Water conseravtion
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Water conseravtion Document Transcript

  • 1. Water conservationWater conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as asustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future humandemand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used.Factors such as climate change will increase pressures on natural water resources especially inmanufacturing and agricultural irrigation.GoalsThe goals of water conservation efforts include as follows: • Sustainability. To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. • Energy conservation. Water pumping, delivery and waste water treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management. • Habitat conservation. Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructures.Strategies • In implementing water conservation principles there are a number of key activities that may be beneficial. • Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use or wast. • Avoiding any damage to water quality. Improving water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. Why Conserve Water?Water conservation is a big thing, but every little bit helps, so dont think that what you do doesntmatter. A whole lot of people doing a little bit adds up to a whole lot. We must all make changes inour lifestyles that will change the course of our water and its quality. Water conservation needs tobe a way of life, not just something we think about once in a while. If we all do our part inconserving Washingtons water, we can make a huge difference for the environment.Water conservation means using our water wisely and caring for it properly. Since each of usdepends on water for life, it is our responsibility to learn more about water conservation and howwe can help keep our water pure and safe for generations to come. Since we all enjoy the benefits of
  • 2. having pure, clean water, we must help conserve water so that we may continue to enjoy thesebenefits.Water conservation is not a job that is just for the technician, soil scientist, hydrologist, forester,wildlife manager, plant scientist, city planner, park manager, farmer, rancher, or mine owner alone.It is a job for the every day person who just likes to have access to the life sustaining resource ofwater. We must all recognize that water conservation really is our personal responsibility and notjust leave it up to other people. We all enjoy the many ways that we use water, so why not do ourpart in caring for our water?Our water supply is finite, which means that we do not have an endless supply. We only have thewater that we have now. Ninety - seven percent of all the water on the earth is salt water which isnot suitable for drinking. Only three percent of all the water is fresh water, and only one percent isavailable for drinking water. The other two percent is locked in ice caps and glaciers.With all the people on Earth relying on such a small percentage of all the water on Earth, it onlymakes sense that we must preserve and conserve our water. We must not pollute our water becauseit is the only water we will ever have. Some people do not realize the importance of water, and theyare continually polluting it. Only about ten percent of waste water is disposed of properly.We must learn to save water now for the future. The quality of our water is very important.We have the same amount of water now as there was when the earth was created. This is the waterwe have, and we must preserve its quality. Water is the foundation of food and life. Next to air,water is our most precious resource. We cannot live without water. Saving water helps to preserveour environment. It reduces the energy required to process and deliver water, which helps inreducing pollution and in conserving fuel resources. Saving water now means having wateravailable in the future for recreational purposes, too. Conserving the water we have minimizes theeffects of water shortages and helps build a better defense against future drought years. If we savewater now, we are helping to ensure a water supply adequate for future generations. Saving watersaves money. $It makes cents¢!We must save water today so that it will be available to us in the future. We need to think of futuregenerations, people who will not have a sufficient supply of water unless we become moreconcerned with how we use our water today. There are many things that we can do to help preserveWashingtons water. These are not things that are hard. All it takes is a little bit of extra effort, andsoon it will be second nature. Save the water, its all weve got!Uses of WaterWe use water for many, many different things like making electricity, cleaning, cooking, irrigating,etc. Click on this link to read more about ways that we use water.PeopleWe must conserve our water so that it will be available to people for years to come. Click on thelink above to read more about the importance of this.Fish and WildlifeIt is important that we save water because it is essential to sustain life. This page will tell you moreabout the importance of conserving water for fish and wildlife.NatureWe need to conserve water so that our trees and plants can have life. Read this page to find outmore about how important water is to the life of our trees and plants.
  • 3. 25 Ways to conserve water in home and yardWater conservation has become an essential practice in all regions, even in areas where water seemsabundant.Water conservation in the home...1. Check faucets and pipes for leaks:- A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Largerleaks can waste hundreds of gallons.2. Dont use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket:- Every time you flush a cigarette butt, facial tissue or other small bit of trash, five toseven gallons of water is wasted.3. Check your toilets for leaks:- Put a little food coloring in your toilet tank. If, without flushing, the color begins toappear in the bowl within 30 minutes, you have a leak that should be repaired immediately. Mostreplacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install.4. Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks:- Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is beingused. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak.5. Install water-saving shower heads and low-flow faucet aerators:- Inexpensive water-saving low-flow shower heads or restrictors are easy for thehomeowner to install. Also, long, hot showers can use five to ten gallons every unneeded minute.Limit your showers to the time it takes to soap up, wash down and rinse off. "Low-flow" means ituses less than 2.5 gallons per minute.You can easily install a ShowerStart showerhead, or add a ShowerStart converter to existingshowerheads, which automatically pauses a running shower once it gets warm.Also, all household faucets should be fit with aerators. This single best home water conservationmethod is also the cheapest!6. Put plastic bottles or float booster in your toilet tank:- To cut down on water waste, put an inch or two of sand or pebbles inside each of twoplastic bottles to weigh them down. Fill the bottles with water, screw the lids on, and put them inyour toilet tank, safely away from the operating mechanisms. Or, buy an inexpensive tank bank orfloat booster. This may save ten or more gallons of water per day.Be sure at least 3 gallons of water remain in the tank so it will flush properly. If there is not enoughwater to get a proper flush, users will hold the lever down too long or do multiple flushes to get ridof waste. Two flushings at 1.4 gallons is worse than a single 2.0 gallon flush. A better suggestionwould be to buy an adjustable toilet flapper that allow for adjustment of their per flush use. Thenthe user can adjust the flush rate to the minimum per flush setting that achieves a single good flusheach time.For new installations, consider buying "low flush" toilets, which use 1 to 2 gallons per flush insteadof the usual 3 to 5 gallons.Replacing an 18 liter per flush toilet with an ultra-low volume (ULV) 6 liter flush model represents
  • 4. a 70% savings in water flushed and will cut indoor water use by about 30%.7. Insulate your water pipes:- Its easy and inexpensive to insulate your water pipes with pre-slit foam pipe insulation.Youll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up.8. Take shorter showers:- One way to cut down on water use is to turn off the shower after soaping up, then turn itback on to rinse. A four-minute shower uses approximately 20 to 40 gallons of water.9. Turn off the water after you wet your toothbrush:- There is no need to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. Just wet yourbrush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing.10. Rinse your razor in the sink:- Fill the sink with a few inches of warm water. This will rinse your razor just as well asrunning water, with far less waste of water.11. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads:- Automatic dishwashers and clothes washers should be fully loaded for optimum waterconservation. Most makers of dishwashing soap recomend not pre-rinsing dishes which is a bigwater savings.With clothes washers, avoid the permanent press cycle, which uses an added 20 liters (5 gallons) forthe extra rinse. For partial loads, adjust water levels to match the size of the load. Replace oldclothes washers. New Energy Star rated washers use 35 - 50% less water and 50% less energy perload. If youre in the market for a new clothes washer, consider buying a water-saving frontloadwasher.12. Minimize use of kitchen sink garbage disposal units:- In-sink garburators require lots of water to operate properly, and also add considerablyto the volume of solids in a septic tank which can lead to maintenance problems. Start a compostpile as an alternate method of disposing food waste.13. When washing dishes by hand, dont leave the water running for rinsing:- If your have a double-basin, fill one with soapy water and one with rinse water. If youhave a single-basin sink, gather washed dishes in a dish rack and rinse them with a spray device or apanful of hot water. Dual-swivel aerators are available to make this easier. If using a dishwasher,there is usually no need to pre-rinse the dishes.14. Dont let the faucet run while you clean vegetables:- Just rinse them in a stoppered sink or a pan of clean water. Use a dual-setting aerator.15. Keep a bottle of drinking water in the fridge:- Running tap water to cool it off for drinking water is wasteful. Store drinking water inthe fridge in a safe drinking bottle. If you are filling water bottles to bring along on outdoor hikes,consider buying a LifeStraw personal water filter which enables users to drink water safely fromrivers or lakes or any available body of water.Water conservation in the yard and garden...
  • 5. 16. Plant drought-resistant lawns, shrubs and plants:- If you are planting a new lawn, or overseeding an existing lawn, use drought-resistantgrasses such as the new "Eco-Lawn".Many beautiful shrubs and plants thrive with far less watering than other species. Replaceherbaceous perennial borders with native plants. Native plants will use less water and be moreresistant to local plant diseases. Consider applying the principles of xeriscape for a low-maintenance, drought resistant yard.Plant slopes with plants that will retain water and help reduce runoff.Group plants according to their watering needs.17. Put a layer of mulch around trees and plants:- Mulch will slow evaporation of moisture while discouraging weed growth. Adding 2 - 4inches of organic material such as compost or bark mulch will increase the ability of the soil toretain moisture. Press the mulch down around the dripline of each plant to form a slight depressionwhich will prevent or minimize water runoff.For information about different mulch materials and their best use, click here.18. Dont water the gutter:- Position your sprinklers so water lands on the lawn or garden, not on paved areas. Also,avoid watering on windy days.19. Water your lawn only when it needs it:- A good way to see if your lawn needs watering is to step on the grass. If it springs backup when you move, it doesnt need water. If it stays flat, the lawn is ready for watering. Letting thegrass grow taller (to 3") will also promote water retention in the soil.Most lawns only need about 1" of water each week. During dry spells, you can stop wateringaltogether and the lawn will go brown and dormant. Once cooler weather arrives, the morning dewand rainfall will bring the lawn back to its usual vigor. This may result in a brown summer lawn,but it saves a lot of water.20. Deep-soak your lawn:- When watering the lawn, do it long enough for the moisture to soak down to the rootswhere it will do the most good. A light sprinkling can evaporate quickly and tends to encourageshallow root systems. Put an empty tuna can on your lawn - when its full, youve watered about theright amount. Visit our natural lawn care page for more information.21. Water during the early parts of the day; avoid watering when its windy:- Early morning is generally better than dusk since it helps prevent the growth of fungus.Early watering, and late watering, also reduce water loss to evaporation. Watering early in the dayis also the best defence against slugs and other garden pests. Try not to water when its windy -wind can blow sprinklers off target and speed evaporation.22. Add organic matter and use efficient watering systems for shrubs, flower beds and lawnsAdding organic material to your soil will help increase its absorption and water retention. Areaswhich are already planted can be top dressed with compost or organic matter.You can greatly reduce the amount of water used for shrubs, beds and lawns by:- the strategic placement of soaker hoses- installing a rain barrel water catchment system- installing a simple drip-irrigation systemAvoid over-watering plants and shrubs, as this can actually diminish plant health and causeyellowing of the leaves.When hand watering, use a variable spray nozzle for targeted watering.
  • 6. 23. Dont run the hose while washing your car:- Clean the car using a pail of soapy water. Use the hose only for rinsing - this simplepractice can save as much as 150 gallons when washing a car. Use a spray nozzle when rinsing formore efficient use of water. Better yet, use a waterless car washing system; there are several brands,such as EcoTouch, which are now on the market.24. Use a broom, not a hose, to clean driveways and sidewalks25. Check for leaks in pipes, hoses, faucets and couplings:- Leaks outside the house may not seem as bad since theyre not as visible. But they canbe just as wasteful as leaks indoors. Check frequently to keep them drip-free. Use hose washers atspigots and hose connections to eliminate leaks.Water conservation comes naturally when everyone in the family is aware of its importance, andparents take the time to teach children some of the simple water-saving methods around the homewhich can make a big difference.Importance of Conservation of WaterWith only 1% of water available for human consumption, doesn’t it make sense that we should treatour water supply with more respect?Water conservation should not be considered an option any longer. Current circumstances requireour full attention if we hope to thrive as a civilization.If these statements sound dramatic, it is because much of the world is currently suffering due to alack of clean water.Importance of Conservation of Water / StatsStatistics around the reveal that our fresh water supply is practically nonexistent.That is why it is so important to seek out, find and start using all the innovative water conservationsolutions and methods that are available today.Whether you live in Australia or China or the US, it is time to wake up and take responsiblity. It iseasy to practice water conservation in the home, but there is more to be done. Our world needs helpon a commercial level as well so that our waste can be controlled in such areas as agriculture andirrigation.Water Conservation ideas are cropping up in exciting legislation. That’s why our participation inthe voting process is so important. Let’s act now, so our kids will have a brighter, greener future.Demands are increasing every year for water while resources are becoming more and more limited.Since many individuals are unaware (or, sadly, just don’t care) that this issue needs attention, it isup to more informed and proactive individuals and companies to take up the slack.A 40% increase is expected in water demand over the period of next two decades. The increase inwater demand is a contribution of various factors including growing population, increasedagricultural needs, industrial use of water and water needed for electricity production.The problem of water waste is severe in countries where people are using the same inefficient
  • 7. methods for irrigation of agricultural land. Water needs are increasing every year and the provenfact is that clean water is not available to 1 out of 5 people on earth. Solutions are clearly needed.The increased demand in water combined with the pollution of water has had many adverse effectson the environment, growth and economy of many countries.Importance of Conservation of Water / Consequences of Not Conserving• Increased expenditures on pipeline development, sewage and other infrastructure to supply thewater to the households and industries• Investment to build more dams to fulfill the water demands and increased electric supply• Huge amounts of money going out every year for recycling, cleaning and purification of the water• Large amounts of industrial pollutants dumped in the rivers which are responsible for destroyingand upsetting the ecosystem of the whole planet• Rising instances of erosion of land because of increased demand of agricultural land and irrigationImportance of Conservation of Water / AustraliaIn some parts of world like Australia (known for it extremely dry terrain) rainfall is much lessfrequent than is nedded to make up for water.This situation accounts for the amount of saltincreasing in the underground water tables, turning regions into deserts.Importance of Conservation of Water / The Rest of the WorldThe problem of water is local as well as global. The resources of water on earth are limited and arereducing every year. Due to the effects of global warming the frequency of rain has becomeunpredictable.In some parts of world there is rain throughout the year, while in other parts individuals aresuffering the consequences. Widespread dry spells are occurring over much of Europe and Asia,Canada, western and southern Africa, and eastern Australia.And in parts of the world where rainwater is available, major problems are still prevalent because ofa lack of proper systems to clean the water.Pollutants like oil, cigarette butts and other impurities make the percentage of usable waterpractically nonexistentImportance of Conservation of Water / The FutureThe United Nations has predicted that by the next two decades there will be 17% more demand ofwater compared to resources available.The unpleasant fact is that the most people remain careless and do not recognize the importance ofwater conservation. Huge campaigns are conducted every year by many government organizationsand NGOs to spread awareness of the importance of water conservation.As citizens of this planet it is our individual responsibility to take an active role in waterconservation. The simple tasks we perform every day like gardening, tending to laundry, washingour cars, etc. are opportunities for us to make a difference. Change begins with us, and if we lead byexample, others are more likely to follow.
  • 8. I sincerely believe the consciousness of the planet is changing. And even though some statisticsmay appear grim, other stats reveal a growing awareness. There has actually been a decrease ofwater consumption in some areas due to more water efficient toilets and appliances. And this is dueto companies meeting the demands of the public.Water conservation Facts & Tips • Less than 2% of the Earth’s water supply is fresh water. • Of all the earths water, 97% is salt water found in oceans and seas. • Only 1% of the earths water is available for drinking water. • Two percent is frozen. The human body is about 75% water. • A person can survive about a month without food, but only 5 to 7 days without water. • Every day in the United States, we drink about 110 million gallons of water. • Landscaping accounts for about half the water Californians use at home. • Showers account for another 18 percent, while toilets use about 20 percent. Showering and bathing are the largest indoor uses (27%) of water domestically. • The average American uses 140-170 gallons of water per day. • If every household in America had a faucet that dripped once each second, 928 million gallons of water a day would leak away. • There are 7.48 gallons in a cubic foot of water. • Therefore, 2000 cubic feet of water is 14,960 gallons. • An acre foot of water is about 326,000 gallons. One-half acre foot is enough to meet the needs of a typical family for a year. • There are 7.48 gallons in a cubic foot of water. It takes 3.3 acre feet of water to grow enough food for an average family for a year. A leaky faucet can waste 100 gallons a day. • One flush of the toilet uses 6 ½ gallons of water. An average bath requires 37 gallons of water. • An average family of four uses 881 gallons of water per week just by flushing the toilet • The average 5-minute shower takes 15-25 gallons of water--around 40 gallons are used in 10 minutes. • Take short showers instead of baths. • A full bathtub requires about 36 gallons of water. • You use about 5 gallons of water if you leave the water running while brushing your teeth.
  • 9. • If you water your grass and trees more heavily, but less often, this saves water and builds stronger roots. • Each person needs to drink about 2 ½quarts (80 ounces) of water every day. • Water your lawn only when it needs it. If you step on the grass and it springs back up when you move, it doesn’t need water. • If it stays flat, it does need water. Run your dishwasher and washing machine only when they are full. • When washing a car, use soap and water from a bucket. Use a hose with a shut-off nozzle for rinsing. • Never put water down the drain when there may be another use for it such as watering a plant or garden, or cleaning. • Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. • Dispose of tissues, insects and other such waste in the trash rather than the toilet. • When washing dishes by hand, fill one sink or basin with soapy water. Quickly rinse under a slow-moving stream from the faucet. • An automatic dishwasher uses 9 to 12 gallons of water while hand washing dishes can use up to 20 gallons. • Store drinking water in the refrigerator rather than letting the tap run every time you want a cool glass of water. • Water lawns during the early morning hours, or evening when temperatures and wind speed are the lowest. • This reduces losses from evaporation. • Do not hose down your driveway or sidewalk. • Use a broom to clean leaves and other debris from these areas.Social solutionsWater conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal waterutilities or regional governments. Common strategies include public outreach campaigns, tieredwater rates (charging progressively higher prices as water use increases), or restrictions on outdoorwater use such as lawn watering and car washing. Cities in dry climates often require or encouragethe installation of xeriscaping or natural landscaping in new homes to reduce outdoor water usage.One fundamental conservation goal is universal metering. The prevalence of residential watermetering varies significantly worldwide. Recent studies have estimated that water supplies aremetered in less than 30% of UK households, and about 61% of urban Canadian homes (as of 2001).Although individual water meters have often been considered impractical in homes with privatewells or in multifamily buildings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that
  • 10. metering alone can reduce consumption by 20 to 40 percent. In addition to raising consumerawareness of their water use, metering is also an important way to identify and localize waterleakage. Water metering would benefit society in the long run it is proven that water meteringincreases the efficiency of the entire water system, as well as help unnecessary expenses forindividuals for years to come. One would be unable to waste water unless they are willing to paythe extra charges, this way the water department would be able to monitor water usage by public,domestic and manufacturing services.Some researchers have suggested that water conservation efforts should be primarily directed atfarmers, in light of the fact that crop irrigation accounts for 70% of the worlds fresh water use.Theagricultural sector of most countries is important both economically and politically, and watersubsidies are common. Conservation advocates have urged removal of all subsidies to force farmersto grow more water-efficient crops and adopt less wasteful irrigation techniques.New technology poses a few new options for consumers, features such and full flush and half flushwhen using a toilet are trying to make a difference in water consumption and waste. Also availablein our modern world is shower heads that help reduce wasting water, old shower heads are said touse 5-10 gallons per minute. All new fixtures available are said to use 2.5 gallons per minute andoffer equal water coverage.