Consequences Of Favoring the MINORITY & Marginalizing the MAJORITY– in the “Indian Democracy”!! Presented by: Romi Roy Senior Urban Designer, UTTIPEC DDA Delhi Spl. Invitee, Masterplan Review Committee under LG, Delhi Member, High Court Special Task Force on Transportation under CS Member, Technical Committee on Urban Drainage, GNCTD, Delhi Spl. Invitee, LAP Monitoring Committee, MCD Delhi Member, Sub-Committee on Sustainable Habitat, MoUD Member of Committees, Indian Road Congress 22 Dec 2012
Who are the Roads for ??Pedestrians + As Many as 20 Types of Vehicles
Delhi Modal Share35% of Tripsare Walk Only! Private modes BICYCLE 4% CAR/TAXI 27% Walk 9% 35% WALK 35% 2W 14% CYCLE RICKSHAW 2% BUS TRAIN (IR) 27% 1% AUTO RICKSHAW 5% METRO 3% Public modes In addition, 38% all Public Transport trips include walk! Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for DoT, GNCTD, 2010
Delhi Modal Share Only 23% of the city’s people use private vehicles (car/2-wheeler).Yet almost all infrastructure investments in the city are made for this MINORITY! Private modes BICYCLE 4% CAR/TAXI 27% Walk 9% 35% WALK 35% 2W 14% CYCLE RICKSHAW 2% BUS 27% TRAIN (IR) 1% AUTO RICKSHAW 5% METRO 3% Public modes 38% Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for DoT, GNCTD, 2010
35% people of Delhi own CYCLES !! But only 4% of trips are bycycle – because its unsafe and dangerous to use them! Vehicle Ownership in Private Vehicle Ownership (%) Private Vehicle Trips (%) Delhi 60 50 47.9 40 43.4 40 35 38 30 35 30 35 25 20 20 19.4 15 10 10 14 5 9 4 0 0Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study for DoT, GNCTD, 2010
Soon cyclists were marginalized due to growing traffic…
Now they are “invisible” so they have no rights to road space and are at the mercy of motor vehicles!!
Cycle tracks are sometimes constructed, but wrongly so!!Therefore they land up being “encroached” by motor vehicles while cycles/ rickshaws remain on road!!
Samarthyam (an NGO) conducted Audit of one such road. MCD Engineers Police said they were not aware that the track constructed here Police was for Cycles & Rickshaws… !! MCD engineers said they were not aware of the UTTIPEC or IRC design standards for footpaths & cycle tracks…!! Samarthyam
Cycle tracks/ footpathsare supposed to be 4-inchhigh…11-11-inch high wereconstructed here.For whom ??
How can a rickshaw get onan 11-inch high cycle track, 11-even with a ramp ???They can’t!! Therefore….
….the Track meant for Cycles/rickshawsis being used for Car-parking comfortably!! Car-
The physically disabled person with us could barely bepushed up on the footpath/ cycle track. Slope here is 1:2 !!
Message we are giving to people through our Road Design:• If you are a car user, the Road is for you. You get first priority to do whatever you like.• If you are a Pedestrian, you are “At you Own Risk”. If possible, install eyes at the back of your head.• If you are running a cycle-rickshaw, you are illegal and there is no space for you on the road. Be thankful we are not throwing you out.• If you are on a cycle, again, “At your Own Risk”.• If you are old or even slightly physically challenged, STAY AT HOME! CLICK NEXT >
• 60% of Trips in Delhi are below 4 KMs. 60% Cycles, Cycle-rickshaws & Walking are the ideal modes for short 1-4 km Trips. Average Trip Lengths by M ode: Delhi 120 100 Average Trip Mode Length (KM) 80 % of Trips •Car 10.5 60 •2W 8.7 40 •Auto Rickshaw 4.7 20 •Bus 8.8 •Metro 13.8 0 •Train (IR) 20.2 •Bicycle 4 •Cycle Rickshaw 1.7 Trip lengths in KM 60-70% 60- •Walk 1.1 trips 34Source: RIT ES T ransport Demand Forecast Study for DoT , GNCT D, 2010
For a 3 km trip, car bicycle BRT metroBuses & Cycle aremost efficient PT 3modes. walk 2.5 2 Distance, km 1.5 1 Metro Walking 0.5 Bicycling BRT 2-Wheeler/car 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time, minutesSource: Created by IIT Delhi + iT rans
NMT inclusive Planning –Where do you need it?Schools• 3 km buffer around schools of Sec. and Sr. Sec schools. (Schools marked From . Eicher City Map, Edition 2)• The Catchment area of education based trips. Legend School railway line NCTD BoundarySource: TRIPP/IIT Delhi yamuna watercourse IGI airport forests and ridge Buffer School 0 3 6 12 18 24 ± Kilometers
Trips origin: slums• Distributions of JJ Clusters in Delhi• There is direct relation between the density of these poor households and the number of cycle trips origin. Legend JJC_Point POPULATION 0 - 100 101 - 200 201 - 400 401 - 800 801 - 1600 ± 1601 - 10000 nctd line railway lineSource: TRIPP/IIT Delhi yamuna watercourse 0 2 4 8 12 16
NMT trips destination:shops, MLU, CSC, DC, Wholesale areas• Major Commercial Centres, District Centres, -18%• Shops / Mixed Land Use and Wholesale areas -23%• These are spread all over urban area as major destination for poor urban workers Legend using cycles for upto 20km per day Shops / Mixed Landuse district centers C.S. Center s ± wholesale areas yamuna watercourse rai lway line 0 2 4 8 12 16 nctd line Kilometers Source: Figure 4.17 Shows locations of major Commercial Centres, District Centres, Shops / /TRIPP/IIT Delhi Mixed Land Use and Wholesale areas
NMT destination: manufacturingareas and govt. offices• 21% of cycle n work- trips have factory destination and travel up to 10 km in a day n n• about 35% have offices (Govt. and n n Pvt.) as their destination and Legend n nn n n n travelling upto 10 n govt landuse km per day railway line NCTD Boundary n yamuna watercourse govt. landuse manufacture ± IGI airport forests and ridge Buffer_of_manufacture 0 3 6 12 18 24 Buffer_of_govt_landuseSource: TRIPP/IIT Delhi Kilometers
Walking & Cycle-rickshaws are the most Cycle- important Feeders to Metro/ BRT Stations. Mode used to Reach Metro Stations: MODE FROM ORIGIN TO METRO FROM METRO TO DESTINATION Walk 61% 78% Cycle Rickshaw 12% 9% Two Wheeler 11% -- Auto 8% 8% Bus 5% 5% Car/Taxi 3% 1%Source: RITES Transport Demand Forecast Study: May 2008Yet NO Metro Station provides authorized cycle- cycle-rickshaw parking !! 40
Policy Recommendation 2: • Improve Supply & Service by IPT. • Provide authorized Parking. auto taxi rickshaw• A Car serves one person a day & occupies minimum 3 parking spaces throughout the city.• An IPT mode occupies only one parking space, and serves multiple people throughout the day. 41
12th Plan Strategies to promote IPT:1. Provide More IPT Choices2. Provide organized IPT Parking at all Metro Stations & along all Roads.
Road Safety is Low. The reasons for all accidents are: 1. Signal free high speed corridors. 2. Insufficient/ No pedestrian Crossing facilities. 3. Central verge without grills. 4. No speed breakers/ rumble strips on long stretches. 5. Absence of dedicated lanes for slow moving vehicles. 6. Heavy volume of traffic. 7. Glaring during night etc. Wazirabad Road Pedestrians G. T. Road Two Wheelers• There are more than 2100 Najafgarh Road Self accidents occurred during 2010. Mahrauli Badarpur Road N. H.-8• The maximum casualty in the fatal accidents are pedestrians, Mathura Road cyclists & 2 wheelers. G T K Road Rohtak Road• The maximum accidents have occurred during the lean hours both Outer Ring Road in the morning & night. Ring Road 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Fatal Accidents in 2010Source: Delhi Traffic Police
How are Car-oriented Infrastructure Car- Impacting us?
How are Car-oriented Infrastructure Car- Impacting us?• Making motor vehicle movement smoother for a few years, before jams take over.• Making it impossible/ very difficult to cross roads on foot!• Making cycles & cycle-rickshaws move contra-flow, thus endangering their lives.• Making it impossible/ difficult to interchange between different bus routes near junctions.• Creating environments suitable for eve-teasing and heinous crimes like Rape!• In long run, increased car use leads to Congestion again, while use of all other modes has been made excruciatingly difficult or impossible!
How to cross this road ?? Where to walk or cycle ??Dhaulan Kuan Signal-free Cloverleaf (जलेबी) Signal- 46
Walking Distances are increased by >5 times >5 after जलेबी construction at AIIMS!. AIIMS!.(Source: CSE)After construction of the Clover Leaf Flyover, the walking distancefrom AIIMS exit to Dilli Haat has increased by over 5 times.In addition, there are no safe crossings available, so people risktheir lives crossing the street at the most convenient locations.
Walking Distances are increased by >5 times wherever a flyover is constructred. constructred. People can’t cross the street between neighborhoods!!
All major flyovers have failed, or led to MORE congestion.
All major flyovers have failed, or led to MORE congestion.
Congestion is good!!It makes people shift to BRT or other modes like cycles!! Jakarta Delhi Delhi
What to Do?1. Follow Road Standards & Guidelines. (IRC+ UTTIPEC)2. Plan a Network for cyclists, rickshaws & pedestrians, not pieces.3. Technically Design, Implement & Supervise projects.4. Regular Audit and Maintenance.
Masterplan-2021 Road Hierarchy: Categorization* Primary Arterial Other Primary Arterial Primary Collector Secondary Collector Local StreetsRIGHT OF WAY 60-80 M 45-60 M 30-40 M 18-24 M 12-20 MSPEED RANGE 50 – 70 km/hr 30 - 40 km/hr. 20 - 30 km/hr 10- 20 km/hr 10-20 km/hrSPEED Enforcement and Traffic Enforcement and Traffic Enforcement and Traffic calming Traffic calmingCONTROL Calming required Calming required Traffic calming essential. required required.BUSWAYS FOR Segregated busw ays Segregated busw ays Segregated busw ays No segregated bus lane; No segregated busBRT required w here BRT required w here BRT required w here BRT but Road may be lanes or bus operations proposed proposed proposed, at-grade designated Bus-NMV required; but Road segregation possible on only if required may be designated R/Ws above 36 M Bus-NMV only if requiredMOTORIZED 2 to 4 motorized lanes per 2 to 4 motorized lanes per 2 to 3 motorized lanes No minimum lane width No minimum laneLANES direction, min. 3.3 m w ide direction, min. 3.3 m w ide per direction, min. 3.1m specification. width specification. (min. 3.5 for BRT (min. 3.3 for BRT w ide (min. 3.3 for BRT busw ays) busw ays) busw ays)CYCLE/ NMV Segregated cycle tracks Segregated cycle tracks Traffic Calming Cycle lanes can work, No special feature forTRACKS required; min. 2.5 m wide required; min. 2.5 m wide essential where segregated tracks cyclists for two-way movement. for two-way movement. segregated Cycle tracks required where friction & are not provided; Cycle encroachment expected tracks to be min. 2.5 m wide if block lengths are >250m.SERVICE LANES Serv ice lanes required. Serv ice lanes required for No serv ice lane No serv ice lane No serv ice lane residential frontages; for required required required commercial / MU frontages, not required.MEDIANS Continuous median; all Continuous median; all Intermittent or No Intermittent or No No medians; traffic openings and intersections openings and intersections median; median required; For calmed crossings, or accompanied by signals accompanied by signals openings/ intersections roads w here need for mini roundabouts and traffic calming. (no and traffic calming. (no accompanied by signals Median is felt, issue to grade separators within grade separators within and traffic calming. be brought to city) city) UTTIPEC. Crossings to NOT E: Lane Widths have been designated based on desired speed of the road category. be traffic calmed.54 Guidelines prepared by UTTIP EC, DDA; Revised and Updated in Nov 2010. * 54
05 Bicycle and Non-Motorized Transport Infrastructure05A Segregated Cycle +NMT Tracks05B Bicycle Parking andOther Infrastructure Provision for introducing cycle tracks, pedestrian and disabled friendly features in arterial and sub-arterial roads is a must. (MPD-2021) Bicycles, Rickshaw s and other Non-Motorized transport are essential and the most eco- friendly feeder services to and from MRTS stations. They are also indispensible for short & UTTIPEC Mobility Safety medium length trips for shopping, daily needs, school, etc. Providing safe and segregated NMT lanes on all Arterial and Collector Streets w ould encourage their use and reduce the & Comfort dependency of people on the private car... StreetIntegrated Design MAIN PRINCIPLES: Mobility - Continuous and safe NMT lanes with adequate crossings are essential throughout the city Guidelines Ecology - Ample parking facilities for NMTs must be provided at all MRTS stations Ecology: - The most eco-friendly mode of transportation. Safety/Comfort - Safe crossings for NMT are essential for their safety. - NMT lanes must be segregated from faster motorized traffic. - Shade must be provide along NMT lanes as well as at traffic signals. 55
45 M Primary Arterial Road IRC Section Cycle Tracks MANDATORY UTTIPEC Section63 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 63
40 M Primary Arterial Road IRC Section Cycle Tracks MANDATORY UTTIPEC Section64 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 64
30 M Arterial RoadIRC Section Cycle Tracks MANDATORYUTTIPECSection6565 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA
30 M Primary Collector Road NOTE: IRC Section Non-motorized Lanes/ Cycle T racks are OPT IONAL on R/Ws below 40m Width. In case smoother flow of motorized traffic is desired, one “ Shared Lane” may be replaced by a dedicated Non-motorized Lane, in each direction, to reduce friction between slow and fast moving vehicles. Cycle Tracks OPTIONAL UTTIPEC Section66 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 66
18-24 M Secondary Collector Road IRC Section Cycle Tracks OPTIONAL UTTIPEC Section67 Drawings only Suggestive, not Prescriptive. Prepared by UTTIPEC, DDA 67
Example: 45m Road (Vikas Marg) Cycle tracks, footpaths, rickshaw-parking, auto-parking, vendor cart spaces, trees, car-parking, toilets… accommodated within R/W without disturbing carriageway space !7/26/2012 UTTIPEC 68
Example: 45m Road (Vikas Marg) Cycle tracks, footpaths, rickshaw-parking, auto-parking, vendor cart spaces, trees, car-parking, toilets… accommodated within R/W without disturbing carriageway space !7/26/2012 UTTIPEC 69
Example: 45m Road (Vikas Marg) Cycle tracks, footpaths, rickshaw-parking, auto-parking, vendor cart spaces, trees, car-parking, toilets… accommodated within R/W without disturbing carriageway space !7/26/2012 UTTIPEC 70
A complete City-wide Safe Cycling Network to be developed.Arterial Roads to have safe Cycle Tracks
A complete City-wide Safe Cycling Network to be developed.Nallahs can be Cycle-Ecomobility corridors, forming a City-wide Network.