is not possible Example 1 At the Pitampura toilet, the caretakers are from the local community. As compared to an outsider, they are familiar with many of the community members. As a result, they are unable to enforce strict collection of the Re. 1 fee. Only 50% of the people on any given day end up paying. The caretaker feels that community members recognize that if very few people pay, then the toilet will get closed - thus people who can afford to pay, do so. “If a person is really poor and can’t afford to pay, I can’t stop him from using the toilet.” CARETAKER - PITAMPURA TOILET Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15521230 TALKING ABOUT COLLECTION OF FEES UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Rituals Protocols for shared use are uniformly adopted at a community toilet Example 1 The public toilet in Pitampura has a queueing system that comprised of 2 sets of queues for defecating & bathing. Within the system for defecating, people queued up in front of individual toilet doors and were using a set of water cans as proxies to indicate and enforce their respective turns to use the toilet. We saw no one trying to break this system or trying to jump the queue. The queues remained in place even when it started raining quite heavily in the open courtyard where everyone stood. People value their place in the queue highly and tend not to give it up to people with even more Men Remain Queued Up In Spite Of The Rains Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15534232 “urgent calls of nature”. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Schedules & Routines Community toilet facilities have peaks of usage in the morning and evening Example 1 At Pitampura, we saw long queues at the toilet at 6:45 AM in both the men’s & women’s sections of the toilet. At about 8:30 - 9:00 AM the crowd started thinning out. The caretaker said that in the evening at around 6:30 - 7:00 PM, smaller queues would form again. Rush Hour At Pitampura’s Toilet Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15521703 UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Privacy For most men, the community toilet space is an extension of their home and the same protocols apply Example 1 Women on the other hand, feel a greater need to dress appropriately while at community toilets UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes & Perceptions >> Privacy People tend to grant access to women to sanitation and bathing facilities within their community Example 1 Meena & her eldest daughter Arti often use the bathroom in their neighbor's house (a distant relative) to bathe. Her younger girls and sons go to the community water point to bathe Meena’s Neighbour Whose Bathroom Meena And Arti Use UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Hygiene >> Taboos & Beliefs Amenities that can be accessed at home, are not accessed at public toilets for fear of contamination Example 1 At Pitampura, Samadhan and Dhanraj both said that they did not use the pinch of detergent kept at the facility to wash their hands because it had been dirtied by the touch of other people. They preferred coming back home and washing their hands with soap there. The Caretaker And Cleaner Remain Fairly Isolated From The Rest Of The Community UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Organizational Structures A loosely defined framework, that includes incentives and a familiarity with the community, enables caretakers to be successful Example 1 At Pitampura, the NGO that runs the toilet replaces caretakers if they don’t perform well - on operational and financial metrics. All caretakers (including the present one) are from the GP Block community and thus know the community members and their needs fairly well. This mix of incentives + local knowledge has meant that the current caretaker balances the need of the community (for e.g. allowing certain people to use the toilet for free if they don't have money) with the needs of the entity running the toilet. The Caretaker And His Wife At The Counter In The Toilet Facility UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Peripheral Concerns >> Individuals & Households >> Information >> Access The structure of schemes provides only partial benefits to beneficiaries Example 1 Samadhan’s family is unable to buy enough groceries to last the entire month from the ration shop because of limited quota per household - they end up buying groceries at the local retail shop which are comparatively much more expensive. Rice, Grains And Other Eatables At Samadhan’s House UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Delhi >> GP Block, Pitampura Peripheral Concerns >> Community >> Influence & Control >> Power Structures & Leadership Social sanction for improper use or behavior is met with hostility “There is no point putting individual taps in each toilet stall. Many people will leave them running which will waste water. And if someone else tells them to turn off the taps, they will simply say – “What does it matter to you ?”. People become very hostile when someone tells them something.” DHANRAJ TALKING ABOUT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY TOILET Dhanraj With His Family UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Ahmedabad Bangalore Mumbai New Delhi Pune UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India Quicksand Design Studio >> OCTOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Happy Colony Location Profile Happy Colony Happy Colony is uniquely situated in the middle of a residential area in Kothrud in Pune, and is surrounded by many high-rise apartment complexes. Many of the residents of this slum work as maids and servants in these houses. Most of the residents of the slum are migrants from Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. There are 3 government toilets and one toilet built by SPARC. While these toilets are located within close proximity, and can easily be used by most residents of the slum, in actuality, there is an unspoken system of demarcation, and certain sub- communities use certain toilets. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Ram Tekdi Location Profile Ram Tekdi Ram Tekdi is is a slum of nearly 1500 household, comprising primarily of Maharashtrians, with a sizable Muslim minority. Many of the residents work as maids, day laborers, and rickshaw drivers. There are 3 community toilets (one exclusively for women), an open field at the top of the hill which is used to defecate in, and a few private toilets in the older houses. There is an active NGO and governmental presence in the area, largely due to a local female community leader, Vaishalitai Shinde. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Happy Colony Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Use >> Special Users & Needs The needs of infants and young children are overlooked in the established sanitation system Example 1 Young children do not use toilet facilities, but defecate in the open, either on the road or the gutter outside of their home and sometimes even inside their house Example 2 A major change of perception with regards to privacy for young girls happens once they reach a pre-pubescent or adolescent age; they are expected to go to the women’s toilet with their mother unlike teenage boys, who can continue using the children’s toilet UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Ram Tekdi Core Concerns >> Defecation >> Attitudes and Perceptions >> Convenience Convenience will often trump “good” sanitation. Many community toilets become quite crowded during morning rush hours, and the long wait also discourage people from using the facilities. Instead, many will go to defecate outside, where they don’t have to wait for others. “When the pressure hits, you have to relieve yourselves anyhow. You can’t afford to wait in a queue” RAJA RAM CHAUHAN, 39 RESPONSE ON BEING ASKED WHY HE OPEN DEFECATES UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • City >> Pune >> Ram Tekdi & Happy Colony Core Concerns >> Hygiene >> Habits Hygiene practices are adhered to but not understood The ‘act’ of rinsing your hands after defecation is more understood than the actual reason for it. Example 1 A man rinses his hands with dirty water from a puddle after defecating in a field. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Ram Tekdi Core Concerns >> Hygiene >> Habits Individuals tend to customize practices which they feel ensure personal and household cleanliness Example 1 Saira uses a rough stone to wash her clothes on, as she feels it helps clean the clothes better. She also prefers to empty the garbage bin in their house at night before the family goes to sleep, so that they are not sharing the same space with their refuse UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Ram Tekdi & Happy Colony Core Concerns >> Hygiene >> Self and Community Unspoken boundaries set by socio-cultural norms affect the way amenities are used Example 1 Chandrahaas from Ram Tekdi, defecates in the field rather than using the private toilet in his house, as he doesn’t want to encroach on the privacy of his daughters-in-law at home who follow the Purdah system. Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15526743 UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Ram Tekdi Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Design Exposing the user ensures responsible use Example 1 The toilet booths in the public toilet in Ram Tekdi do not have doors. This ensures that users do not take too long and it automatically imposes certain behaviors like flushing after using as there is no anonymity and one can see if you leave a toilet dirty. UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Happy Colony Core Concerns >> Infrastructure >> Design Special needs are a trigger for private sanitation Example 1 A private toilet was built inside the house for Meera, while she was pregnant. The toilet is not in use anymore, except in emergency situations. The family has gone back to paying Rs. 30 pm for using the community toilet. “The toilet was a necessity when my daughter was pregnant. We stopped using it after, as it was right next to the kitchen. How can you cook and eat if the toilet smell spreads right there ?” VIKAS GODKE , 54 HAPPY COLONY UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0
  • Pune >> Ram Tekdi Peripheral Concerns >> Users >> Living and Housing >> Aspirations Aspirations influence the adoption of personal hygiene products Example 1 Saira in Ram Tekdi, saw a TV advertisement for Lifebuoy soap, where it claimed to be the most effective product for killing germs, and since has been purchasing only that brand for her house. Link :http://www.vimeo.com/15525899 UX Research on Sanitation in Urban India >> Quicksand Design Studio >> O C TOBER 201 0