PHD Chamber of Commerce & Industry Seminar on Industry – Academia Linkages for Gainful Employment with Reference to Women of Rajasthan State February 19, 2013 Talk by Prof BR Natarajan, President – Vice Chancellor Sangam University Bhilwara Rajasthan 311001 http://www.sangamuniversity.ac.in
Ministry of Education, GOI (1978) Draft National Policy on Education (1979) AIEI (1980) Nayudamma Review Committee (1980) Challenge of Education – A Policy Perspective Ministry of Education, GOI (1985) IIT Review Report (1986) PM Shri P V Narsimha Rao Convocation Address at Visva Bharati University (1995)
Many more Committees, Commissions,Seminars, Symposiums, Workshops, RoundTables, …………………………………………… haveall unequivocally advocated and emphasizedon the need for strong Industry AcademiaLinkages in India.
Employment trends of women workers in Indiahas been showing increasing magnitude innumbers over time. In spite of some positivechanges in the educational attributes of women,a majority of them remain illiterate. Nearly 85 per cent of rural and 59 per cent ofurban women workers are illiterate or literateonly up to primary level, delimiting gains to thefew who have benefited from relatively higherlevels of education. These are mostly the better-off sections of the population.
In spite of some gradual decline in the percentageof women workers, their share compared to menin agriculture remains significant and has in factrisen due to the shift away from agriculture bymen. In rural areas, women workers have shifted intomanufacturing; construction; trade, hotels andrestaurants; and community, social and personalservices, while urban women gained employmentin manufacturing and finance, insurance, realestate and business industrial sectors.
Most of the gender stereotypes continue toprevail with bulk of the women involved inoccupations such as maids, farmers, bidi makers,nurses, primary school teachers, and so on. Thenewer occupational avenues of computingmachine operators; transport conductors andguards; village officials; elected and legislativeofficials; engineering technicians; scientific,medical and technical persons; otherprofessional workers not elsewhere classifiedare among those which have had a highergrowth rate in recent times.
Since more women are likely to enterthe labour force in the years to come,measures to ease the double burdenof work, with efforts to provide basicamenities and support services fortheir overwhelming domesticresponsibilities, need to be put inplace. Gender dimensions of worknecessarily require policy attention
• In India there are 354 million people whose economic condition is poor. If women are empowered then every family will be a happy family. In India nearly 31 cr women in villages live in poverty. If women in every village are well educated and employed then poverty in India can be eradicated.• If government and private firms like banks provide employment opportunity to rural women, she can lead her family happily and she can also overcome problems.
At present urban women get bettereducation and employment while the ruralwomen do not get proper education aswell as employment and hence she cannotcompete with the urban women. Thebanks which started smaller units invillages have helped the rural women bysaving both her time and money and havealso provided good employmentopportunities for them.
According to Sher Verick , ILOs senior employment specialist• The slowdown of the economy will add to Indias employment challenges in the short term• In the long term, India must create more manufacturing jobs to take advantage of its demographic dividend and ensure more job opportunities for women.
The United Nations Development ProgrammesIndia representative Lise Grande says “Even Indias high growth years did not createjobs, so a slowing economy would make mattersworse in the labour market. The combination ofpolicy uncertainty , the large current accountand fiscal deficits and the slowest growth in adecade (in 2012) has brought bad news on theemployment front. If the economy grows at aslower rate of around 6% over the next fiveyears, the news is going to get much worse.”
According to the International LabourOrganization (ILO) recent report, whilemore than 80 percent of men in SouthAsia are employed or looking for work,only 32 percent of women have thesepossibilities. These figures show thatfemales are far less likely than men towork or be employed as a result ofcultural attitudes and social norms inthe region
According to the ILOs global employment trendsreport 2013, in some parts of Asia, womensparticipation in the labour market is droppingfurther and is increasingly being seen as one of themain causes behind the slow growth inemployment. One such place is India, whose labour forceparticipation rate for women fell from just over 37per cent in 2004-05 to 29 per cent in 2009-10,according to the text. Out of 131 countries with available data, Indiaranks 11th in female labour force participation,despite its rapid economic growth.
According to he ILO economist, Steven Kapsos,• Strengthening anti-discrimination legislation in employment in all occupations will be an essential step to expand job opportunities for women.• It is necessary to reduce the large differences in pay and working conditions, which are often observed between women and men, to increase the number of women seeking work.• South Asia economic growth weakened and did not bring significant numbers of decent works, so overall unemployment rate remained low at 3.8 % during 2012, while youth unemployment was 9.6 %.
• Women need to move into areas such as food processing, where employment is growing, Plannning Commission Deputy Chairman, Dr Montek Singh Ahluwalia, said at an ILO event organized by Labour Ministry at Delhi on Thursday 14 Feb 2013.• “Women are locked into activities that are getting phased out,” he said, without specifying the areas, but admitting that the Government needed to do a lot more to create more jobs for both men and women.
According to an ILO study, despite strongeconomic growth, female labour forceparticipation was falling in India, while it hadincreased in countries such as Bangladesh andPakistan. While the ILO study cited the trend of girlsopting for education as one reason for this,experts pointed at a grim scenario of noquality jobs even when education was over.
• Labour Force Participation Rates LFPR is defined as the number of ‘persons days’ in the labour force per 1,000 persons days. According to the NSSO’s 66th round, during the period 2004-05 to 2009-10, LFPR remained almost the same for rural males but decreased by about 6 percentage points for rural females (from 33 per cent to 26.5 per cent).• It said during the period, the rate decreased by about one percentage point for urban males and declined by about 3 percentage points for the urban females (from 17.8 per cent to 14.6 per cent).
Women have great potential to be employedin the four prominent sectors namely Banking Health Education Police.
BANKINGBanks have been given a mandate to reach out to theun-reached by opening ultra small branches andadopting the branchless banking model in villagessituated far from the existing bank branches. In mostof the cases, a local woman will be a businesscorrespondent to operate branchless banking units. The scope for setting up such units is immense, asthere are 6.31 lakh villages in India. Even if banksplan to extend this facility to one lakh villages, itwould require one lakh business correspondents.Women are more suitable for this job, as they wouldbe rendering this service from their homes only.
HEALTH The net profit of the top 25 pharmaceuticalcompanies in India is reported to be over Rs 10,000crore. Such companies, under CSR can adopt someof the primary health centres in the most backwarddistricts and fund the maintenances, including thesalaries of doctors and nurses. Since there are 22,925 primary health centres and1.39 lakh sub-centres, the feasibility of appointingnurses in the sub-centres may be examined byselecting them from the local areas.
EDUCATION• Considering various reports on the decline in the quality of primary education, it emerges that shortage of teachers is one of the prime reasons.• Recruitment of female teachers from the villages and semi-urban areas should given preference and their postings may be confined to such areas only.
Police In India only 2% women work in police sector.Move for more women in police force, would help prevent atrocities on them
Unemployment among female diplomaholders is higher than their male counterparts,with unemployment rates reaching 34.5 percent for women — much higher than the 18.9per cent recorded for men during 2009-10. This has costs for a developing economy,particularly as an increase in the number ofwomen entering the workforce could be justthe low-hanging fruit needed to get growthback on track.
Young people have been particularly affectedby the slowdown, with an unemployment rateof over 10 per cent, much higher than theaverage. It is significant that young diploma holderssuffer more, implying that India is doing apoor job of reaping its demographic dividend,with most graduating individuals lacking theskills sought by employers.
• In terms of regional concentration of women workers, the states with relatively higher womens work participation are the southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; and the states of Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Orissa. These states show slight variations across rural and urban locations.• In terms of National Classification of Occupations - NCO categories, same states which have a larger proportion of women workers are also the states where there is a demand for women within these occupations .
According to ILO Report, Spinners, weavers,knitters, dyers and related workers (NCO 75)also shows a large share of women workers innon-agricultural activities. In actual numbers,women workers in this group declined by250,000 while the number of male workers inthis group shrunk by over 400,000. The occupational category of tailors, dressmakers, sewers, upholsterers and relatedworkers (NCO 79) also reports significantnumbers of women workers increasing overtime.
While men predominate as merchantsand shopkeepers, women as workingproprietors, managers and directors inwholesale and retail trading units (NCO22) have increased over time, with over200,000 UPS women workers in thisoccupation. This category is prominentfor the additional employment in sheernumbers of women workers both in ruraland urban areas.
Interestingly, womens share as working proprietors,directors and managers in occupations such as mining,construction, manufacturing concerns (NCO 24) as well asother services (NCO 25) has also registered an increaseover time. This is reported both in rural and urban areas. The segment of occupation in which women, especiallyyoung girls, are most prominently visible in themushrooming urban retail units is that of salespersons,shop assistants and related workers (NCO 43). Again, theincrease over time in actual numbers is much more inurban areas (over 300,000), than in rural areas (which isnot unsubstantial at 100,000).
• Food and beverage processors is another category (NCO 77) where substantial women are principal workers. The increase in this occupational group is primarily in rural areas for grain millers, food preservers, canners and bakers, confectioners, sweetmeat makers and related food processors. Women UPS workers in urban areas in this occupational group have declined over the period 1993-94 to 2004-05.• Another occupational segment where women have experienced an increase in terms of net additional employment over time is that of hotels and restaurant keepers (NCO 50), and as cooks, waiters, bartenders and related domestic and international workers (NCO 52). The increases in these categories have been both in rural and urban areas. This would include all the self- employed small eateries on pavements and highway roads as well as those mushrooming in malls and shopping complexes/multiplexes.
“Where Aspiration Meets Opportunity” mottodriven Sangam University Bhilwara envisageslaunching of Cooperative programsintegrating work and study to simultaneouslyaddress the issues of Developing appropriateHuman Resources for the Industry andreinforce its commitment to providingPurposeful education. Thank You