Anatomy Visualization and Interaction

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An overview of the many methods of 3D visualization available for human anatomy.

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Anatomy Visualization and Interaction

  1. 1. Anatomic visualization and interaction Parvati Dev Innovation in Learning Inc. http://InnovationInLearning.com/
  2. 2. Anatomy teaching hours <ul><li>1950s ……….. ~1,000 hours </li></ul><ul><li>1990s ……….. ~180 hours </li></ul><ul><li>2007 …………. ~100 hours </li></ul>The number of hours of anatomy teaching in the first year of medical school has decreased significantly
  3. 3. Survey of US schools - 2002 Survey of Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Neuroscience, and Embryology Courses in Medical School Curricula in the United States RICHARD L. DRAKE,* D.J. LOWRIE, JR, AND CHANTAL M. PREWITT Anat Rec (New Anat) 269:118 –122, 2002.
  4. 4. But some schools return to dissection <ul><li>New York University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved from prosection back to dissection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Univ. of California, San Francisco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosection use was didactic, not interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosections were not cost-effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many students signed up for dissection elective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Univ. of California, Davis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New education building had no dissection lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now that capability is being added </li></ul></ul>RICHARD L. DRAKE,* D.J. LOWRIE, JR, AND CHANTAL M. PREWITT Anat Rec (New Anat) 269:118 –122, 2002.
  5. 5. Why digital anatomy? <ul><li>Cadaver dissection may not be available </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the efficiency of dissection lab </li></ul><ul><li>Any time, any place study </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing educational resources </li></ul><ul><li>A resource for use throughout professional life </li></ul><ul><li>. . . . . . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Many CD-ROM resources exist Interactive atlas Interactive textbook Quizzes
  7. 7. Visible Human on the Internet VISIBLE HUMAN Entire human body Cross-sectional images
  8. 8. Cryosection images By microgrinding teeth and other hard tissue, and photographing the cut surface, a stack of cross-sectional images is created for 3D reconstruction.
  9. 9. 3D reconstruction from CT and photographs
  10. 10. Reconstructing a cadaver mandible Pixel resolution of CT = 100 microns
  11. 11. Combining photo and CT
  12. 12. Dissection images - 5 degree rotation views
  13. 13. Bassett stereo images 1500 exquisite high resolution stereo pairs of dissection images – originally available in 1950s via View Master – now on the Web
  14. 14. Bassett Media Server
  15. 15. Stereo video of ongoing dissection
  16. 16. Viewing 3D anatomy in stereo graphics Residents observe cadaver dissection in stereo video Physician studies skull abnormalities prior to surgical planning
  17. 17. Teaching a distributed class in Ontario, Canada
  18. 18. CSIRO Haptic Surgical Workbench - tactile sensing of virtual anatomy
  19. 19. <ul><li>Acknowledgements for anatomy images: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooth and skull images are from Brown and Herbranson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bassett images are from the Bassett Collection, Robert Chase, curator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROM images are from the respective web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haptic workbench image is from CSIRO, Canberra, Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image resource architecture is from Steven Senger, U.Wisconsin, La Crosse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All other images are from the SUMMIT lab, Stanford University </li></ul></ul>

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