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Learning ObjectivesParticipants will gain an understanding of:• Six juvenile justice settings• The advantages and challenges of offering mentoring services within each setting• Promising practices mentoring within or in partnership with each setting with a focus on the referral stage
Juvenile DetentionSecure facilities that providefor the short-term,temporary, safe custodyof juveniles alleged to havecommitted a delinquentact/offense
Juvenile CorrectionsSecure, residential facilities thatprovide for the long-term,safe custody of juvenilesadjudicated on felony or multiplemisdemeanor offenses. Thesefacilities typically are consideredto be high security.
What is thedifferencebetweendetention andcorrections?
Juvenile ProbationCommunity-basedcorrections program whereprobation officers supervise andmonitor youth under courtjurisdiction, ensuring they complywith all court orders. Probationofficer provides direction, guidance,rehabilitation.
Delinquency CourtDelinquency Courts havejurisdiction over juveniles,juvenile delinquents, status offendersand children and youth in need ofsupervision. The Delinquency Court ismost commonly associated with theJuvenile Justice System and juvenileswho have committed a crime, statusoffense and/or violation.
Youth Court/ Teen CourtDiversion programs in which peerssentence juveniles for minor crimes,offenses and/or violations. Theseprograms are administered locallyby law enforcement agencies, probationdepartments, delinquency courts,schools and local nonprofitorganizations.
Dependency CourtThe Dependency Court is mostcommonly associated with fostercare, abuse and neglectissues involving children andyouth younger than 18.
Project OverviewThe Office of Juvenile Justice andDelinquency Prevention (OJJDP) isa leader in recognizing that well-designed and well-implementedmentoring can have a tremendous,positive impact on a youths lifechances in particular, “high-risk”youth.
Project OverviewOJJDP funded Researching the ReferralStage of Youth Mentoring in Six JuvenileJustice Settings: • Juvenile Corrections • Juvenile Detention • Juvenile Probation • Delinquency Court • Youth/Teen Court • Dependency Court
Project OverviewThis exploratory research is designedto inform the mentoring referralprocess for delivery of mentoringservices to “high-risk” youth for thepurpose of reducing delinquentbehavior, alcohol and drug abuse,truancy, and other problem behaviors.
Partner Research Team Organizations J. Mitchell Miller, MENTOR Ph.D.Global Youth Justice Holly V. Miller, Ph.D.National Partnership J.C. Barnes, Ph.D.for Juvenile Services
Research Questions• What are the best practices in identifying and referring youth to mentoring programs across distinct juvenile justice settings?• What is the capacity of the mentoring community to support the youth identified for mentoring from six juvenile justice settings?• What intermediate outcomes are achieved by mentoring throughout the settings?
Qualitative Data Site visits Interviews with staff and administrators Questionnaires
Quantitative Data: Survey Sample Program respondents hailed from a All 50 United The survey variety of States were netted a large community represented by sample size (N types ranging the survey = 1,197) from urban, respondents suburban, rural, and tribal communities.
Juvenile Detention While mentoring is not used as a diversion from adjudication per se, it is, in many instances, viewed as one component of a holistic approach to delinquency prevention and intervention.
Conceptual Model of the “Typical” Referral Process • Identification phaseStep • Sources of identification: law enforcement or juvenile probation, family, social worker 1 • Court appearanceStep • Types of court: youth, family, dependency, delinquency 2 • Eligibility assessment by courtStep3 • Judge or other governing body assess youth for eligibility in mentor programStep • Referral to mentor program by court 4 • Referral received by mentor programStep • Eligibility determination and assessment by mentor program 5Step • Potential mentor identified 6Step • Match made between mentor and mentee 7
Who refers youth in JJ settings?Probation officersJudgesMagistratesSocial Workers and Case ManagersPublic DefendersAdministrative Office of the CourtsPolice OfficersCourt ClerksPublic DefendersSchool Officials and Administrators
Key Findings: National Survey • Juvenile justice settings use 60% mentoring • Mentoring programs serve youth 40% from juvenile justice • Mentoring programs use 80% individually based mentoring Positive • More likely when programs utilized Elements of EffectiveOutcomes Practice for Mentoring
Key Findings: National Survey Risk Assessment Prior to Referral DeMajority of juvenile justice settings reportedbetween 76 to 100% of youth are charged with acrime prior to being referred to a mentoringprogramRelatedly, the majority of juvenile justice settingsreported always assessing youth for their levelof risk prior to making a referral to mentoringprogram.
Key Findings: National Survey and Site Visits Top Reasons for Match Failure Serious mental Youth or family health issues on refusal or lack of the part of the support youth Lack of suitable adult mentors
Key Findings: Site Visits Staff meetings Mentoring juvenile justice youth is more successful when mentoring program staff are involved in regular probation or other staff meetings.
Key Findings: Site Visits Voluntary participation Youth have a greater degree of commitment to the mentoring experience when participation is voluntary.
Key Findings: Site Visits Knowledge about Juvenile Justice System Mentor/staff should have a background understanding of the Juvenile Justice System.
Key Findings: Site Visits Close working partnerships Probation officers and other juvenile justice staff working in close partnership with mentoring program staff is key to successes.
Definition of Embedded ProgramsA program that is housedinside a juvenile justicesetting either: • developed by the juvenile justice setting or • implemented by an outside mentoring program
Key Findings: Site VisitsReported Advantages of Embedded Mentoring Programs Greater access to information about youth’s needs More seamless referral process Greater success in matching and shorter waiting lists More understood and valued by juvenile justice staff Better able to track youth’s long term outcomes
Specialized ProgramsMentoring programs with aspecific and/or sole purpose ofserving youth from a specific JJsetting have an advantageouslevel of knowledge, skill and abilityin providing effective mentoringservices for a wide range of high-risk youth involved in JJ settings.
Youth in longer-term placements can build longer-term mentoring relationships.
Lunch Discussion Questions1.Why do mentoring programs want to work with youth involved with juvenile probation?2.Why do those who work in juvenile justice settings want youth involved with mentoring programs and mentors?3.Which of our youth are best suited for mentoring?
Small Groups How are youth from this What best practices must setting identified and we adopt in our referred to mentoring community in order to programs in our serve youth from thiscommunity? What works juvenile justice setting? well? What has not? What are the pros and cons of mentoring for youth involved in this setting?
Resources: Profiles,MOUs, and Elements of Effective Practice
Resources: Setting ProfilesOverview of content: • Definition of Setting • Youth Served • Frequently Asked Questions • Whats Working • Example of Promising Strategies • Challenges and Action Steps • Terms and Definitions • Resources
Resources: MOU’sOverview of content: • Definitions • Tips and Strategies for Writing MOU’s • Policy and Programmatic Discussion Points • Training and Technical Assistance Resources
What is an MOU? Document that Provides adescribes a common framework for understanding of a partnershipworking relationship MOU Outlines a Not a binding commitment contract between parties
Additional Resources Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention – Mentoring ResourcesJuvenile Detention http://www.ojjdp.gov/programs/mentoring.html Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention – Model Program Guide/Mentoring http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/progTypesMentoring.aspx Global Youth Justice Website – Mentoring High Risk Youth Resources http://www.globalyouthjustice.org/Mentoring.html National Partnership for Juvenile Services – Mentoring High Risk Youth Resources http://www.npjs.org/ MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership http://www.mentoring.org/