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Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty Acids

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  • 1. Global Markets for Oleochemical Fatty AcidsReport Details:Published:January 2013No. of Pages: 326Price: Single User License – US$5450REPORT HIGHLIGHTSThis report provides:•An overview of the global markets for oleochemicals, including natural fatty acids, biodiesel and methyl esters, glycerine, as well as derivaties such as soaps, dimers, branched fatty acids, and fatty alcohols.•Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2008 through 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017.•Examination of applications by end market, such as household, personal care, oil field, and lubricants.•Discussion of current and potential legislation that will affect the industry.•Coverage of consumer trends that drive many of the end markets, such as cleaning, beauty, and food.•Comprehensive company profiles of major players.REPORT SCOPEINTRODUCTIONSTUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVESThis BCC Research study is focused on the natural––based fatty acid industry, which is part of thewider oleochemical industry. The natural based fatty acid industry has been a workhorse in thechemical industry for a number of years, but it is a brightly burning star today fueled by the greenchemistry agenda. The reason is that the raw material consumed to produce the oleochemicals ismainly based on material that is renewable, sustainable and readily biodegradable.This study reviews how the industry has recovered from the economic slowdown of 2008 and2009, and how it will develop and change over the next five years through 2017. Global valuedemand for natural fatty acids, as well as the byproduct glycerin, will grow 9.8% annually from thecurrent manufacturing value of $7.7 billion in 2011 to $13.5 billion through 2017. This is based onthe expectation that prices of key vegetable oils and animal fats will continue to rise sharply duringthe six–year period due to pressure on stocks from not only the fatty acid sector, but also theself–sufficient energy generation (bio–fuel) and food industries as well as export taxes imposed onkey vegetable oils. In tandem, the demand for the base oleochemicals will largely reflect the grossdomestic product of the developing nations across Asia, South America, Eastern Europe, theMiddle East and Africa. However, the profitability for the operators will be squeezed as raw
  • 2. materials are a substantial portion of the manufacturing costs and there is difficulty in passingthese fully across to the customers.Derivatives will experience the most growth, while personal and homecare applications will reapthe benefits of the drive towards greener and more biodegradable chemicals. The waxapplications (including candles and crayons) segment is expected to benefit from the lack ofsufficient paraffin volumes to meet demand as a result of petrochemical refineries shiftingproduction streams to match demand from the motor oil industry. A shift towards alternative waxysubstances will also be driven by the high price of crude oil passing along the whole fossil fuelsupply chain.This study looks at the basic oleochemical business of fatty acids based on fats and oils andtouches upon the impact of the biodiesel industry on the market. It presents historical demanddata for 2008 and 2011, estimates for 2012 and projections for 2017. It reviews the main marketsfor the major acid types from stearic acid, distilled fatty acids, polyunsaturated (including tall oilfatty acid: TOFA), fractionated fatty acids and monounsaturated oleic acid. It reports on marketsectors, reviews latest technology developments including the patent space, provides a regionalperspective, examines the changing landscape of raw material and reviews the byproduct glycerinmarket.Market shares provided by leading and active merchant players such as Emery Oleochemical,Arizona Chemicals, Kuala Lumpur Kepong (KLK), IOI, Wilmar International VantageOleochemical, Oleon, Felda, MeadWestVaco, Forchem, Braido, Oxiteno and CremerOleo areprofiled. The report looks at how government incentives and regulations have impacted theindustry especially with respect to self–sufficient energy resources and animal fat classification. Italso assesses the impact of rising raw material prices, tight supply and demand curves for certainacid chains, the uncertainty of the economy in many of the developed countries around the worldand the impact of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) accreditation.REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDYThe fatty acid industry provides multiple products that are used in a wide range of industries due tothe functionality it offers as a result of its molecule structure. A typical fatty acid has two reactivesites; the minor is the double bonds situated along the straight alkyl chain, while the major is acarboxylic acid group at the start of the chain. Thus, the molecule is a starting material for anumber of reactions changing the functionality and performance dependent on the fatty acidderivative formed. Fatty acids are excellent hydrophobes and thus are a key material for anumber of very important surfactant groups.The world economy is still in a fragile state with a number of financial stress points impacting themore developed regions, oleochemicals will be a vital resource to meet the ingredient needs of anumber of specialty chemical formulators and consumer facing companies.Oleochemicals service different types of markets, more industrial orientated segments requireingredients that can achieve or even surpass the performance specification of the application at aprice that is affordable while the more wellbeing and health orientated markets require ingredientsthat are not only suitable for human contact, be that externally on the skin or internally such asorally digested, but are sourced from renewable and natural grown origins. In both casesingredients consumed must meet all safety, health and environmental regulations and
  • 3. legalization. Based on these types of demand the more wellbeing sectors will grow faster in valueterms with a CAGR between 12% and 16% from 2012 through 2017 compared to the industrialsegment at between 7% and 10% over the same period.There are a number of governmental tax break incentives for using biomass to generate energyand produce fuel products. There are also export tax incentives for major tropical oil plantationcountries to use local companies to develop downstream manufacturing capabilities utilizinglocally sourced materials. Combined these incentives will have a profound effect on the industryat various points along the value chain. The self–sufficient energy incentives will not only drive upthe cost of raw material for producers, it will tighten the supply especially for tallow basedeconomies. The export taxes will not only make it prohibitive for foreign companies, especiallythose located outside Asia, to source the high in–demand, medium–chain, fatty acid raw material;it will also mean that local producers gain an unfair monetary advantage over the competitionsince derivatives of these fatty acids or refined acids such as fractionated and distilled cuts areexempt from this export tax.The exponential growth in certain segments of the oleochemical family led to the devastation ofimportant ecological systems that cannot be recovered. In addition it resulted in the diversion ofnot only vital food ingredients, but the arable land used to grow the crops such was the eagernessof a number of companies to benefit from the high value demand. The industry is now going togreat lengths to, not only meet the growing needs of the market, but to do this in a way that issustainable while minimizing the impact of the food supply chain.SCOPE AND FORMATAs the social condition of citizens in the developing nations rises, so too will the demand fromthese communities for more premium and westernized products, reflecting the higher standard ofliving status.Oleochemicals, such as fatty acids, will be a vital link in the supply chain as their outstandingfunctionality and versatility make them ideal to be used in a multitude of applications. On top ofthis the high reactivity of this acid enables the production of a range of derivatives that can betailored to meet the needs of a number of end using industries, working with the formulators toproduce the ideal blend of functionality and performance.The range of derivatives is dependent on the reaction site used. Derivatives can be producedusing the acid functionality such as saponification, esterification, ethoxylation, or amination whilederivatives based on the unsaturation include isomerization, dimerization, epoxidation, andhydrogenation acids.Fatty acids and their derivatives have a range of functionality that can be used to support themove away from the petrochemical based platform that is reliant on the rapidly reducing fossil fuelindustry since all the easy oil has been extracted and the remaining oil is more inaccessible, moreremote and located in more inhospitable environments. While the equivalent renewable biorefinery type platform has a long way to go to be commercially viable and suitable to replace thepetrochemical platform, oleochemicals will be a major contributor to such development. Forinstance the ester derivatives have the functionality of surfactancy, lubricity and solvency, whichdeliver the following benefits:
  • 4. •The ability to reduce the surface tension between a polar and an apolar medium, which is important for cleaning and emulsification.•The ability to reduce friction, which is needed for lubricant applications.•The ability to dissolve chemicals, which is key to providing a greener solvent substitution for cleaning.This report provides an understanding of how the composition of various fats and oils transforminto the range, quality and types of acids produced and the applications for which those acids canbe used. It explores the various attributes of different acid types and how these cuts compete withsynthetic formed products from the petrochemical route and the major applications outlets.This study will reveal the developments and research that demonstrate the green credentials ofthe oleochemical family and how these credentials are changing the environmental profile of thechemical using industry. This is helpful to the transformation from that of a major polluter to anindustry working in harmony with its environment to meet the needs of the current generationwithout detrimental effects on its surroundings that would impact the generations to come.The study is divided into a number of sections and covers the following fatty acid types:•Stearic acid.•Distilled fatty acids.•Fractionated fatty acids.•Polyunsaturated acids including tall oil fatty acids.•Oleic acids.The fatty acid oleochemical business is important for the following reasons:•It is a major source of surfactants, which are starting materials for the detergent, cleaning and personal care industries.•The functionality and performance combination enables formulators to deliver tailored solutions to meet a variety of customers’ needs.•It is an important cornerstone in the development of a sustainable chemical platform to reduce the reliance on fossil fuel based chemistry.•It promotes the development of green chemistry that is environmentally friendly.•Conversion of solid fats and liquid vegetable oils into a straight chain saturated or unsaturated carboxylic acid can be used in edible and non edible markets.METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCESThe insight and analysis contained within this report are based on information gathered from across section of oleochemical manufacturers, end users and other informed sources. Primaryinterview data was combined with secondary information gathered through an extensive review ofpublished literature such as trade magazines, trade associations, company literature, conferencematerial, patented technology, social media sites and online databases to produce the baselinemarket estimates contained in this report and building on the data collected in the previous review.With 2008 through to 2011 as the baseline, changes within each application were discussed andprojections for each segment were developed for 2012 through 2017. Key findings weresummarized, as well as tested, confirmed and debated with important contacts in the industry.BCC Research understands the market drivers and their impact from a historical and analyticalperspective, which enabled the extraction and discussion of major developments and the
  • 5. subsequent impact on the markets.The analytical methodologies used to generate market estimates are based on a projection ofworld economy, world trade and technology developments. All dollar projections presented in thisreport are based on 2012 constant dollars.Get your copy of this report @http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/213309-global-markets-for-oleochemical-fatty-acids.htmlMajor points covered in Table of Contents of this report includeTABLE OF CONTENTSChapter- 1: INTRODUCTIONSTUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVESREASONS FOR DOING THE STUDYCONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCESCOPE AND FORMATMETHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCESANALYSTS CREDENTIALSRELATED BCC RESEARCH EFFORTSBCC ONLINE SERVICESDISCLAIMERChapter- 2: SUMMARYREPORT HIGHLIGHTSTable Summary : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS THROUGH 2017Figure Summary : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, 2008-2017Chapter- 3: OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRYINTRODUCTIONWHAT ARE OLEOCHEMICALS?FATTY ACID DERIVATIVESFUNCTIONALITY AND BUILDING BLOCKSRAW MATERIALSFATTY ACIDS AND GLYCERINLEGISLATIONTRENDS AND IMPACTSChapter- 4: OVERVIEW OF MARKETS AND APPLICATIONS FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDSOVERVIEWIMPACT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2008 AND 2009CHANGING NATURE OF OLEOCHEMICAL PRODUCERSGREEN CHEMISTRYMANUFACTURING LANDSCAPEFATTY ACID GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OVERVIEWAPPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE DERIVATIVESECONOMIC OUTLOOK
  • 6. IMPACT OF GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL ENERGY SECURITY INCENTIVESPRODUCT OVERVIEWFATTY ACID TYPESPRICING MECHANISM FOR FATTY ACID TYPESPROJECTION OF PRICES DURING FORECAST PERIOD 2012 THROUGH 2017DEMAND BY APPLICATIONCAPTIVE COMPARED TO MERCHANTSURFACTANT ALTERNATIVES BASED ON FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGYRAW MATERIAL OVERVIEWSPLIT OF FATS AND OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACIDBIODIESEL IMPACT ON RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITYANIMAL RAW MATERIALTROPICAL OILS OVERVIEWSOFT OILS OVERVIEWCRUDE TALL OILTOTAL RAW MATERIAL PICTURE FOR THE FATTY ACID INDUSTRYGLYCERINChapter- 5: LEGISLATIONINTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES AND LEGISLATIONChapter- 6: TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY OF FATTY ACIDSHISTORYCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF FATTY ACIDSSOURCES OF FATTY ACIDSPRODUCTION OF FATTY ACIDS FROM FATS AND OILSGLYCERIN BACKGROUNDS AND PROCESSESChapter- 7: PATENTS AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES, TRENDS IN FATTY ACID TECHNOLOGYINTRODUCTIONHIGHLIGHTS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS AND PROGRAMSPATENT SEARCHESChapter- 8: COMPANY PROFILESINTRODUCTIONMAJOR GLOBAL NATURAL FATTY ACIDS PLAYERSCOMPANY PROFILESLIST OF TABLESSummary Table : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS THROUGH 2017Table 1 : AN OVERVIEW OF OLEOCHEMICALSTable 2 : NATURAL SATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH, CHEMICALSTRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGINTable 3 : NATURAL UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS WITH CARBON CHAIN LENGTH,CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EXAMPLES OF ORIGINTable 4 : WORLD PRODUCTION OF OILS AND FATS BY SOURCE, THROUGH 2017Table 5 : WORLD PRODUCTION OILS AND FATS BY REGION, THROUGH 2017
  • 7. Table 6 : COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL OILS AND FATSTable 7 : SELECTED PROPERTIES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDSTable 8 : SELECTED PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDSTable 9 : PROPERTIES OF GLYCERINTable 10 : EXAMPLE OF PROPERTIES TOFATable 11 : SELECTION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS WITH AN IMPACT IN THE FATTYACIDS AND DERIVATIVES INDUSTRYTable 12 : CAPACITY CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTSTable 13 : SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY BY REGION, 2011Table 14 : BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2017Table 15 : TYPICAL APPLICATIONS FOR OLEIC ACID AND ITS SIMPLE DERIVATIVESTable 16 : REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2008-2017Table 17 : SPLIT OF FATTY ACID TYPES ACROSS REGIONS IN TERMS OF CONSUMPTION,2011Table 18 : EXAMPLES OF DISTILLED FATTY ACIDSTable 19 : EXAMPLES OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDSTable 20 : DFA AND PUFA MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 21 : EXAMPLES OF FRACTIONATED FATTY ACIDSTable 22 : FFA MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 23 : EXAMPLES OF STEARIC FATTY ACIDSTable 24 : STEARIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 25 : EXAMPLES OF OLEIC FATTY ACIDSTable 26 : OLEIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 27 : AVERAGE PRICE FOR DIFFERENT FATTY ACID TYPES, 2008-2011Table 28 : AVERAGE PRICE FOR DIFFERENT FATTY ACID TYPES THROUGH 2017Table 29 : APPLICATION VALUE OF FATTY ACIDS: MANUFACTURING LEVEL THROUGH2017Table 30 : ANIMAL MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 31 : COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES MANUFACTURING SALES THROUGH 2017Table 32 : HOME, INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH2017Table 33 : EMULSION POLYMERIZATION MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 34 : LUBRICANT MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 35 : ORE PROCESSING MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 36 : RESINS MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 37 : TEXTILE SOFTENERS (FABRIC SOFTENERS) MANUFACTURING SALES,THROUGH 2017Table 38 : RUBBER PROCESSING MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 39 : CANDLES, CRAYONS, WAXES MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 40 : COMPARISON OF MINERAL OIL VS. FATTY ACID ESTERS FOR LUBRICANTAPPLICATIONSTable 41 : TYPICAL DIMER AND ISOSTEARIC ACIDS YIELD
  • 8. Table 42 : COMMON TYPES OF FATTY ACID HYDROPHOBESTable 43 : DERIVATIVES MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 44 : OTHERS MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 45 : PERCENTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL BASED FATTY ACID CONSUMED, 2008-2017Table 46 : CHOICE OF MATERIAL FOR SELECTIVE FATTY ACIDSTable 47 : TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2012Table 48 : ANIMAL FATS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017Table 49 : ANIMAL FAT FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 50 : TROPICAL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017Table 51 : TROPICAL OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 52 : SOFT OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017Table 53 : SOFT OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 54 : CRUDE TALL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017Table 55 : CRUDE TALL OIL FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 56 : RAW MATERIAL CONSUMPTION IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017Table 57 : RAW MATERIAL FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, THROUGH 2017Table 58 : AVERAGE PRODUCTION OF GLYCERIN BASED ON FATS AND OILSCOMPOSITIONTable 59 : AMOUNT OF GLYCERIN LIBERATED BY VARIOUS FATS AND OILSTable 60 : AMOUNT OF GLYCERIN LIBERATED RELATIVE TO FATTY ACID YIELDTable 61 : GLYCERIN PRODUCTION FROM NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, THROUGH 2017Table 62 : GLYCERIN PRODUCTION BASED ON NATURAL FATTY ACID, 2011Table 63 : GLYCERIN PRODUCTION BASED ON NATURAL FATTY ACID, 2017Table 64 : GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2011Table 65 : MAJOR ESTABLISHED GLYCERIN APPLICATIONSTable 66 : AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, THROUGH 2012Table 67 : GLYCERIN MANUFACTURING SALES BASED ON NATURAL FATTY ACIDPRODUCTION, THROUGH 2017Table 68 : ABPR RISK CATEGORIESTable 69 : EXAMPLES OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND TWO EXAMPLES OFUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDSTable 70 : EXAMPLES OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDSTable 71 : U.S. PENDING NATURAL FATTY ACID PATENTS LISTED ALPHABETICALLY BYCOMPANY NAME AND YEARTable 72 : EXAMPLES OF NATURAL FATTY ACID PATENTS LISTED ALPHABETICALLY ONCOMPANY NAME AND YEARLIST OF FIGURESSummary Figure : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NATURAL FATTY ACIDS, 2008-2017Figure 1 : BASIC OVERVIEW OF THE OLEOCHEMICAL INDUSTRYFigure 2 : SATURATED FATTY ACIDFigure 3 : UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDFigure 4 : GLYCERIN MOLECULE
  • 9. Figure 5 : ESTER MOLECULE: THE “R” IS THE VARIABLE, COMMONLY AN ACID “REST”GROUPFigure 6 : ETHANAMIDE, AN EXAMPLE OF AN AMIDE MOLECULEFigure 7 : AMINESFigure 8 : SULFONATEFigure 9 : ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION OF FATS AND OILS BY SOURCE, 2017Figure 10 : ESTIMATED VEGETABLE/ANIMAL FATS AND OILS, 2010 AND 2017Figure 11 : ESTIMATED PERCENTAGE OF USAGE OF OILS AND FATS, 2000 AND 2012Figure 12 : SPLITTING COLUMNFigure 13 : RSPO ENTRY PAGE FOR PLAYERS IN THE PALM OIL PRODUCTION SUPPLYCHAINFigure 14 : SNAPSHOT OF BASE FATTY ACID CAPACITY, BY REGION, 2011Figure 15 : BASE FATTY ACID CONSUMPTION, 2008-2017Figure 16 : REAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATES, 2008-2017Figure 17 : DFA AND PUFA MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 18 : FFA MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 19 : STEARIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 20 : OLEIC ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 21 : APPLICATION VALUE OF FATTY ACIDS: MANUFACTURING LEVEL, 2008-2017Figure 22 : ANIMAL FEED MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 23 : COSMETICS AND TOILETRIES MANUFACTURING SALES 2008–2017Figure 24 : HOME, INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 25 : EMULSION POLYMERIZATION MANUFACTURING SALES 2008–2017Figure 26 : LUBRICANT MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 27 : ORE PROCESSING MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017Figure 28 : RESINS MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 29 : TEXTILE SOFTENERS (FABRIC SOFTENERS) MANUFACTURING SALES2008–2017Figure 30 : RUBBER PROCESSING MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 31 : CANDLES, CRAYONS, WAXES MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008–2017Figure 32 : MAJOR FATTY ACID DERIVATIVESFigure 33 : DERIVATIVES MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017Figure 34 : OTHERS MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017Figure 35 : PERCENTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL BASED FATTY ACID CONSUMED, 2008-2017Figure 36 : SPLIT ACROSS TROPICAL OILS, 2008-2017Figure 37 : TROPICAL OILS PRODUCTION, 2008-2012Figure 38 : ANIMAL FATS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, 2008-2017Figure 39 : ANIMAL FAT FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017Figure 40 : TROPICAL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, 2008-2017Figure 41 : TROPICAL OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017Figure 42 : SOFT OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, 2008-2017Figure 43 : SOFT OILS FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017
  • 10. Figure 44 : CRUDE TALL OILS CONSUMED IN FATTY ACID PRODUCTION, 2008-2017Figure 45 : CRUDE TALL OIL FATTY ACID MANUFACTURING SALES, 2008-2017Figure 46 : TYPICAL HYDROLYSIS OF TALLOWFigure 47 : GLOBAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION, 2008-2011Figure 48 : AVERAGE GLYCERIN PRICE PER METRIC TONNE, 2005-2012Figure 49 : GLYCERIN MANUFACTURING SALES BASED ON NATURAL FATTY ACIDPRODUCTION, 2011-2017Figure 50 : EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELLINGFigure 51 : EXAMPLE OF GHS LABELLINGFigure 52 : THE PRINCIPLE MODEL OF HISTORIC OIL LAMP HAS ALWAYS REMAINED THESAMEFigure 53 : VISUALIZATION CIS AND TRANSFigure 54 : A TRIGLYCERIDE MOLECULE (C<sub>63</sub>H<sub>12 2</sub>O<sub>6</sub>)Figure 55 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF SOAP BOILING PROCESSFigure 56 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TWITCHELL PROCESSFigure 57 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF AUTOCLAVE OR IN-BATCH SPLITTINGFigure 58 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF (COLGATE-EMERY) SPLITTING PROCESSFigure 59 : FATTY ACID AND GLYCERIN PRODUCING REACTIONSFigure 60 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF DISTILLATION PROCESSFigure 61 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF HYDROGENATION PROCESSFigure 62 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF A COMMON ESTERIFICATION PROCESSFigure 63 : SIMPLE VISUALIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESSFigure 64 : CURRENT SHARES OF GLOBAL MAJOR PLAYERS, 2012Figure 65 : ESTIMATED FUTURE SHARES OF GLOBAL MAJOR PLAYERSContact: sales@reportsandreports.com for more information.

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