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German unification 1213
 

German unification 1213

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    German unification 1213 German unification 1213 Presentation Transcript

    • Italian Unification Take out your group’s narrative of Italian Unification. 1. You are a liberal nationalist entrepreneur from Venice John, Katie, Will 2. You are a poor Roman Marxist Katherine, Conor, Elm 3. You are a wealthy conservative landowner from Naples Harry, Summer, Jesse 4. You are a Republican Piedmontese émigré’ living in Austria Blake, Dustin, Lila 5. You are a poor Tuscan farmer. Nathan, Maiah, ANS 6. PICK ONE! Casey, CourtneySunday, March 17, 13
    • German Unification Otto von Bismarck Minister/Chancellor of Prussia (Germany), 1862-1890Sunday, March 17, 13
    • German Unification Otto von Bismarck Minister/Chancellor of Prussia (Germany), 1862-1890Sunday, March 17, 13
    • 1. Austro-Prussian War 2. King William I appoints Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister. 3. Franco-Prussian War 4. Frankfurt Assembly tried to achieve the creation of a liberal German state. 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. Otto von Bismarck governs Prussia with the approval of the king and parliament, increasing the size of the Prussian army. 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • ibe to ral al d of trie on ly te. ati mb sta cre sse an he A rm e t urt Ge hiev nkf ac Fra 4. 1. Austro-Prussian War 2. King William I appoints Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister. 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. Otto von Bismarck governs Prussia with the approval of the king and parliament, increasing the size of the Prussian army. 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • ibe to ral al d of trie on ly te. ati mb sta cre sse an he A rm e t urt Ge hiev nkf ac Fra 4. 1848 1. Austro-Prussian War 2. King William I appoints Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister. 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. Otto von Bismarck governs Prussia with the approval of the king and parliament, increasing the size of the Prussian army. 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • n vo ibe to r. to ral ste Ot al d of trie ini ints on ly e M ppo te. ati mb rim I a sta cre sse sP m an he A k a illia rm e t urt Ge hiev nkf arc W ac Fra sm ng Bi Ki 4. 2. 1848 1. Austro-Prussian War 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. Otto von Bismarck governs Prussia with the approval of the king and parliament, increasing the size of the Prussian army. 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • n vo ibe to r. to ral ste Ot al d of trie ini ints on ly e M ppo te. ati mb rim I a sta cre sse sP m an he A k a illia rm e t urt Ge hiev nkf arc W ac Fra sm ng Bi Ki 4. 2. 1848 1862 1. Austro-Prussian War 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. Otto von Bismarck governs Prussia with the approval of the king and parliament, increasing the size of the Prussian army. 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • r m pr n a ap y. sia e us th Pr ith he w f t sia n vo e o rus ibe to r. to siz s P ral ste Ot al d of trie he ern ini ints g t ov on ly e M ppo te. ati mb sin k g rim I a sta cre sse rea rc nc ma sP m an he A k a illia rm e t urt t, i is en n B Ge hiev nkf arc W am vo ac Fra sm ng rli to Bi Ki Ot 4. 2. 7. pa 1848 1862 1. Austro-Prussian War 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • r m pr n a ap y. sia e us th Pr ith he w f t sia n vo e o rus ibe to r. to siz s P ral ste Ot al d of trie he ern ini ints g t ov on ly e M ppo te. ati mb sin k g rim I a sta cre sse rea rc nc ma sP m an he A k a illia rm e t urt t, i is en n B Ge hiev nkf arc W am vo ac Fra sm ng rli to Bi Ki Ot 4. 2. 7. pa 1848 1862 1862-1866 1. Austro-Prussian War 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 8. Danish-Prussian War 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • r m pr n a ap y. sia e us th Pr ith he w f t sia n vo e o rus ibe to r. to siz s P ral ste Ot al d of trie he ern ini ints g t ov on ly e M ppo te. ati mb sin k g ar nW rim I a sta cre sse rea rc nc ma sP m an he A sia k a illia rm e t urt t, i is us en n B Ge hiev nkf Pr arc W h- am vo ac Fra sm ng nis rli to Bi Ki Da Ot 4. 2. 7. 8. pa 1848 1862 1862-1866 1. Austro-Prussian War 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • r m pr n a ap y. sia e us th Pr ith he w f t sia n vo e o rus ibe to r. to siz s P ral ste Ot al d of trie he ern ini ints g t ov on ly e M ppo te. ati mb sin k g ar nW rim I a sta cre sse rea rc nc ma sP m an he A sia k a illia rm e t urt t, i is us en n B Ge hiev nkf Pr arc W h- am vo ac Fra sm ng nis rli to Bi Ki Da Ot 4. 2. 7. 8. pa 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 1. Austro-Prussian War 3. Franco-Prussian War 5. Prussian army captures French Emperor, Napoleon III 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 9. Prussia governs the territory of Schleswig, Austria governs HolsteinSunday, March 17, 13
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie Emperor, Napoleon III 1. Austro-Prussian War al d 3. Franco-Prussian War 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia 5. Prussian army captures French sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve rn st he ter rit or yo fS ch les wi g, Au str
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie Emperor, Napoleon III 1. Austro-Prussian War al d 3. Franco-Prussian War 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia 5. Prussian army captures French sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter rit or yo fS ch les wi g, Au str
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie Emperor, Napoleon III al d 3. Franco-Prussian War 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia 5. Prussian army captures French sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr les us wi sia nW g, Au ar str
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie Emperor, Napoleon III al d 3. Franco-Prussian War 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia 5. Prussian army captures French sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr 1866 us les sia wi nW g, Au ar str
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie Emperor, Napoleon III al d 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia 5. Prussian army captures French sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr 1866 us les sia wi nW g, Au 3. ar str Fr an co -P ru ssi an W ar
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie Emperor, Napoleon III al d 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia 5. Prussian army captures French sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr 1866 us les sia wi nW g, Au 3. ar str Fr an co -P ru ssi an W 1870-1871 ar
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie al d 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia sP m rim I a e M ppo palace of Versailles (ceremonial venue) 7. pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap 6. William I is crowned Emperor of the Second German Empire in the ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr 1866 us les sia wi nW g, Au 3. ar str Fr an co 5. -Pru Em Pru ssia pe ssi nW 1870-1871 ro an ar r, Na arm po y c leo ap n I tur II es Fr en ch
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie al d 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia sP m rim I a 7. e M ppo pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr 1866 us les sia wi nW g, Au 3. ar str Fr an co 5. -Pru Em Pru ssia pe ssi nW 1870-1871 ro an ar r, Na arm 6. po y c pa Wi leo ap lac lli n I tur eo am II es fV Ii Fr en ers s cr ch ail ow les ne (ce d E r m
    • 4. ac Fra Ge hiev nkfSunday, March 17, 13 rm e t urt an he A sta cre sse te. ati mb on ly of trie al d 2. ibe to Bi Ki ral sm ng arc W k a illia sP m rim I a 7. e M ppo pa Ot ini ints rli to ste Ot am vo r. to vo en n B t, i is n nc ma rea rc sin k g g t ov 8. he ern Da siz s P nis e o rus f t sia 1848 1862 1862-1866 1864 h- he w Pr Pr ith us us th sia sia e nW n a ap ar r m pr 9. y. Pr us sia go ve 1864-1866 rn st he ter 1. rit Au or yo str fS o- ch Pr 1866 us les sia wi nW g, Au 3. ar str Fr an co 5. -Pru Em Pru ssia pe ssi nW 1870-1871 ro an ar r, Na arm 6. po y c pa Wi leo ap lac lli n I tur eo am II es fV Ii Fr en 1871 ers s cr ch ail ow les ne (ce d E r m
    • RealpolitikSunday, March 17, 13
    • Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856 Because of the policy of Vienna [the Congress of Vienna, 1815], Germany is clearly too small for us both [Prussia and Austria]; as long as an honorable arrangement concerning the influence of each in Germany cannot be concluded and carried out, we will both plough the same disputed acre, and Austria will remain the only state to whom we can permanently lose or from whom we can permanently gain. . . .I wish only to express my conviction that, in the not too distant future, we shall have to fight for our existence against Austria and that it is not within our power to avoid that, since the course of events in Germany has no other solution.Sunday, March 17, 13
    • From a speech delivered to the Prussian legislature- September 29, 1862 “The position of Prussia in Germany will not be determined by its liberalism but by its power ... Prussia must concentrate its strength and hold it for the favourable moment, which has already come and gone several times. Since the treaties of Vienna, our frontiers have been ill-designed for a healthy body politic. Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood.”Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Johann Gustav Droysen: Speech to the Frankfurt Assembly, 1848 We cannot conceal the fact that the whole German question is a simple alternative between Prussia and Austria. In these states German life has its positive and negative poles--in the former, all the interests which are national and reformative, in the latter, all that are dynastic and destructive. The German question is not a constitutional question, but a question of power; and the Prussian monarchy is now wholly German, while that of Austria cannot be. . . .We need a powerful ruling house. Austrias power meant lack of power for us, whereas Prussia desired German unity in order to supply the deficiencies of her own power. Already Prussia is Germany in embryo. She will "merge" with Germany. . .Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke: 1866 The war of 1866 [between Prussia and Austria] was entered on not because the existence of Prussia was threatened, nor was it caused by public opinion and the voice of the people; it was a struggle, long foreseen and calmly prepared for, recognized as a necessity by the Cabinet, not for territorial aggrandizement, for an extension of our domain, or for material advantage, but for an ideal end--the establishment of power... Its center of gravity lay out of Germany; Prussias lay within it. Prussia felt itself called upon and strong enough to assume the leadership of the German races.Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Otto von Bismarck: 1866 We had to avoid wounding Austria too severely; we had to avoid leaving behind in her any unnecessary bitterness of feeling or desire for revenge; we ought rather to reserve the possibility of becoming friends again with our adversary of the moment, and in any case to regard the Austrian state as a piece on the European chessboard. If Austria were severely injured, she would become the ally of France and of every other opponent of ours; she would even sacrifice her anti-Russian interests for the sake of revenge on Prussia. . . .The acquisition of provinces like Austria Silesia and portions of Bohemia could not strengthen the Prussian state; it would not lead to an amalgamation of German Austria with Prussia, and Vienna could not be governed from Berlin as a mere dependency. . . .Austrias conflict and rivalry with us was no more culpable than ours with her; our task was the establishment or foundation of German national unity under the leadership of the King of Prussia.Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Disagreement in the Germanic Confederation In a single paragraph, synthesize the below sources the state of the Germanic Confederation on the eve of Unification. “Describe and analyze the views of those who were concerned about the problems of the political, economic, and social order in the German states before the revolutions of 1848.” *** “In the wake of the Revolution of 1848, the upper classes were wary of any change that might threaten the status quo. They particularly feared the strong nationalist feeling unleashed by revolution, the extension of which might become, they reasoned, the proclamation of the equality of all citizens.” *** “In both Prussia and Austria, the 1850s were an extremely repressive period that made it clear to most nationalists that German unification would not come under liberal auspices. The repression following the Revolutions of 1848 had scattered thousands of German democrats and nationalists across Europe and as far as the United States.”Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Realpolitik Bismarck then drew Italy into a secret alliance, [against Austria] signed in April 1866, bypromising it Venetia in the event of a Habsburg defeat. Italy promised Prussia assistance if therewas war with Austria, knowing that a Prussian victory would add the last large chunk of the Italianpeninsula to Italy. Hoping to win the support of the other German states, Bismarck sent a plan for reform to theparliament, calling for the establishment of a national parliament to be elected by universalmanhood suffrage. That the famous Junker conservative would suggest that manhood suffragemight form a foundation for the creation of a unified German state surprised liberals...“The Austrian War was a turning point in Prussian domestic affairs. After the war, Bismarck askedthe Prussian parliament to pass a bill…retroactively legalizing the taxes he had collected illegallysince 1862. Even most of the liberals voted in favor of the bill because they had been won over byBismarck’s successful use of military power…In using nationalism to win support from theliberals … Bismarck showed that liberalism and nationalism…could be separated.“In January 18, 1871…in Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles, William I, with Bismarck standing atthe foot of the throne, was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire. German unity hadbeen achieved by the Prussian monarchy and the Prussian army…German liberals also rejoiced.They had dreamed of unity and freedom, but the achievement of unity seemed much moreimportant.”Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Realpolitik Bismarck then drew Italy into a secret alliance, [against Austria] signed in April 1866, bypromising it Venetia in the event of a Habsburg defeat. Italy promised Prussia assistance if therewas war with Austria, knowing that a Prussian victory would add the last large chunk of the Italianpeninsula to Italy. Hoping to win the support of the other German states, Bismarck sent a plan for reform to theparliament, calling for the establishment of a national parliament to be elected by universalmanhood suffrage. That the famous Junker conservative would suggest that manhood suffragemight form a foundation for the creation of a unified German state surprised liberals...“The Austrian War was a turning point in Prussian domestic affairs. After the war, Bismarck askedthe Prussian parliament to pass a bill…retroactively legalizing the taxes he had collected illegallysince 1862. Even most of the liberals voted in favor of the bill because they had been won over byBismarck’s successful use of military power…In using nationalism to win support from theliberals … Bismarck showed that liberalism and nationalism…could be separated.“In January 18, 1871…in Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles, William I, with Bismarck standing atthe foot of the throne, was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire. German unity hadbeen achieved by the Prussian monarchy and the Prussian army…German liberals also rejoiced.They had dreamed of unity and freedom, but the achievement of unity seemed much moreimportant.” What is realpolitik and why would Otto von Bismarck have been considered a practitioner?Sunday, March 17, 13
    • Nationalism, Liberalism, and ConservatismRaymond GrewIn order to achieve unification, the liberal Prussian parliament threw its support behind William I and Bismarck’sauthoritarian government. The liberals were willing to dispense with their calls for limited constitutionalgovernment. Meanwhile, Otto von Bismarck, the consummate conservative aristocrat, was willing to push foruniversal manhood suffrage in the Reichstag. Based on the reading below by Raymond Grew, a historian at theUniversity of Michigan, why/how were Realpolitik, Bismarck’s conservatism and German nationalism the perfectcombination to achieve German Unification?Insofar as politics was the public battle of ideas and interests, then nationalism was a denial of politics. For instressing the values of unity, loyalty, and duty, nationalism saw political dispute as a source of weakness. It deniedthat there was conflict in the true interests of classes, groups or regions. The effect of nationalism was thereforeinherently conservative in that it provided reason for supporting anyone thought to wield the power of the stateeffectively in behalf of national unity and strength, Disraeli or Gladstone, Napoleon III or Bismarck. Since orderand unity, the cry of the political conservative, are essential to a strong state, and since, to the nationalist, mostworthy ends required that strength, the nationalist was always tempted under pressure to move toward the politicalright, to sacrifice liberty to unity, discussion to authority, ends to means. Yet the origins of nationalism were usually liberal and reformist; for everywhere it was a demand for change,the doctrine of the modernizers who, while they had too much to lose to want a social revolution, were self-consciously aware that theirs was an "underdeveloped" country. Nationalism could make its denial of politic[al]differences effective because its goals were so clear…an efficient bureaucracy, a responsible government, aprogressive economic structure, all based on accepted and universally applied laws. Nationalism was a program toobtain these things quickly, not to evolve toward...The hurry to achieve these goals…made a doctrinaire concernfor means appear irrelevant and unrealistic. Italian nationalists wanted nothing so brutal as cynicism or controversyover the choice of practical means to justify "postponement"; however, often this meant whittling away at thepractices necessary to viable liberalism.3. How did a conservative like Bismarck use a seemingly liberal cause (nationalism) to achieve conservativeends?Sunday, March 17, 13