Managing Communications,Knowledge and Information (MCKI)   Week 3: SSM – Rich Pictures,   CATWOE and Root DefinitionsSourc...
MCKI – Week 3 lecture overview•   Introduction•   Rich Pictures•   CATWOE analysis•   Root definitions•   Summary         ...
Mobile phones• Please put your mobile phone in “silent  mode” and PUT IT AWAY (I.E. NOT IN  FRONT OF YOU ON THE DESK) for ...
1 & 2 – Develop a Rich Picture                                                                        7.                  ...
Rich Pictures                                           observation                      coffeetime yet?                  ...
Rich Pictures• In reviewing a situation or examining a system  the first task is to  – express the problem situation i.e. ...
Rich Pictures• Usually free form diagrams or “cartoons”   – Pictures provide an excellent way of sorting out and     prior...
How to Construct Them?• They show what is considered important in the  situation. But there are no rules:   – Matchstick m...
Example Icons• The idea is simply to get something on  paper   •often working with others   •even where they have differen...
rich picture - example      situation        7       action to 1   considered             improve the     problematic     ...
Rich PictureShows:• conflict between the secretary and the  education secretary about the how  and what to computerise• Wo...
Example on previous slide• The Secretary of a growing Professional Association  believed many of its operations could be c...
7.                                                                   Action                                               ...
Activity 3 – relevant viewpoints• Example: Consultant is employed to improve  cost-effectiveness of organisation  – Viewed...
Activity 3 – relevant viewpoints• Selecting relevant viewpoints  (perspectives):• List the stakeholders who have an intere...
Activity 3 - Root definition• Next step is to select a viewpoint and then  define appropriate systems from that  perspecti...
Root Definitions  Root definitions follow rich pictures.• A root definition is  – a short textual definition of      situa...
Format of Root Definitions• A system to do X, by (means of) Y, in order to  Z    – telling us          • what the system w...
situation        7       action to                                                 1   considered             improve the ...
root definition examples1) primary task (relating to basic tasks andstructures)A university owned and operated system toaw...
root definition examples2) issue based (relating to temporary orqualitative concerns, or concerns of judgment)  A universi...
CATWOE analysis       a check to ensure that root   definitions contain most of what is                importantCustomers ...
example CATWOEC      candidate studentsA      university staffT      candidate students       degree holders and diplomate...
situation        7       action to                              1   considered             improve the                    ...
activity models - symbols              verb + noun                 phrase             activity - ‘do something’  A        ...
activity model - example                                design         enrol students       education                     ...
measures of performance• E1 - efficacy (does the system work, is the  transformation effected)?• E2 - efficiency (the rela...
measures of performance - example• E1 (efficacy) - are degrees and diplomas awarded?• E2 (efficiency) - how many degrees a...
the complete conceptual product•   root definition•   CATWOE•   activity model•   measures of performance
the complete model - example                                                        A university owned and operated system...
levels of resolution• each activity may be modelled at a higher level of  resolution - in other words a new root definitio...
situation        7       action to                                            1   considered             improve the      ...
University Accommodation Systems Exercise• In your groups:   – using the rich pictures in the Rose handout   – do a CATWOE...
University Accommodation Systems Exercise• In your groups and for the perspective you  have been given:   1. use the rich ...
Summary• Review of Rich Pictures• CATWOE analysis• Root definitions• Exercise – Rich Pictures, CATWOE and Root Definition ...
Mcki lect3ssmcatrd roseusund
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Mcki lect3ssmcatrd roseusund

  1. 1. Managing Communications,Knowledge and Information (MCKI) Week 3: SSM – Rich Pictures, CATWOE and Root DefinitionsSources:1)Handout by Jeremy Rose, BIT, Manchester Metropolitan University2)Rich Pictures by Edwards & Humphries (University of Sunderland)osiris.sunderland.ac.uk/~cs0hed/csem04/ CSEM04Unit10richpictures.ppt – 24/9/10 Readings: Course Book, p318-319 Handout: Soft Systems Methodology, Rose, J., p.5-9 1
  2. 2. MCKI – Week 3 lecture overview• Introduction• Rich Pictures• CATWOE analysis• Root definitions• Summary 2
  3. 3. Mobile phones• Please put your mobile phone in “silent mode” and PUT IT AWAY (I.E. NOT IN FRONT OF YOU ON THE DESK) for the duration of the class• I will not be answering or using mine, I expect you to do the same 3
  4. 4. 1 & 2 – Develop a Rich Picture 7. Action to improve 1. problem situation unstructured 6. Feasible/ desirable 2. changes Problem 5. situation Real world/ expressed system world compared Real World 3. Root definition 4. of relevant System World Conceptual systems models
  5. 5. Rich Pictures observation coffeetime yet? boundary idea!crossed swords =friction• iconic representations - drawn together into a picture which sums up the important elements of the problem situation
  6. 6. Rich Pictures• In reviewing a situation or examining a system the first task is to – express the problem situation i.e. to form a rich picture. – Rich picture = thorough, but non-judgmental understanding’. –Note: Different rich pictures can be draw for the same system/situation by different stakeholders.
  7. 7. Rich Pictures• Usually free form diagrams or “cartoons” – Pictures provide an excellent way of sorting out and prioritising complex problem areas. – Pictures display relationships - the way business functions work together.• They may include elements of – structure (e.g. the departments of a university) – process (e.g. studying, examining), – issues, concerns, or developments (e.g. implementing a quality service).
  8. 8. How to Construct Them?• They show what is considered important in the situation. But there are no rules: – Matchstick men and women are common, – sometimes bubbles coming out of their mouths indicate important issues, – crossed swords for conflict, – eyeballs indicate something being overlooked, inspected or supervised coffeetime yet?
  9. 9. Example Icons• The idea is simply to get something on paper •often working with others •even where they have different, even conflicting, ideas.
  10. 10. rich picture - example situation 7 action to 1 considered improve the problematic problem situation 6 changes: systemically desirable, culturally feasible problem comparison of 2 situation models and expressed real world 5 real world systems thinking about real world 3 conceptual models root definition of systems describedof relevant systems in root definitions 4
  11. 11. Rich PictureShows:• conflict between the secretary and the education secretary about the how and what to computerise• Worries of the education assistant about the thought of automation • should alert to the potential for poor usage and user resistance, therefore also the need for training and support.
  12. 12. Example on previous slide• The Secretary of a growing Professional Association believed many of its operations could be computerised: –including membership, examination, and tuition administration.• Before commissioning any new systems she wanted: – an overview of where potential benefits would be found – and what problems might exist.• A consultancy reviewed the organisation and created an initial rich picture of the situation.• (from Avison,D. and Fitzgerald,G (1995) IS Development: Methodologies, Techniques and Tools. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill,, McGraw-Hill)
  13. 13. 7. Action to improve 1. problem situation unstructured 6. Feasible/ desirable 2. changes Problem 5. situation Real world/expressed system world compared Real World 3. Root definition 4. of relevant System World Conceptual systems models
  14. 14. Activity 3 – relevant viewpoints• Example: Consultant is employed to improve cost-effectiveness of organisation – Viewed by manual workers as a means of keeping wages to a minimum – Viewed by management as providing a pool of intellectual and other resources to solve problems• An appropriate model of the manual workers’ view may lead to solutions that conflict with those of management
  15. 15. Activity 3 – relevant viewpoints• Selecting relevant viewpoints (perspectives):• List the stakeholders who have an interest in the situation (from the rich picture and other information) – Customers, shareholders, managing director probably have different viewpoints
  16. 16. Activity 3 - Root definition• Next step is to select a viewpoint and then define appropriate systems from that perspective.• To do this we construct a Root Definition. – The Root Definition describes what the system is and what it aims to achieve• The mnemonic CATWOE is used as a checklist to ensure all necessary components are present in the root definition.
  17. 17. Root Definitions Root definitions follow rich pictures.• A root definition is – a short textual definition of situation 1 considered 7 action to improve the problematic problem situation the aims and means of the 6 changes: systemically desirable, culturally feasible system to be modelled. 2 problem situation comparison of models and expressed real world 5 – It is not the real world that real world systems thinking about real world is being modelled, but 3 root definition conceptual models of systems described in root definitions 4 of relevant systems potential or virtual systems that are logical and coherent
  18. 18. Format of Root Definitions• A system to do X, by (means of) Y, in order to Z – telling us • what the system will do, • how it is to be done, and • why it is being done (its long term aims).Here is an example of a primary task root definition:A university owned and operated system to award degrees and diplomas to suitably qualifiedcandidates (X), by means of suitable assessment (Y), (in conformance with national standards), inorder to demonstrate the capabilities of candidates to potential employers (Z).
  19. 19. situation 7 action to 1 considered improve the problematic problem situation 6 changes: systemically desirable, root definitions culturally feasible problem comparison of 2 situation models and expressed real world 5 real world systems thinking about real world 3 conceptual models root definition of systems described of relevant systems in root definitions 4• short textual statements which define the important elements of the relevant system being modelled - rather like mission statements they follow the form:a system to do X by (means of) Y in order to Z what the system does - X how it does it - Y why it’s being done - Z
  20. 20. root definition examples1) primary task (relating to basic tasks andstructures)A university owned and operated system toaward degrees and diplomas to suitablyqualified candidates (X), by means of suitableassessment (Y), (in conformance with nationalstandards), in order to demonstrate thecapabilities of candidates to potentialemployers (Z).
  21. 21. root definition examples2) issue based (relating to temporary orqualitative concerns, or concerns of judgment) A university owned and operated system to implement a quality service (X), by devising and operating procedures to delight its customers and control its suppliers (Y), in order to improve its educational products (Z).
  22. 22. CATWOE analysis a check to ensure that root definitions contain most of what is importantCustomers the victims or beneficiaries of TActors those who do TTransformation input outputWeltanschauung the worldview that makes the T meaningful in contextOwners those with the power to stop TEnvironmental elements outside the system whichconstraints are taken as given, but nevertheless affect its behaviour
  23. 23. example CATWOEC candidate studentsA university staffT candidate students degree holders and diplomatesW the belief that awarding degrees and diplomas is a good way of demonstrating the qualities of candidates to potential employersO the University governing bodyE national educational and assessment standards
  24. 24. situation 7 action to 1 considered improve the problematic problem situation 6 changes:activity (conceptual) systemically desirable, culturally feasible problem comparison of 2 situation models and expressed real world 5 real world models systems thinking about real world 3 conceptual models root definition of systems described of relevant systems in root definitions 4• representation of the minimum set of activities necessary to ‘do’ the root definition• activities modelled by verbs
  25. 25. activity models - symbols verb + noun phrase activity - ‘do something’ A logical dependency arrow - activity A must come B before B, or if activity A is done badly - so will B boundary cook dinner study BIT eat take BIT dinner examinationexample use
  26. 26. activity model - example design enrol students education programmes appreciate educate allot national students resources standards award design degrees + diplomas and carry out to students reaching assessment acceptable levelsA university owned and operated system to award degrees and diplomas to suitably qualified candidates (X), by means of suitable assessment (Y), (in conformance with national standards), in order to demonstrate the capabilities of candidates to potential employers (Z).
  27. 27. measures of performance• E1 - efficacy (does the system work, is the transformation effected)?• E2 - efficiency (the relationship between the output achieved and the resources consumed to achieve it)• E3 - effectiveness (is the longer term goal (Z) achieved)
  28. 28. measures of performance - example• E1 (efficacy) - are degrees and diplomas awarded?• E2 (efficiency) - how many degrees and diplomas, of what standard, are awarded for the resource consumed?• E3 (effectiveness) - do employers find the degrees and diplomas a useful way of assessing the qualities of potential employees?
  29. 29. the complete conceptual product• root definition• CATWOE• activity model• measures of performance
  30. 30. the complete model - example A university owned and operated system to award degrees and diplomas to suitably qualified candidates (X), by means of suitable assessment (Y), (in conformance with design national standards), in order to demonstrate the enroll students education capabilities of candidates to potential employers (Z). programmes appreciate C candidate students educate allot national students resources A university staff standards T candidate students award degree holders and diplomates design W the belief that awarding degrees and degrees + diplomas and carry out diplomas is a good way of demonstrating to students reaching assessment the qualities of candidates to potential acceptable levels take control employers action O the University governing body monitor for E1, E2, E3 E national educational and assessment standards• E1 (efficacy) - are degrees and diplomas awarded?• E2 (efficiency) - how many degrees and diplomas, of what standard, are awarded for the resource consumed?• E3 (effectiveness) - do employers find the degrees and diplomas a useful way of assessing the qualities of potential employees?
  31. 31. levels of resolution• each activity may be modelled at a higher level of resolution - in other words a new root definition is prepared specific to that activity and a conceptual model built which further defines the set of (more detailed) activities necessary to accomplish it.• in this way complex situations with many activities can be modelled without loosing a sense of the overall shape of the problem
  32. 32. situation 7 action to 1 considered improve the problematic problem situation 6 changes: systemically desirable, culturally feasible comparison with 2 problem situation expressed comparison of models and real world 5 real world systems thinking about real world the real world 3 conceptual models root definition of systems described of relevant systems in root definitions 4activity is it done in the real situation? comments, how is it done? recommendations 1 2 3
  33. 33. University Accommodation Systems Exercise• In your groups: – using the rich pictures in the Rose handout – do a CATWOE analysis and develop a Root Definition for the perspective you have been given:• Groups 1, 5, 9, 13 – university management• Groups 2, 6, 10, 14 – landlords• Groups 3, 7, 11, 15 – project team• Groups 4, 8, 12, 16 - students
  34. 34. University Accommodation Systems Exercise• In your groups and for the perspective you have been given: 1. use the rich pictures in the Rose handout 2. do a CATWOE analysis 3. develop a Root Definition 4. do on paper first 5. transfer to the transparency 6. nominate someone to present
  35. 35. Summary• Review of Rich Pictures• CATWOE analysis• Root definitions• Exercise – Rich Pictures, CATWOE and Root Definition 36

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