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The impact of PTSD on veterans and marital intimacy

The impact of PTSD on veterans and marital intimacy

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  • 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Marilyn Kleist<br />Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, 2010<br />
  • 2. Personal Statement<br />My mother instilled the values of compassion into me in my younger years. She fed, clothed and put a roof over anybody in need. My early memories of taking care of people were of going to the front door of our house and handing out a plate of food to a homeless person. It became a second nature to help others in need.<br />While attending college for a theater degree I took psychology 101 and Maslow’s self actualization theories left a great impression in me. Each time I drove to downtown Los Angeles I saw homeless people I asked myself “I wonder what happened to this person’s mind? Why does he live in the street? Where are family, friends? Eventually, I asked “What does it take to help somebody to recover their health, family, integrity, and the meaning of their existence so they can become members of society? This was the first time I had a fundamental philosophical debate with myself about existentialism. <br />In the theater program I took a character analysis class, to be able to portray these characters I had to get into their minds in depth and develop their personalities. I spent a lot of time in the main library in downtown Los Angeles doing research for my characters. The range of emotions used in performance and the variety of characters developed and sharpened my skills in research methods.<br />Research methods for the theater laid the foundation for my decision to study psychology. I am a firm believer in the efficacy of scientific research coupled with wisdom and compassion to solve psychological dilemmas. At this time I have a special interest in posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) research for veterans. I am convinced of the long term consequences that veterans and society will have to endure as soldiers return home. President Kennedy (1962) stated in his inaugural speech “Asked not what the country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” I want to contribute to psychological wellbeing of veterans. In addition to my educational experience, one of my short term goals is to obtain a volunteer position in the mental health Long Beach Veterans Hospital. I am determined to volunteer in different clinical settings to gain insight into the research and application of different psychological theories. <br />For many generations alcoholism was prevalent and affected my family’s interpersonal relations. Alcoholism and family dysfunction in minorities deserves research within their cultural system. I want to learn more therapeutic approaches to alcoholism treatment and prevention for minorities. I have acquired interpersonal skills through relevant work and personal experience. For example my employment in the diverse world of TV/film industry has taught me leadership skills and interpersonal expertise. The entertainment industry is a fast paced, unpredictable environment and caters to socioeconomic, and culturally diverse people. I am grateful for the challenges in the TV/film industry; it also compelled me to realize and appreciate my overwhelming need for goal orientation. <br />I have always loved school and learning. My exceptional love for learning has been the key to my commitment in school. My undergraduate studies inspired me to take my dream higher into graduate school. Ghandi once said “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” I intend to focus my graduate studies on marriage and family therapy (MFT). Family is the fundamental center of our society. Ultimately, I aspire to be the family therapist who can contribute to families’ growth and to develop strong foundation pillars for our society.<br />
  • 3. Marilyn Kleist marilynkleist@hotmail.com<br />5220 E. Appian Way<br />Long Beach, CA 90803<br />(562)438-2213 (562) 449-7884<br /> <br />OBJECTIVE:<br />To obtain a volunteer position in the mental health Department of the Veterans Hospital. <br /> <br />EDUCATION:<br />Argosy University, Orange, CA Bachelor of Arts, May 2010<br />Major: Psychology Theater certificateGPA: 3.57/4.0<br />Honors: Deans List <br /> <br />RELEVANT COURSE WORK:<br />Statistics, Counseling theories, Personalities Theories, Research Methods, Social Psychology, Crime and Causes, Physiological Psychology and Developmental Psychology.<br /> <br />COMPUTER SKILLS:<br />Microsoft Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel,)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />RELATED EXPERIENCE:<br />Currently work in the TV/Film industry as a freelancer. Maintain good customer relations with producers, writers, and entertainment crews. Planned and developed systems to assist the myriad of basiclneeds of the cast and crew members. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />ADDITIONAL EXPERIENCE:<br />ACTIVITIES:<br /> <br />Resume<br />
  • 4. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />
  • 5. Cognitive Abilities<br />Cognitive Abilities<br />Cognitive Behavior therapy: Case study for Stan. Theory and practice of counseling and Psychotherapy 2005.<br /> Analyzes the thinking process of Stan during cognitive behavior therapy with Dr Corey.<br /> Examines Dr. Corey Techniques to guide Stan’s to change his beliefs and his outlook on life.<br />
  • 6. Cognitive Abilities<br />  <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Critical Thinking Answers for Cognitive Therapy<br /> <br />1. I found it interesting that Stan takes one event that happened in his life as a sole proof that nothing in his life will ever works. He makes a lot of assumptions without really having enough evidence. Dr Corey is trying to help him change his beliefs about his outlook in life. Stan has difficulty with relationships with his family and the women in his life and Dr. Corey is teaching him new ways to think, using several techniques.<br /> <br />2. If I was counseling Stan, I would try Dr. Corey’s techniques. I would try to find out why Stan has those beliefs about himself. The techniques that Dr Corey is employing to re-direct his thoughts are crucial because Stan needs to hear his voice about the beliefs he holds about himself. <br /> <br />3. If I was the client I would soon realize that I do a lot of assuming. I like the fact that Dr Corey would want evidence about my beliefs, which would force me to examine my thoughts and my self-talk. I would definitely examine my values and how my beliefs can be changed or modify with a little effort on my part and guidance from Dr. Corey. <br />
  • 7. Research Skills<br />Research Skills<br /> Researched and analyzed, the efficacy of Cognitive Process therapy on a research design for veterans who suffer from Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome <br /><ul><li>Developed skills to interpret scientific research data.
  • 8. Examined the different databases that provide scientific data.
  • 9. Developed methods to differentiate scientific and irrelevant evidence.</li></li></ul><li>Research Skills<br />PTSD Literary Review<br />Marilyn Kleist<br />Research Methods<br />PSY 302<br />
  • 10. Research Skills Cont.<br />Introduction:<br />In their attempt to treat combat veterans with military related PTSD Monson et al (2006) conducted a study of the efficacy of cognitive process therapy on veterans with military related PTSD. <br />This paper examines the evidence of the efficacy of the use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) to treat veterans with military related post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive behavior treatment is widely used for the treatment of PTSD, with the exclusion of extreme psychopathology symptoms such as current uncontrolled psychotic or bipolar disorder, substance dependence (those with substance abuse diagnoses were included), prominent current suicidal or homicidal ideation, and significant cognitive impairment. According to American Psychiatric Association PTSD occurs when a person has been exposed to a traumatic event in which the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others and the person’s response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror.<br />The committee of veterans compensation for PTSD and the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, states that PTSD is one of an interrelated and overlapping set of possible mental health responses to combat exposures and trauma. The illness of PTSD--- illness meaning the interaction of a disease with an individual in a particular social context --- creates four different types of burdens in those who are affected: suffering, altered functional capacity, impairment, and disability. These four types of PTSD burdens can in turn each play out in four different domains: the cognitive, emotional, social, and occupational. PTSD is classically a waxing and waning illness. Monson et al (2006) contends that military personnel are at risk population for exposure to traumatic events and the development of post traumatic disorders. The authors developed a criterion to establish the eligibility of the participants. There research was supported by the clinical career research development from the veterans affairs cooperative studies program. <br />According to the department of Veterans affairs Cognitive Behavior therapy (CBT) is the type of treatment that appears to be the most effective in treating PTSD in combat veterans. In CBT the therapist helps the client understand and change how he or she thinks or deal about their trauma and its aftermath. The goal of the CBT therapist is to get the client to understand how certain thoughts about his or her trauma causes them stress and make their symptoms worse. The therapist will teach the client to identify thoughts about the world and about himself or herself that are making he or she feel afraid or upset. Guided by the CBT therapist the client learns to replace these thoughts with more accurate and less distressing thoughts. The client is also taught ways to cope with feelings of anger, guilt, and fear. Many combat veterans return home from the war zone feeling guilty about decisions they had to make during the war. CBT therapy helps them understand that these traumatic events they lived through war were not their fault.<br />This research has not taken into account participants who may have experienced brain injuries or bipolar disorder, raising questions about whether the results apply to the many PTSD sufferers who have multiple disorders.<br />Literary Review:<br />The focus of this study was to determine the importance of identifying effective treatment veterans with military related PTSD. Treatment for PTSD using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy had only been performed on civilian participants to date and had shown higher efficacy as compared to exposure treatment and drug treatment. In the civilian samples there is a solid evidence base supporting the efficacy of cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for PTSD, perhaps over drug treatment (Van Etten & Taylor, 1998).<br />In their research the authors used several methods to assess the severity of PTSD among a sample of veterans chosen based on their symptomatology. One of the methods used to determine the PTSD status and severity was the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale. The CAPS is a gold standard test used for assessment and diagnosis of PTSD active duty military, veterans, and civilian trauma survivors. According to Monson et al, (2005) the veterans’ diagnosis on PTSD was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria that consisted of a minimum severity score of 45. <br />In terms of procedure Monson et al, (2005) conducted a three-phase screening. In the first phase they interviewed participants, provided temporary diagnoses and examined participants’ medical records to ensure inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the second phase of the screening participants signed consent forms and were explained of the procedure. The third phase of the study was to inform veterans of their rights and to finalize exclusion/inclusion criteria to be used in the study, and had those complete self-report questionnaires. The authors selected the actual and the wait-list subjects randomly and proceeded to treat veterans selected for immediate treatment and had assigned 10 weeks waiting period for the wait-list participants. Monson et al instructed the participants not to disclose their condition to the doctoral-level clinician assigned to assess treatment at the beginning (baseline), in the middle (midtreatment) (or after three weeks of waiting), post treatment and after treatment (or after six weeks of waiting). <br />
  • 11. Research Skills Cont.<br />Monson et al provided (CPT) Cognitive processing therapy for chosen PTSD veterans. CPT is a manualized, 12-session, specific form of CBT for PTSD that has a primary focus on cognitive intervention Resick, (2001a). The first part of the CPT treatment was to explain clients the meaning of PTSD and symptoms, and at the final stage of the first session clients were asked to write an “impact statement”. In this “impact statement” clients wrote about the traumatic events they experienced and why they thought it happened. The second part was to read and discuss the “impact statement”. Patients are then taught to identify the connection between events, thoughts and feelings and to practice this as homework Monson et al, (2005). In session 4 and 5, clients were asked to experience the natural emotions they may have repressed following psychological trauma, at the end of session five patients are asked to rewrite and re-experience their emotions with more detail. Using a Socratic style of questioning (Method of teaching that uses open questions to elicit information and reflect back this information in order to encourage group member to think about their thoughts and behavior) (Towel, 2003), the therapist teaches patients to ask questions regarding their assumptions and self-statements in order to begin challenging them Monson et al, (2005). <br />Monson et al, randomly selected sixty veterans (54 men and 6 women) who were previously diagnosed with chronic PTSD. Of these sixty participants thirty were selected randomly to receive CPT treatment while the remaining thirty were put on the wait list as the control factor. Monson et al (2006) argues that the treatment of PTSD is most crucial because of the alarming numbers on veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan suffering from PTSD. Officially, the Veterans’ administration estimates that 11% of Afghanistan veterans and 18% of Iraq veterans suffer from PTSD. Moreover, research with active duty personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan suggest that we are creating a new generation of veterans with high levels of PTSD and related mental health symptoms (Hoge, Auchterlonie, & Milliken, 2006; Hoge, Castro, & Messer, 2004). <br />The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that veterans with military related PTSD and related mental health would benefit from CBT treatment. Cognitive learning domain is exhibited by a person intellectual ability and characterized by observable and unobservable skills such as comprehending information, organizing ideas, and evaluation information and actions Lane (2001). After an inclusion/exclusion criterion, 12 Cognitive Behavior Therapy sessions, post treatment, and one month follow ups the gains were shown both clinically and significantly.<br />The authors used the wait list as a control and compared these results with the participants during the sessions and after the post treatment with the results graphed and showing positive growth on the participant side and virtual no change on the wait list side. <br />Their results provide further evidence of the efficacy of CPT treating PTSD in combat veterans.<br />Discussion<br /> (Monson, Price, & Ranslow, 2005) contends that veterans with PTSD disability compensation, gain accounts for the little or no progress on CPT treatment effects on PTSD in previous studies. The randomized study of PTSD treatment controlled trial using CBT provides the most encouraging results for combat veterans returning from the war zone. The intention- to- treat results indicate significant improvements on both clinical and self reported PTSD symptoms, 40% did not meet criteria for PTSD and 50% had a reliable change in their PTSD at post treatment assessment. In this sample comprised of mainly men with Vietnam chronic PTSD, the effect size differences between the CPT and wait-list condition at post treatment psychosocial treatment trials in civilian samples (Blanchard, Hickling, Devineni, Veazey, Galovski, Mundy, et al., 2003: Resick, Nishith, Veaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002) were mostly consistent with previous wait-list controlled. The implication is that CBT can improve the emotional numbing avoiding symptoms on PTSD combat veterans. In civilian samples, all symptom clusters are generally found to improve (Foa et al., 1991; Nishith, Resick, & Griffin, 2002; Taylor et al 2003) and in veterans samples, the emotional numbing avoidance tend to be less treatment responsive.<br />Conclusion<br /> In this study, reexperiencing and emotional numbing significantly improved with CPT versus the wait-line condition of participants. Behavioral avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms did not differentially improve in CPT as compared with the wait-list condition. The descriptive statistics as a function of condition and time of measurement, intention to treat sample results on behavioral avoidance for CPT treatment were; baseline was 10.57, midtreatment was 9.79, postreatment 7.07, one month follow up 8.15. Statistics for waiting list were: 11.77 midtreatment 9.81 postreatment 10.23, follow up 10.61. Participants were well suited to address cognitions related to commiting, witnessing and experience acts of violence. The authors believe that the lack of significant differences between participants in the CPT and wait list condition with regard to behavioral avoidance may be related to improvement in the wait- list condition as well as inadequate power to find the interaction effect in this small sample. Further studies with larger samples sizes will help evaluate the stability of these findings.<br />Recommendations<br />Taken together the results of this study indicate that CBT established an initial efficacy on the treatment of PTSD on combat veterans. Larger future trials for PTSD treatment is recommended to determine how well treatments gain are maintained in veterans. It can be assumed from this study to the extent that CBT can treat PTSD on combat veterans. This study would help to understand that PTSD is a chronic mental health condition with an unremitting course –a disorder that should be classified alongside other serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and major mood disorders (Johnson, Fontana, Lubin, Corn & Rosenhack, 2004) There have been concerns that disability compensation for PTSD creates a context in which secondary gains issues create obstacles and disincentives for treatments improvements (Mossman, 1996). This study and others (De Viva & Bloem, 2003; Fontana & Rosenheck, 1998; Taylor et al, 2001) suggest that this is not necessarily true for all veterans receiving disability compensation for their PTSD. <br />
  • 12. Research Skills Cont.<br />Works Cited<br />Blanchard, E. B. (2003). A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress in motor vehicle accident survivors. Behaviour Research and Therapy , 41, 79-96.<br />DeViva, J. C. (2003). Symptom exaggeration and compensation seeking among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress , 16, 503-507.<br />Foa, E. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral proceedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 59, 715-723.<br />Fontana, A. &. (1998). Effects of compensation-seeking on treatment outcomes among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Vervous and Mental Disease , 186, 223-230.<br />Hoge, C. W. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England journal of Medicine , 350, 13-22.<br />Hoge, C. W. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Journal of the American Medical Association , 295, 1023-1032.<br />Johnson, D. R. (2004). Long-term course of treatment-seeking Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: Mortality, clinical condition, and life satisfaction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 192, 35-41.<br />Kubany, E. S., Haynes, S. N., Abueg, F. R., Manke, F. P., Brennan, J. M., & Stahura, C. (1996). Development and validation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI). Psychological Assessment , 8, 428-444.<br />Monson, C. M., Price, J. L., & Ranslow, E. (2005). Treating combat PTSD through cognitive processing therapy. Federal Practitioner , 22, 75-83.<br />Mossman, D. (1996). Veterans Affairs disability compensation: a case study in countertherapeutic jurisprudence. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law , 24, 27-44.<br />Nishith, P. R. (2002). Pattern of change in prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy for female rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology , 70, 880-886.<br />Resick, P. A. (2002). Acomparison of cognitive processing therapy with prolonged exposure and waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 70, 867-879.<br />Resick, P. A. (2001a). Cognitive processing therapy: Generic version. St. Louis: University of Missouri.<br />Taylor, S. F. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder arising after road traffic collisions: Patterns of response to cognitive-behavior therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 69, 541-551.<br />Taylor, S. T. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 71, 330-338.<br />Towel, G. J. (2003). Psychology in Prisons. Blackwell Publishing.<br />Van Etten, M. L. (1998). Comparative efficacy of treatment for posttraumatic Stress disorder: A review of the first ten years of research. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy , 126-144.<br />The Committee of Veteran Compensation & Institute of Medicine & National Research Council www.books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11870&page=70<br />U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs www.mentalhealth.va.gov/mentalhealth/ptsd/fs_treatmentforptsd.asp<br />Veterans Administration www.coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/bloomsld<br />
  • 13. Communication Skills<br />Communication Skills<br />Triangle of love theory: Difference between romantic love and consummate love. <br />In an 8 minute oral presentation with the use of media technology emphasized and delivered Stenberg’s triangle of love theory.<br />C<br />
  • 14. Communication Skills<br />Plot:<br />Unfaithful (2002) is an erotic drama with high profile actors Diane Lane and Richard Gere. Connie (Diane Lane) a woman in her late thirties and Edward (Richard Gere) is an affluent couple with an eight year old boy living in suburban New York. Their marriage has gone perilously twisted when she gratifies her desires in an adulterous affair with a book dealer in his twenties (Olivier Martinez).<br />
  • 15. Communication Skills<br />Storyline<br />The story begins with Connie and Edward living an enviable family life. They got a beautiful home, an eight year old son, a dog and a housekeeper. This happy marriage dampened by the routines of affluence falls prey to an outsider when Connie has a fateful collision with a stranger Paul Martel (Olivier Martinez) on a sohost. It is a meeting that turn her life into a seductive emotional chaos collided with elements of mystic, erotic thrilling, and passionate affair. Connie becomes entangled in this web of illicit love, and to satisfy her sexual urges become her obsession and eventually her emotional demise<br />
  • 16. Communication Skills<br />The illicit affair ends<br />Connie meets Paul while she was shopping for a birthday present in a windy day. She trips, falls and scratches her knee. Paul suggests going into his apartment to take care of her. Prior to that incident Connie had trouble catching a taxi, and decides to go in his apartment to aid her bleeding scratches on her knee. At his apartment he offers to help her with her knee while she’s on the phone talking to her son. At that point I realized the overwhelming evidence of their chemistry. Connie became involved in romantic love with Paul; she started to lie to her husband and son about her whereabouts. Her sexual encounters with her young lover became almost like an addiction. They made love in his apartment, in the bathroom of a café, and even the by stairs in his apartment building. Her husband found out about the affair in a casual way. Connie’s husband Edward became suspicious about his wife’s behavior and hires a detective to investigate the matter. The detective confirms Edward’s suspicions and brings back pictures of Connie and Paul walking out of the movie theater. Edward goes to Paul’s apartment and confronts him about the affair without Connie’s knowledge. Edward kills Paul with a heavy a snow ball. While he is there, he hears a message Connie leaves for Paul breaking up the illicit affair. He quickly erases fingerprints and loads his body into the trunk of his car and takes it to a landfill<br />
  • 17. Communication Skills<br />Sternberg’s triangle of love theory<br />There is a difference between romantic love, affectionate love and consummate love. In my opinion romantic love is passion and emotional ecstasy combined with a storm of irrational obsessive dangerous thoughts.<br /> Affectionate love is responsible, committed, mature, deep caring love for a partner. In this kind of love passion gives birth to affection. In other words, two people that start their relationship with romantic love stayed together and cared for each other deeply enough that their passion evolved into affection.<br /> Consummate love is the strongest kind of love. According to the theory of Sternberg’s triangle of love with three main dimensions (1988) passion, intimacy and commitment. Passion is physical and sexual attraction to another. Intimacy is emotional feelings of warmth, closeness and sharing in a relationship. Commitment is our cognitive appraisal of the relationship and our intent to maintain the relationship even in the face of problems. (Rusbult & others, 2001). <br />
  • 18. Communication Skills<br />Sternberg’s triangle of love theory<br />In our culture, romantic love is the main reason we get married. In 1967, a famous study showed than most men maintained that they were nor get married if they were not “in love” with someone. Women either were undecided or said that they would get married even if they did not love their prospective husband (Kephart, 1967). Why is that? In the 1980’s, both women and men tend to agree that they would not get married unless they were “in love”. More than half of today’s men and women say that not being “in love” is sufficient reason to dissolve a marriage (Bersheid, Snyder & Omoto, 1989). Romantic love includes a complex intermingling of different emotions-fear, anger, sexual desire, joy, and jeaolusy (Harris, 2002).<br /> Which explains our high incidence of divorces in America leading to dysfunctional families. If people get married because they are “in love” and don’t stay together in the relationship long enough to graduate to “in commitment” how can we build strong families, strong communities, strong societies and therefore a strong nation? <br />
  • 19. Ethics and Diversity<br /> Stereotyping, Prejudice and discrimination. <br /> Examined and analyzed the behavior and general attitude of society with regards to Mexican Americans of different eras.<br /> Developed an insight into the relevance of multicultural competencies.<br />Ethics and Diversity <br />
  • 20. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination<br />Social Psychology<br />By Marilyn Kleist<br />Dr. Blaylock<br />
  • 21. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Prejudice is the general attitude we have towards members of a particular social group without knowledge or examination of the facts. If we view ourselves in one group to be higher with regard to self image, than another group, or compare two groups to each other as being lower than us, we can maintain our high self image. One group that experienced an enormous amount of prejudice in the 1940’s is the Mexican American group known as the Pachucos. <br />Another social issue the Pachucos had to deal with was the discrimination. Discrimination is the behavior directed towards people based on the group membership. Discrimination on the grounds of race or religion is generally illegal in the western world where as on the grounds of merit it is acceptable. Discrimination based on the grounds of race was common place for the Pachucos.<br />The Pachucos were part of the Mexican American social group and therefore any one of the Pachucos would be treated in the same manner. Conversely the Mexican Americans who were not Pachucos were stereotyped as being as such. <br />In June, 3, 1943, in Los Angeles California were racially motivated conflicts involving servicemen of World War II and a Mexican American group called “Pachucos” or “Chuco.” Pachuco is a nickname used for Mexican Americans zootsuiters who migrated to Los Angeles from El Paso. Groups of Mexican Americans migrated to Los Angeles from El Paso, Texas and were called Pachucos. The Mexican Americans in El Paso were being harassed and taunted by the local police. The courts there had made them an offer: that if they left the state of Texas, that all charges, which were all false, would be dropped. In other words they were forced out of town.<br />Pachucos were the children of Mexican parents that immigrated to the United States. Their parents immigrated to escape the follies of the Mexican revolution and to participate in the rapidly growing industrialization that was occurring in the southern and south-western United States. <br />Pachucos identified themselves by the zoot suits they wore, and the calo dialect to communicate among them. A zoot suit has high-waisted, wide-legged, high-cuffed pegged trousers, (called tramas) and a long coat (called the carlango) with lapels and wide padded shoulders. Pachucos were a minority group within their own ethnicity. Often zootsuiters wear a felt hat with a long feather (called tapa or tanda) and pointy French style shoes (called calcos). The Pachucos were known for the almost constant use of profanity when the spoke and the deliberate misuse and variations to the language. By wearing the unique clothing and speaking the unusual language they created their own camaraderie and essentially their own race.<br />Music, dance, calo (their own dialect), and the “zoot suit,” which they created, was a big part of the Pachuco way of life. The zoot suit was a very integral part of life and had great meaning and was a symbol of status and heritage for the Mexican American. It was also an outfit that bonded the American minorities together because the African Americans would also wear it to symbolize their status and heritage. They would follow the big bands around the area to dance and party. The level of importance of the zoot suit was so high that the men would not even dance but just stand there on the floor while the women would dance around them. If you didn’t wear the zoot suit you were called a “square.” <br />The Pachucos brought their own dialect with them to the Los Angeles barrios and was called calo which was influenced by the Mexican underworld and in part by the gypsy’s (Gitanos). Calo is linguistic symbiosis of Romani and Spanish. The gypsy’s became a part of the Mexican underworld through illegal activities and brought calo to the underworld which was later adopted by the Pachucos and brought to Los Angeles. <br />According to Cesar Chavez dressing in a zoot suit gave him and his friends more opportunities to socialize and have more fun. But there were also groups in the Mexican American community that opposed Pachuco clothing. Los Angeles news papers depicted pictures of Pachuco kids in pants that were torn to the thighs by the police. Pachuco’s would have long hair that was kept in a pony tail and wear long coats which if the police saw this they would cut their hair and their coats short.<br />Previously servicemen have had small altercation with pachucos and in retaliation servicemen “on leave” convened in Downtown and East Los Angeles, the most concentrated areas with Mexican Americans and physically assaulted zoot suited men, stripping off their clothing and burning it. There were many fights and altercations between servicemen and the minorities that wore the zoot suit. The zoot suit would use many yards of material which was supposed to be rationed at the time because of the war efforts. This caused lots of jealousy and envy from the servicemen that transformed itself into anger and that anger became so great that rioting began and caused Los Angeles to become off limits to the Servicemen. On June 3, 1943, a fight between some servicemen (sailors) and some Pachucos ignited a riot that lasted five days in which hundreds of servicemen would walk the streets of East LA and brutally beat anyone who was wearing a zoot suit. The police and other authorities would look the other way allowing this to continue until the servicemen were restricted from going to Los Angeles. The police arrested nine servicemen and hundreds of the Pachucos. The servicemen were let go except one paid a fine, while the Pachucos were in jail, some who actually died there due to lack of medical attention, and many were convicted. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  • 22. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Machismo is part of the making of the Pachuco. For example, in the making of the movie, American Me, the show was a depiction of the Mexican mafia underworld and its leadership (Pachuco). This movie had depicted the lead character, RudolfoCadena, as the leader who had been sent to prison for his crimes and had been raped on the inside. This scene was false and had infuriated the La Eme community. La Eme has four rules that are enforced to be a member: 1 never to be an informant, 2 cannot have any acts of homosexuality, 3 no acts of cowardice, and 4 no disrespect to fellow gang members. Any violation to these rules is punishable by death and to be carried out by a gang member only. This is why La Eme had the technical advisor, Anna Lizarraga, murdered and had tried to extort Edward James Olmos. <br />In the notorious 1942 Sleepy Lagoon murder, three hundred gang members were arrested in connection with the murder. The gang was out for revenge after one of their own was beaten by a rival gang. They ended up at a ranch crashing a birthday party and beat a man to death. The trial for the Pachucos has shown many aspects of discrimination and unjust proceedings. One item was that the defendants were not allowed to shower for two weeks prior to their trial. Another case was that the defendants were seated in a two row box of seats and not able to consult with their attorney during the trial. Even the judge in this case was insulting the defense attorneys and showing prejudice. Three men were convicted of first degree murder, 6 were convicted of second degree murder, 10 were convicted of assault, 5 were convicted as accomplices, and 5 were acquitted by the all white jury. Later the second district court of appeal overturned all the convictions and further ruled that the judge was prejudicial and sited that the court had provided inadequate seating arrangements preventing the defendants from communicating with their attorneys.<br />There are still few pachucos around, Edmundo Martinez Tostado aka Don Tosti was a great musician that wrote his music during the heyday of Pachuco’s golden times. He was very famous for his works and has a mark on the Palm Springs “Walk of Fame” but yet he never received any awards from the music industry as he puts it, because he was Hispanic. <br />The Pachuco culture was short lived but is relevant to today’s Mexican American socialization, education, family and values. The next generation of the Pachucos were known as Cholos. The term Cholo comes from northern Mexico and has the meaning a tough Mexican gangster. It is also used as a status symbol to describe a Mexican American and can be used in a derogatory and discriminative way. <br />The Cholos were the heirs of to the throne so to speak. The only real difference is the way they dress. The Cholos would wear the loose fitting khaki pants or shorts with the knee high brilliantly white socks and immaculate sneakers or sandals. They would also wear long sleeve flannel shirts that were either buttoned all the way to the top or with only the top button done. They would also wear “Charlie Brown” shirts and keep their heads shaved. The transportation of choice was the every famous low rider. It is very common to hear the Cholo use the term ese, the pronunciation of the letter s, which can be translated to mean that one or that guy and is interchangeable with vato. <br />The Cholos have been in a spiraling downfall from their beginning. Society has neglected to provide adequate programs for assistance to the families and especially the children. The school systems are not accommodating the needs of these children and there are no after school programs to keep the kids safe, off the street, and to help teach them how to live in our society. The parents are not home to supervise the children because they are always working to be able to provide for the children and themselves. In many broken home cases, the mother would be left with the children because the father would either leave or get sick or die. This was extreme and caused the mother to become the supporter of the family. In this scenario, the children were left alone to spend considerable time in the streets with other children and ultimately lead to early induction into the gangs. The gangs would offer the children a sense of belonging along with the empathy to the common conflicts and conditions creating a camaraderie that will surpass any other. Most children are in search of social status and are trying to rise above the social level that their parents have. This adds to the draw of the gang life because of the promise of easy and fast money. The children believe that the monetary status will gain them the love and attention that they crave. <br />In Mexico, the justice system is corrupt by nature and Mexicans learn that fact as children and grow up distrusting authority. Once these kids become parents in the United States, transfer their fear and defiance to authority and their Mexican American children begin to defy the police in the United States for that very same reason. The gang has taken this to new levels by antagonizing the police and viewing them as their mortal enemies. <br />As is the case for most immigrants the children became more accustom to the ways of the American culture, even to the extent that they adopted the attitudes against the Mexican culture and ways. Most children are in search of social status and are trying to rise above the social level that their parents have. <br />Being a young Mexican in the United States during the seventies I have had first hand experience to the stereotyping and discrimination. I used to be afraid to speak Spanish in most places and situations such as the grocery store and places of employment. I was always told, “This is America, speak English.” This was demeaning and harassing at the time but yet it was a motivator for me to learn English<br />
  • 23. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />I started working when I was sixteen lying about my age saying that I was eighteen so I would be able to work. I worked at a car wash in Long Beach detailing the interiors and drying the exteriors of the cars after they went through the wash. After this job I worked at a clothing factory trimming the loose ends of the finished products competing with Koreans and other immigrants to stay working. I then started another job at another factory and managed to have time to start attending school to learn English. I soon started translating for other immigrants. I learned from this little school that if I wanted to have a better job/career I needed an education and set myself up to be able to attend college regularly.<br />During this time I really had to struggle, not only with being a Mexican but also with gender issues. I had to work even harder than the males to be able to get ahead. <br />When I first came to the United States it was quite the experience. I was excited because it was a new place of many opportunities and many doors would be opened. It was also at the same time scary and lonely because of the discrimination I had to endure and my family was not around to provide financial or moral support. I missed my family and <br />As a new immigrant to the United States I would make friends with other Mexicans around me. I would go with them to see the “cruises” on Whittier Blvd. It was fun and exciting to see the Low Riders that the Cholos took great pride in.<br />None of the Pachuco “leaders” ever intended to lead a movement or make a change. They only wanted to express themselves as they were and to honor their style, heritage, and beliefs.<br />The Pachucos had their day in the sun in the forty’s and fifty’s while their heirs, the Cholos, had their day in the sixties and seventies. The Cholos have passed down the traditions to the Ese and Vato Loco of today.<br />References<br />Cloth-wrapped people, trouble, and power: pachuco culture in the greater Southwest. Author: L. L. Cummings, Journal of the Southwest Publication Date: 22-SEP-03. Retrieved August 16, 2008 from www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-20441379_ITMAmerican Me - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaPachucos in the Making: Information and Much More from Answers.comDavid Salmon OrnelasJr.'s CUPACHUCO THEN AND NOWSegments identified as relevant to: VOAHA -- CSULB:Los Angeles Zoot: Race "Riot," the Pachuco, and Black Music CultureRACE - History - Nazism and World War IICesar Chavez: Autobiography of La Causa - Google Book SearchNew Mexico Viewpoint: Thus Spake El PachucoSaying "Nothin'" | Frontiers | Find Articles at BNETDefendant in notorious '42 Sleepy Lagoon murder case was unjustly convicted There's a Word for It in Mexico: The ... - Google Book SearchBarrio gangs: street life and ... - Google Book Search"<i>Pachucos</i> in the Making": Roots of the ZootCholo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br /> <br />
  • 24. Knowledge of Foundations of the field<br /> Knowledge of foundations of the field<br /> Discusses the different Scientific approaches in the selection of Jury duty.<br /> Demonstrate the criteria used in the selection of jury duty.<br /> Reports the irrelevance of jury selection with respect of outcome of a trial for the defense or prosecution. List an example of a sports celebrity trial outcome. <br />
  • 25. Knowledge of Foundations of the Field<br />What is Scientific Jury Selection? Discuss pros and cons.<br /> <br /> <br />According to Audrey Cleary, Scientific Jury Selection is the application of behavioral and social scientific principles to the selection of jurors most sympathetic to a particular side in a court case. <br />Scientific jury selection could be favorable in the outcome of some cases because replaces the “Lawyers assumption about human nature to help select juries” (pg. 182). “Nonetheless, the empirical evidence indicates that lawyers who relay on conventional stereotypes are poor at identifying biases jurors (pg.182). <br />The history of scientific jury selection dates back to 1971, when a group of sociologists led by Jay Schulman assisted with the defense team of the so-called “Harrisburg Seven”, a group of seven anti-war activists accused of conspiring to destroy selective service records and, kidnapping presidential advisor Henry Kissinger. Jay Schulman and his colleagues conducted follow up interviews. They came up with a demographic profile of individuals most and least likely to sympathize with the defense and used this profile to guide jury selection. The defense achieved a victory: The jury hung on most charges, delivering only a minor conviction (for smuggling letters out of prison) (Kressel and Kressel, 2002). <br />In most jurisdictions the traditional jury selection consists of three stages. In the first stage of jury selection a list of eligible citizens is created (venire – Latin to come). In the second stage a selected sample of citizens is summoned to the court. In the third and last stage of jury selection is done by a process called voir dire. Voir dire is translated loosely – to speak the truth.<br />Contrary to traditional jury selection, the method for a scientific jury selection is done by trial consultants and could be professionally diverse (behavioral psychologists, sociologists, attorneys, and professionals with degrees of expertise in communications and marketing). The tools at a trial consultant’s disposal include community surveys, focus groups, mock trials, pretrial investigations of prospective jurors, and voir dire assistance. The widespread use of these methods indicates that SJS experts rely to a greater extent on attitudes and values than on demographic predictors, such as race ethnicity, age, gender, religion, socio-economic status and occupation, as predictors in jury decision-making (Kressel & Kressel, 2002). For example, in 1994 the O.J. Simpson case was a high profile case that used scientific jury selection. Simpson was acquitted. Nonetheless we can not assume or prove that scientific jury selection in the Simpson case influenced the verdict reached by the characteristics of the scientific jury selection.<br />In my opinion, even though scientific jury selection is done by scientific and legal professionals, it is not a predictor of how a scientific jury will interpret the evidence in a case, and will not guarantee the defense or prosecution a desired verdict. “Overall, however when it comes to the jury selection process, we must remember that a few jurors characteristics have been found to predict with any consistency the outcome of the trial” (Ellsworth & Reifman, 2000; Neubauer, 2002; Shaffer & Wheatman, 2000).<br />
  • 26. Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br /> Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br /> History of Industrial Organizational Psychology: Understanding the workplace<br /> Developed effective knowledge in the application of principle and theories applied in the workplace.<br /> Understanding the use of personnel psychology the government uses to select their military personnel<br /> Ability to understand the theories with respect to the application of personnel psychology in a multicultural workplace.<br />
  • 27. Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br /> Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Understanding the Workplace<br />History of Industrial/Organizational Psychology<br />Marilyn Kleist<br /> <br />
  • 28. Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br />Industrial Organizational Psychology dates back to the turn of the century. Beginning with an immigrant from Germany named Hugo Munsterberg who was also a founding member of the American Psychological Association. The history of Industrial <br />Organizational Psychology provides us with invaluable information and insight into theories, applications, competencies and research methods of psychology in the workplace.<br /> Industrial Organizational Psychology is defined as the application of psychological principles and theories to the workplace (Levy P, 2006). Industrial Psychology, also known as personnel Psychology, uses a variety of disciplines to provide job analysis, training, selection, and performance measurement appraisal. Organizational Psychology deals with motivation, work attitudes, leadership, as well as organizational development structure and culture. Industrial Organizational Psychologist is trained in wide range of areas, but their central approach is based on the scientist/practitioner model, which emphasizes theory and practice (Levy P, 2006). According the SIOP (Society for the Industrial and Organizational Psychology) an Industrial Organizational psychologist usually requires at least four to five years of graduate school (following completion of an undergraduate degree). The last portion of this time is spent on Dissertation (A unique piece of scholarly research that is usually the last hurdle before obtaining a Ph.D.). <br /> During World War I and through the 1920s a group of Psychologists led by Diller and Bingham developed psychological programs called Army alpha and Army beta (mental ability tests) and were used to classify and select army personnel. These tests were developed as multiple choice-based intelligence tests could be administered to <br />groups which differed from the individually administered intelligence test that existed at the time. Around this time The Psychological Corporation was founded and with that Industrial Organizational psychology expanded from academia and military testing to Government and private industry.<br /> Now in the 21st century the United States Armed forces, still uses industrial organizational psychology to selection and training of their personnel. For instance, to join the United States Navy is simply a matter of signing a contract no matter what your race, gender, ethnicity or culture. The only requirement is to be an american citizen. The recruit will then choose a specific field. The United States Navy trainer will then apply a series of tests such as math, background investigation and psychological tests to name a few. This is a perfect display of how a recruit intelligence and competencies are measure and are matched accordingly for the different jobs he/she may qualify. Next is basic training (conditioning, swimming, marching, drilling and attending school). Eight weeks of intense physically mentally and emotionally rigorous training intended to break the recruit from civilian to a sailor dedicated to serve the United States Navy. Once the recruit passes all the tests while in training he/she is ready to be assigned to a ship and is ready for his/her tour of duty.<br />Although Industrial Organizational Psychology it has only been around for a short time it has become the body and soul of the workplace, because it has helped to improve the quality of education and training among the diverse race, gender, age ethnicity and culture. Industrial Organizational psychology will continue to play an important role in the workplace in the 21st century.<br />References<br />Levy, P. (2006) “Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Understanding the <br />Workplace” 2nd Edition, Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company.<br />
  • 29. Interpersonal effectiveness<br /> Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> My personal development goals: a Personal Project.<br /><ul><li>Critical Analysis of the my personality strengths and weaknesses.
  • 30. Developed and appreciation for strengths.
  • 31. Formulated a long and short goals to improve my area of weaknesses. </li></li></ul><li>Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />My Personality Development Goals<br /> <br />Marilyn Kleist<br /> <br />Argosy University<br /> <br />Dr. Conboy<br />
  • 32. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Strengths<br /> In terms of my personality, I have identified three strong or positive areas: (1) that involving social or interpersonal skills; (2) that involving communication skills via technological means (i.e. e-mail and any correspondences using the World Wide Web); and (3) that which pertains to pleasing, agreeable manners. <br /> According to O'Neil (2006), "Socialization is important in the process of personality formation." Meanwhile, according to Elliot (2001-2008), social skills, are arguably the most important set of abilities a person can have. Human beings are social animals and a lack of good social skills can lead to a lonely life, contributing to anxiety and depression. Great social skills help you meet interesting people, get that job you want, progress further in your career and relationships.<br /> So, in reference to the six key social skills Elliot (2001-2008) has identified, my personal assessment is that I am quite adequate in this area. These six social skills are:<br /> 1. The ability to remain relaxed, or at a tolerable level of anxiety while in social<br /> situations;<br /> 2. Listening skills, including letting others know you are listening;<br /> 3. Empathy with and interest in others' situations;<br /> 4. The ability to build rapport, whether natural or learned;<br /> 5. Knowing how, when and how much to talk about yourself -- 'self disclosure';<br /> 6. Appropriate eye contact.<br /> I also consider myself "strong" in terms of communication skills that pertain to e-mail and other Internet-based correspondences. However, this doesn't mean communication in general. While social skills come hand in hand with communication skills, I acknowledge that good writing or written communication skills has something to do with factors such as good grammar, and oral communication skills involve good diction, confidence when it comes to public speaking, and one's being articulate. I am rather weak in this area. Communication, when it comes to e-mails and other Internet correspondences, however, is a different area for me. This is because communication using today's Internet technology provides different levels of formality (one just needs to choose which ones to take part in); the chance to reread e-mails before sending them out or before replying (partly due to Internet accessibility, which is round-the-clock); and the ability to check spelling and grammar using certain search tools (which helps me convey a professional image for my self). <br /> I also believe I display a certain degree of agreeable manners, which is another strong point. It means a willingness or readiness to consent to whatever is fair, suitable and conformable for everyone. Agreeableness can also be translated to being pleasant, likable, accommodating, gracious, and amiable. <br />
  • 33. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Weaknesses<br /> At the weaker side of things, I need to improve on my ability to handle emotions; my ability to assert my self, my beliefs, my opinions and my rights; and my ability to communicate, both oral and written.<br /> Americans are constantly in search for emotional balance and stability (Tubbs, 2007). And this includes me. <br /> According to Sinclair (2007), emotions love to take control of our actions and reactions, even if we do not want them dominating us. Society very often considers showing emotions as a sign of weakness, thus people have learned to set feelings aside and strive to be more rational instead. Yet, one will always need to deal with one's feelings, no matter how logical and rational one is.<br /> Assertiveness, according to the University of Florida Counseling Center, is defined as a person's ability to represent his or her thoughts and feelings in a clear and respectful way. This ability does not infringe on others' rights or rely on guilt for results. It starts with the premise that an individual has rights that is not dependent on his or her social status or performance. One has the right to express his perspective, as well as the right to assume personal responsibility and to decline responsibility for others. Aggressiveness exerts differential power to achieve a specific result not based on mutual respect. Only this ability respectfully engages two parties for valued communication.<br /> BNET Business Dictionary wrote that communication skills are skills that enable a person to communicate effectively with another. Effective communication involves choosing the best channel for a specific purpose, as well as the technical knowledge to use that communication channel appropriately, the appropriate presentation of information to the audience, and the ability to comprehend messages and responses. The ability to establish mutual understanding, cooperation and trust is also essential. In a more specific context, communication skills include the ability to speak in public, make presentations, write letters and reports, chair committees and meetings, and conduct negotiations.<br />
  • 34. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Improving Weak Points <br /> After getting over the first step, which is being able to identify my weaknesses, the next is to identify ways to turn them around and make them become assets, instead of liabilities. General ways of working toward this is to constantly be aware of my behavior, my reactions to stimuli, and my tendencies. Moreover, I need to be more informed about the things that trigger these weaknesses by reading more literature, doing more research regarding self-improvement, attending personality development seminars and workshops, and to frequently ask feedback from family and friends regarding any positive changes. In addition, there are online tests and questionnaires that gauge a person's communications skills, emotional stability, and self-assertiveness.<br />Achieving Emotional Stability<br /> Tubbs (2007), gave three quick tips to help people achieve emotional balance and stability:<br /> 1. Fuel (or re-fuel) your faith. One needs to make sure that his life is built on a solid<br /> foundation -- one greater than one's self. <br /> 2. Discipline your mind. Your thoughts should not control you, but you should be the one<br /> controlling your thoughts. Your feelings should not guide you, instead, you should be<br /> the one guiding your feelings.<br /> 3. Focus on other people. You should not be self-centered. The more you help others, the<br /> better you will feel about yourself, and the greater the legacy you will leave.<br /> Another option is to practice hypnotherapy. Hypnosis can help one become calmer and emotionally stable and it can alleviate internal struggles. It can be achieved with a deliberate shift into the subconscious state of mind for the purpose of obtaining an objective. Hypnosis is a question of one's willingness, receptiveness and responsiveness to ideas, and of one's ability to allow these ideas without interference (Serlin, 2007).<br />Achieving Self-Assertiveness<br /> The University of Florida Counseling Center stated in its Web site that for one to achieve assertive communication and to make self-assertion a natural process, a level of self-confidence, self-worth, and self-awareness is needed. Self-confidence, it said, is projected or radiated from within the self and not performed. Self-worth has to do with the belief that you are worthwhile and you deserve the best in life. Self-awareness, on the other hand, is developed from personal monitoring. <br /> To develop assertiveness from within, the UFCC has provided these guidelines:<br /> 1. Determine areas that challenge you and proactively address them. Ask questions like: Are you afraid of confrontation? What are you most concerned about -- losing the person’s respect, etc.? If you tend to avoid confrontations and repress your feelings, it is important to rethink your practices. Confrontation is healthy when done appropriately, and it conveys the message that you care enough to work something out. By working through the discomforts of a confrontation, you begin building skills, confidence, and self-awareness.<br /> 2. Practice your message. Using "I" messages help you get your point heard without the interference of defensiveness. <br /> 3. Remain calm. Breathe deeply if you are nervous during a confrontation in order to gain control. Breathing tends to naturally shift to a shallow and rapid quality when one is nervous. Focusing on deep breathing may help maintain emotional and physical control as you share your thoughts.<br /> 4. Attend to your body language. Pay attention to your tone of voice, physical appearance, facial expression, eye contact, and physical gestures as you speak. These non-verbal aspects impact one’s ability to hear the message. <br /> 5. Physical appearance can influence the impact of the message. How one is dressed is important since impressions are based on both internal and external data. One’s clothes and physical presentation in general can paint a picture of credibility or the lack thereof.<br />
  • 35. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Becoming a Better Communicator <br /> Tubbs (2007) outlined five things an individual can do to improve his communication skills. The first is to decide that it's more important to understand other people than it is for them to understand you.<br /> One must prioritize understanding others and their wants and needs over one's own. This is rather difficult to achieve, since we live in a very self-obsessed culture. People should apply this principle at home and at school or work (Tubbs, 2007). <br /> The second rule is to become an active listener. To listen actively is to make sure you understand what the other person is saying. If that means asking questions and repeating back to the person what he or she said, then that's what you should do (Tubbs, 2007). <br /> The third involves knowing your audience. This means that you need to read people and adjust your conversation style to the other person's personality. Learning to recognize certain signs that indicate a person's trait and then have an understanding of his communication and behavioral tendencies can be easy (Tubbs, 2007).<br /> The fourth is to identify the objective in your conversation. This means making sure you know what you are trying to accomplish out of the interaction (Tubbs, 2007).<br /> Finally, make your case appropriate to the listener. If you already know your audience and what you want out of them, then you can present your case effectively. Whatever is the personality of the individual you are talking to, constructively move toward the point in your conversation and try to avoid confusions and misunderstandings. Know what you want, why you want it, and how getting it will help both you and your audience. Think of the end-goal being a win-win situation (Tubbs, 2007).<br /> Of course, communication skills -- both oral and written -- can also be developed, technically, by honing grammar and spelling skills, developing good diction and learning how to properly shift from one idea to another. To achieve this, there are many available grammar development workshops in the Internet. <br />Measuring Improvement<br /> Improvement in my "weak spots" can best be measured by constant feedback from people who are always around me. They should be able to identify whether changes range from being hardly distinguishable to very significant. Improvement should be measured at regular intervals, like on a weekly basis, to determine extent of change and to be able to identify areas that need more focus.<br /> Change in writing and speaking skills have more concrete ways of being measured as there are various tests and quizzes available. Also, seeking professional assistance regarding this is also easier, as there are always teachers in schools that are ready and eager to facilitate this "self-help program" and are willing to test whether objectives and goals have been met.<br /> Whether my goal to be more stable emotionally has been achieved can be measured with the help of people with whom I have emotional affiliations with and who know me on a more intimate level, like family members and close friends.<br /> Self-assertiveness can be measured with the help of colleagues at work or school who are most likely going to witness how I argue and defend my opinion about relevant topics or subjects.<br />Long-Term Benefits<br /> Improving on my weak spots will bring me long-term benefits that may only become apparent in the future. But, surely, they would pave the way to better employment opportunities later on, and better relationships with colleagues, with family, and most importantly, with the self. <br /> <br />
  • 36. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />References<br />Elliot, R. (2001-2008). 6 Key Social Skills. In Confidence Building - Improve Low Self Esteem & Self Confidence (Self-Help Articles.) (Topics.) Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.self-confidence.co.uk/social_skills.html.<br />O'Neil, D. (2006). Personality Development. In PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATION: How We Acquire Our Cultures, World Views, and Personalities (Topics.) Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://anthro.palomar.edu/social/soc_3.htm.<br />Serlin, S. (2007). Hypnotherapy. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.serlinconsulting.com/5.html. <br />Sinclair, K. (May 5, 2007). Emotional Stability And Our "Feelings". Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.articlesbase.com/advice-articles/emotional-stability-and-our-feelings-142736.html. <br />Tubbs, B. (October 21, 2007). In Need of Emotional Stability? Tips on Achieving Confidence and Stability in Life. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://protestantism.suite101.com/blog.cfm/in_need_of_emotional_stability<br />Tubbs, B. (December 17, 2007). Become a Better Communicator. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/476285/become_a_better_communicator.html<br />BNET Business Dictionary. (2008). Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://dictionary.bnet.com/definition/communication+skills.html.<br />University of Florida Counseling Center. (April 4, 2008). Self-Assertion. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.counsel.ufl.edu/selfHelpInformation/personalPower/self_assertion.aspx.<br />
  • 37. Reflection<br /> My education at Argosy University created a strong motivation in me to continue to Higher education. At Argosy I learned the importance of multicultural competencies, scientific research methods, Interpersonal skills, and theoretical approaches to Psychological application to name a few. Although, I made major improvements of writing, oral presentations, communications and the use of technology; I still need to improve my writing among other things. Overall, I have a foundation to continue my studies with confidence and conviction. <br />
  • 38. My Future in Learning<br />My goal is to become a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and work with active duty soldiers and veterans. The prolonged exposure to the war of Iraq may have long term consequences. Long after the war is over, these veterans are coming back to live among us with mental deterioration caused by physical and psychological war trauma. I have a deep concern for the future and direction of our society. I envisioned myself teaching coping skills, cognitive processing skills, meditation and prolonged exposure therapy to veterans and their families. <br />
  • 39. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br />marilynkleist@hotmail.com <br />

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