+ Our ObjectivesObjectives: Participants will be able to1.Describe Intervening Variables (IVs)and Contributing Factors (CFs), andhow they are used in the GASPSprocess?2.Discuss IV’s and CF’s with communitypartners and key stakeholders, i.e.CPAW, Coalition link persons
+ Understanding Community Problems.• The Needs Assessment process helps establish the what, who, how much, when, where and why.• A comprehensive needs assessment should cover each of these data points to help formulate and understand the ATOD problem in a given community.• Once we understand the what, how- much, when and where, we need to know why. Why is the particular ATOD problem occurring? This is where IVs and CFs come in.
+ Intervening Variables (IV) and Contributing Factors (CF) • Intervening Variables (IV) can be thought of as the why(s) or facilitator(s) of the use that is causing the problem in your community. The (CF) or Contributing Factors outline the more particular circumstances that the use is occurring. • Example: The reason that 30% of 16yo are using alcohol in our community is that the availability of alcohol is high. Students are able to purchase beer from the convenience stores because the clerk does not check IDs. The IV would be availability, and the CF would be that store clerks are not checking IDs • Some common IVs are: retail availability, friends or peers that use, and low perceived risk. Examples of CFs are retail clerks not checking ID, and youth drinking after school with friends that drink.
+ IVs and CFs in the big picture A complete needs assessment will be able to answer the following: 1. Consequence or goal in the GASPS process 2. Substance use and who is using 3. Why or what is enabling the consumption: IVs and CFs
+ Where will we find IVs and CFs?Questions in the provided surveysanswer one of three questions. 1) Isalcohol being used; 2) How much isbeing used and by whom; and 3) Whatare the circumstances of obtaining orusing. In addition, IV will be providedfor each goal in the GASPS process.Many of the adult survey questions aretrying to obtain information about IV andCFs.Also, interviews, observations, and townhall meeting can all be used forcollection of IV and CF data.
+ IVs and CFs looking forward...Keep in mind that the reason that IVsand CFs are so important is they willbe the center point for the rest of theSPF steps.In Step 2, we will be looking atbuilding capacity around the chooserIV and CFs.In Step 3, we will be planninginterventions and activities aroundthe chosen IV and CFs.
+ Lets reflect in a different context.A car wreck:What might be some different IVs andCFs for a car wreck?Take a moment and write down 3possible IVs for a car wreck.From those IVs, think of 1 possible CFthat would be linked to an IV. Keep inmind a CF must be directly connectedto an IV.
+ Lets reflect in a different context.Possible IVs for a car wreck:1) Conditions of the roads were bad.2) Attention of the of the driver wasdistracted. 3)The car had worn or damaged parts.Keep in mind that IV can be general.In one of my examples, I just said thatthe conditions of the road were bad,but I didnt say HOW they were bad.The CFs will tell how with moredetail how the road conditions werebad.
+ Lets reflect in a different context.Potential CFs for a car wreck:1) Roads were very slippery that daydue to recent rainfall. 2)The driver was texting.3)The cars tires were completely bald.Of course, we would not guess at theseIVs and CFs would rely on ourunderstanding of similar types ofwrecks, and the data from thisparticular wreck.
+ Lets reflect in a different context. Intervening variables are factors that have been identified as being strongly related to - and influential in - the occurrence and magnitude of substance use problems and consequences. Intervening variables are individual traits or experiences which drive their behaviors, such as risk factors and protective factors. Risk factors are a variety of biochemical and psychosocial characteristics and conditions that increase or mediate the likelihood that individuals will use substances. Protective factors moderate or block the effects of risks factors (Hawkins, Catalano & Miller 1992). Contributing factors are the local situations that make the targeted behaviors especially problematic within your community. Utilize your Needs Assessment data to determine what conditions in your community most contribute to underage drinking and/or binge drinking. Worksheet #27: Collecting Contributing Factor Data can be used to determine which condition is the most harmful in your area.