Solution%20presentation%20(1)[2]

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Chapter 13 Chemistry by Brown & LeMay
Solutions

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Solution%20presentation%20(1)[2]

  1. 1. Properties of Solutions Chapter 13
  2. 2. Vocabulary: A Review <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Solute </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent </li></ul><ul><li>A homogeneous mixture. </li></ul><ul><li>The item dissolved. </li></ul><ul><li>What the solute is dissolved in. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Solutions State of solution State of solute State of solvent example gas gas gas air, natural gas liquid gas liquid carbonated water solid gas solid hydrogen in platinum liquid liquid liquid alcohol and water liquid solid liquid sea water solid solid solid metal alloys
  4. 4. Solution Composition <ul><li>Dilute </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated </li></ul><ul><li>Molarity </li></ul><ul><li>Mass percent or weight percent </li></ul><ul><li>Mole fraction </li></ul><ul><li>Molality </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively little amount solute </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively large amount solute </li></ul>
  5. 5. Molarity versus Molality <ul><li>Molarity: Moles solute /Liters solution </li></ul><ul><li>It is expressed as [solute] = M </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids change density with change in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: Molarity is not constant with temperature changes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Molarity versus Molality <ul><li>Molality: moles solute/kg solvent </li></ul><ul><li>The weight of the liquid is constant with changes in temperature. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Question: <ul><li>A solution is prepared by mixing 1.00 gram of ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) with 100 gram water to give a final volume of 101 mL. Calculate the molarity, mass percent, mole fraction and molality of ethanol in this solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Molar mass of ethanol is 46.07 g/mol. </li></ul><ul><li>0.0217 mol ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume 0.101 L </li></ul><ul><li>Molarity 0.215 M </li></ul><ul><li>Mass percent: </li></ul><ul><li>0.990 % ethanol. (1g/101g)*100 </li></ul><ul><li>Mole fraction: 0.00389 0.0217 mol </li></ul><ul><li>5.56 mol H 2 O + 0.0217 mol etOH </li></ul><ul><li>Molality: 0.217 m </li></ul><ul><li>0.0217 mol/0.1 kg </li></ul>
  8. 8. Normality <ul><li>A concentration measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as the number of equivalents per liter. </li></ul><ul><li>For acids: The [H+] per liter </li></ul><ul><li>1 M HCL is 1 N HCL </li></ul><ul><li>1 M H 2 SO 4 is 2 N H 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>For redox: The [e-] per liter or electron consumption per liter. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Molar Mass, Equivalent Mass, Molarity and Normality for some acids and bases <ul><li>Acid/base MM Equ M M vs N </li></ul><ul><li>HCL 36.5 36.5 1 M = 1 N </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 SO 4 98 98/2=49 1 M = 2 N </li></ul><ul><li>NaOH 40 40 1 M = 1 N </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 74 74/2=37 1 M = 2 N </li></ul>
  10. 10. Heat of solution formation <ul><li>Why are some things soluble and not others? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does “like dissolve in like”? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do solution behave as they do? </li></ul><ul><li>Demo? </li></ul>
  11. 12. - solute and solvent particles &quot;interact“ to form solution 3 + Overcoming the IMF’s of the solvent particles make &quot;space&quot; or “expanding” for solute 2 + solute particles separate into their individual components 1  H what happens                 step
  12. 13. Enthalpy heat of solution <ul><li>The enthalpy of the heat of a solution is the sum of the enthalpy of the three steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Δ H solu = Δ H 1 + Δ H 2 + Δ H 3 </li></ul>
  13. 15. Which picture best describes a solution of HCl?
  14. 16. Probability <ul><li>Why is NaCl so soluble in water if it actually takes a little energy to form a solution (4 kJ/mol)? </li></ul><ul><li>The mixed state is more likely to occur as there are many more ways of placing the mixed state ions in water than the one unmixed state. </li></ul><ul><li>Think Entropy: Δ S. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>saturated : no more solute will dissolve     </li></ul><ul><li>unsaturated : able to dissolve more solute     </li></ul><ul><li>super-saturated : contains more solute than will dissolve under ordinary conditions     </li></ul>

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