Planning of RWH & Management Interventions Alex R Oduor & Kipruto Cherogony
Purpose of RWH Planning
Assist practitioners develop a RWH plan based on watershed approach. The plan would be used as a guide for implementation.
Assist the community acknowledge current status of water & how it is being managed.
Assist the community understand their vision and what is required to realize it
Assist in M&E of the implementation.
What entails RWH Planning to boost & sustain food security
Local Natural Resources Potential
Institutional & human resources capacities
Policy & by-laws
1. Societal needs
Use tools/approaches/methodologies such as the Virtual Water Concept, PRAs etc to determine the following:
Communities food preferences, water & nutritional analysis,
How the food is acquired
Food & water sufficiency or insufficiency including quality.
Management of food surplus or inadequacies
Non-food items/activities that contribute to food security
Understanding water scarcity
> 1500 m 3 /cap/yr = Water Sufficient
1000 – 1500 m 3 /cap/yr = Water Stressed
< 1000m 3 /cap/yr = Water Scarce
Humans need 1500m 3 /capita/yr for domestic,
diet and industrial consumption partitioned as follows:
Human water needs based on global ideal Human water needs based on ASAL areas
The virtual water concept Food calories
The virtual water concept Food calories
Virtual water Commodity Embedded Water 1 cup of coffee 1.5 drums H 2 O Loaf of 400gm Bread 2.5 drums H 2 O 1 Litre of milk 5 drums H 2 O 1 Kg rice 15 drums H 2 O 1 Kg maize 4.5 drums H 2 O 1 Kg wheat 7 drums H 2 O Dairy cow 55,302 Kg H 2 O Beef grazing cow 11.905 Kg H 2 O Calves 11,023 Kg H 2 O Heifers 6,613 Kg H 2 O Pigs 3,280 Kg H 2 O Sheep 5,650 Kg H 2 O Poultry 5,124 Kg H 2 O
Example of virtual water in daily meals Is this amount of food taken per day healthy? YES.
Building local partnerships
These are important because of:
Strength in numbers of people with common vision
Increased resources thru’ pooling of people with local knowledge to tackle problems more effectively
Diverse expertise from a wide range of people
Increased acceptability when more people are involved
Joint coordination, decision and solution making
3. Appropriate/Best bet technologies
After computing the RWH potential, determine a set of multi-criteria to facilitate identification of appropriate technologies
Place this in GIS environment
Map the development domains/technologies
Have consultative meetings with stakeholders
Adjust the domain map
Assess the willingness & capacities of people to contribute
Establish a clear sense of direction
Give people specific things to do, how much it entails & how long it will take. Support their efforts
Show how the problems in their watershed affect residents economically, socially and environmentally
Recognize the group & its members publicly so the community knows who is representing them
Hold site visits and out side tours for the community.
Prevent burn-out thru celebration of progress.
4. Institutional & human resources capacities
This is done thru’ desktop studies, direct observations, fieldwork and GIS to:
Provide data that’ll enable the community make informed decisions on resource management.
Establish benchmark conditions to be used later in determining changes thro’ M&E.
Compile enough data for analysis of interactions between people & the natural resources in the watershed.
Characterize the bio-physical resources
5. Local Natural Resources Potential
RWH MASTER PLAN FLOW CHART Slope and Relief Analyze slope, gradients & landforms data Soil Type Analyze pedological data: Soil type, depth, infiltration/runoff characteristics, fertility levels etc Produce a water balance at District level Ground Water Potentials Surface Water Potentials Runoff Potential at District & Watershed levels Rainfall potentials at District & Watershed levels Rainfall Partitioning Determine rainfall partitions Produce Maps (1a) showing suitable slope/relief, Map (1b) depicting slope suitability by ranks & (1c) depicting watersheds. Produce Map (2a) showing suitable soils & Map (2b) depicting soil capability ranking for irrigation Produce individual Maps 5 Land use/Vegetation Analyze land use and land cover data Produce Maps 3 showing land use/Landcover Climatic data Analyze climatological data including daily, monthly and annual rainfall over at least a 30 year period Produce Maps 4 depicting climatic aspects: Temperatures, Rainfall Produce Map 6 showing potential supplementary irrigable areas based on bio-physical parameters Use ranking to run MCA Level 1 in GIS environment
Location of Study area
Bio-physical status - DEM
Bio-physical status - Rainfall
Bio-physical status – Drainage Network
Bio-physical status - Slope
Farmland command site(s) Identify site/size from DEM & Landform analysis Runoff water Estimate runoff potential at individual site level Surface Water Estimate potential of rivers/lakes etc. Dam/intake site Identify and assess dam/intake site Ground Water Estimate GW potential
General feasibility and planning
Is the site economically feasible?
Consider water quantity needed Vs. available
Consider Water quality / health
Undertake preliminary EIA
Community Management Structure
Training Needs Assessment
Carryout Geological and Geotechnical survey Ignore site Is the project still feasible? Adequate Inadequate YES NO Adequate Inadequate Inadequate Adequate Are cracks Identified NO NO Does site APPEAR technically feasible? YES Gazetted/protected Areas Are the areas protected or gazetted by Government e.g. forest reserves, National parks? Produce Map 7 showing irrigable areas with gazetted/ protect areas annexed NO YES Is it prudent to degazette? NO YES YES
Runoff potential ID SUBLOCATION AREA in Mm 2 VOLUME IN Mm 3 1 MATOPE 124 22 2 KINAGONI 244 45 3 VINYUNDUNI 148 26 4 MAKAMINI 155 30 5 KALALANI 62 15 6 MWABILA 103 22 7 MATUMBI 71 16 8 MWATATE 43 11 9 TARU 123 21 10 CHENGONI 90 16 11 MAJI YA CHUMVI 90 17 12 MAZERAS 16 5 13 MWAMDUDU 15 4 14 MNYENZENI 32 9 15 CHIGATO 17 5 16 KIBANDAONGO 82 21 17 GANDINI 91 25 18 MTAA 44 10 19 MABESHENI 32 7 20 BOFU 52 13 GRAND TOTAL 1,632 341
Sample soils in detail and interpret results Identify the most suitable crop(s) and livestock for irrigation/watering Determine ET c for this crop and water requirements for livestock and humans Planning : Labour; Mechanization; Community cost sharing Legal issues/permits