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  • 1. ManagementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Management (disambiguation).Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose ofaccomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of humanresources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as humanaction, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This viewopens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Theoretical scope • 2 Nature of managerial work • 3 Historical development o 3.1 Early writing  3.1.1 Sun Tzus The Art of War  3.1.2 Chanakyas Arthashastra  3.1.3 Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince  3.1.4 Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations o 3.2 19th century o 3.3 20th century o 3.4 21st century • 4 Topics o 4.1 Basic functions/Roles o 4.2 Formation of the business policy  4.2.1 Implementation of policies and strategies  4.2.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.3 Multi-divisional hierarchy • 5 References • 6 External links[edit] History
  • 2. The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which inturn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement)influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18thcenturies.[1]Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.[edit] Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantityon a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach onesintended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From thisperspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol(1841–1925)[2] considers management to consist of sixfunctions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was oneof the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the earlytwentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Shedescribed management as philosophy.[3]Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase"management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of definingmanagement, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices withthe existence of a managerial cadre or class.One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thusexcludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the publicsector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes,technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer touniversity departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (suchas the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School ofManagement) employ the more inclusive term "management."
  • 3. English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective worddescribing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use ofthe term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.[edit] Nature of managerial workIn for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range ofstakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valuedproducts at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employmentopportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faithof donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board ofdirectors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimentedwith other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; butthis occurs only very rarely.In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters electpoliticians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in somecountries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a newpresident/governor/mayor.[edit] Historical developmentDifficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a latemodern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent butsometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, giventheir small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically.However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and thecodification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment,planning and control.Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping andrecording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in thosetimes to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size andcomplexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groupsof shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control)gradually became more common.[edit] Early writingWhile management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background ofworks that assisted in modern management theories.[4]
  • 4. [edit] Sun Tzus The Art of WarWritten by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategybook that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths andweaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4][edit] Chanakyas ArthashastraChanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various stategies, techniques andmanagement theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires,economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli.[edit] Niccolò Machiavellis The PrinceBelieving that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.[edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims forefficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes inprocesses could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists,enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5][edit] 19th centuryClassical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Aboutthe same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and MatthewBoulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization,quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the USeconomy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed"in profitable quasi-mass production.By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), Léon Walras(1834–1910), and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinningsof management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.[edit] 20th centuryBy about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as athoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examplesinclude Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors The
  • 5. Principles of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study(1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college managementtextbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became firstmanagement consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneeredJapanese quality assurance.The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard BusinessSchool invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People likeHenri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of managementand their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973),Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while otherwriters, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard(1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - )approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept ofthe Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motorsuntil 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, manyin the same vein.H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniquesinto management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories withmicroeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research,sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylors scientific management),attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areasof logistics and operations.Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management byobjectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such asagile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder.As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gaveperceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the wayopened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context manymanagement fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories ofmanagement.Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separatebranches, namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management • Information technology management responsible for management information systems
  • 6. [edit] 21st centuryIn the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management intofunctional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve severalcategories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objectssubject to management.Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such aspublic administration, public management, and educational management. Further, managementprograms related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofitmanagement and social entrepreneurship.Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from businessethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and moreadvocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each ofwhom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue,and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degreeembraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support tomanagement; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move towardworkplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace andthe de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control canbe seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected farless than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has evenrewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off.[6][edit] TopicsThe photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign companyfrom Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Endomarketing is a part of the management and is very important tomotivate the work force
  • 7. [edit] Basic functions/RolesManagement operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing,staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. • Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. • Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. • Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesnt take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).[edit] Formation of the business policy • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed. • The businesss policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. • The businesss strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the businesss advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.[edit] Implementation of policies and strategies • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. • A plan of action must be devised for each department. • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business.
  • 8. • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the businesss mission. • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the businesss future environment. • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in theexecution of any departmental policy. • Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight- step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, dont let up, and make change stick.[7][edit] Policies and strategies in the planning process • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the businesss strategic ones.[edit] Multi-divisional hierarchyThe management of a large organization may have about five levels: 1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management") 2. Middle management 3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders 4. Foreman 5. Rank and FileTop-level management • Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature • Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes • They are responsible for strategic decisions. • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future. • They are executive in nature.Middle management
  • 9. • Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. • They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. • finance,marketing etc comes under middle level managementLower management • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. • Lower-level managers decisions are generally short-term ones.Foreman / lead hand • They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office, factory, sales field, or other workgroup or area of activity.Rank and File • The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.[edit] References 1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organization - commandment, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 3. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51. 4. ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 5. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 6. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal. [1] 7. ^ Kotter, John P. & Dan S. Cohen. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)[edit] External links
  • 10. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Management
  • 11. v · d · eManagementOutline of business management · ManagerManagement branchesHuman resource management · Operations management or production management · Strategicmanagement · Marketing management · Financial management · Information technologymanagementOther Management areasAccounting management · Agile management · Association management · CapabilityManagement · Change management · Conflict management · Communication management ·Cost management · Crisis management · Critical management studies · Customer relationshipmanagement · Design management · Disaster management · Distributed management · Earnedvalue management · Educational management · Engineering Management · Environmentalmanagement · Facility management · Hospital management · Hospitality management · Hotelmanagement · Information technology management · Innovation management · Interimmanagement · Inventory management · Knowledge management · Land management · Logisticsmanagement · Lifecycle management · Marine fuel management · Materials management ·Office management · · Perception management · Practice management · Program management ·Project management · Process management · Performance management · Product management ·Public administration · Public management · Quality management · Records management ·Relationship management · Resource management · Restaurant management · Riskmanagement · Skills management · Spend management · Strategic management · Stressmanagement · Supply chain management · Systems management · Talent management · Timemanagement · Technology ManagementManagement-related topicsAssociation of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering · Applied Engineering(field) · Chartered Management Institute · Decision making styles Organization development ·Organizational studies · Social entrepreneurship · Forecasting · Leadership
  • 12. v · d · eSocial sciencesAnthropology · Archeology · Business studies · Criminology · Cultural studies · Demography ·Development studies · Economics · Education · Environmental studies · Gender and sexualitystudies · Gerontology · History · Geography & Human geography · Industrial relations ·Information science · International studies · Law, Legal management & Paralegal studies ·Library science · Linguistics · Management · Media studies & Communication studies ·Philosophy · Political science · Psychology · Public administration · Sociology & Social workIn Italics: Further discipline fields, subbranches, and interdisciplinary areas, sometimes also categorized asbelonging to the humanities or applied sciences.Portal · Index · Publication · Task Force · WikiversityCategories: Management occupations | Management • Log in / create account • Article • Discussion • Read • Edit
  • 13. • View historyNavigation • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to WikipediaInteraction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact WikipediaToolbox • What links here • Related changes • Upload file • Special pages • Permanent link • Cite this pagePrint/export • Create a book • Download as PDF • Printable versionLanguages • ‫العربية‬ • অসমীয়া • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • Boarisch • Bosanski • Български • Česky
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  • 15. • Žemaitėška • 中文 • • ma i • This page was last modified on 21 March 2011 at 14:37. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Contact us • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • •ManagementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Management (disambiguation).Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose ofaccomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of humanresources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as humanaction, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This viewopens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Theoretical scope • 2 Nature of managerial work • 3 Historical development o 3.1 Early writing
  • 16.  3.1.1 Sun Tzus The Art of War  3.1.2 Chanakyas Arthashastra  3.1.3 Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince  3.1.4 Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations o 3.2 19th century o 3.3 20th century o 3.4 21st century • 4 Topics o 4.1 Basic functions/Roles o 4.2 Formation of the business policy  4.2.1 Implementation of policies and strategies  4.2.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.3 Multi-divisional hierarchy • 5 References • 6 External links[edit] HistoryThe verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which inturn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement)influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18thcenturies.[1]Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.[edit] Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantityon a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach onesintended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this
  • 17. perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol(1841–1925)[2] considers management to consist of sixfunctions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was oneof the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the earlytwentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Shedescribed management as philosophy.[3]Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase"management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of definingmanagement, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices withthe existence of a managerial cadre or class.One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thusexcludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the publicsector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes,technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer touniversity departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (suchas the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School ofManagement) employ the more inclusive term "management."English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective worddescribing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use ofthe term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.[edit] Nature of managerial workIn for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range ofstakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valuedproducts at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employmentopportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faithof donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board ofdirectors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimentedwith other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; butthis occurs only very rarely.In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters electpoliticians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in somecountries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a newpresident/governor/mayor.[edit] Historical developmentDifficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a latemodern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-
  • 18. modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent butsometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, giventheir small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically.However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and thecodification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment,planning and control.Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping andrecording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in thosetimes to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size andcomplexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groupsof shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control)gradually became more common.[edit] Early writingWhile management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background ofworks that assisted in modern management theories.[4][edit] Sun Tzus The Art of WarWritten by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategybook that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths andweaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4][edit] Chanakyas ArthashastraChanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various stategies, techniques andmanagement theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires,economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli.[edit] Niccolò Machiavellis The PrinceBelieving that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.[edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims forefficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes inprocesses could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists,enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5]
  • 19. [edit] 19th centuryClassical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Aboutthe same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and MatthewBoulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization,quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the USeconomy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed"in profitable quasi-mass production.By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), Léon Walras(1834–1910), and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinningsof management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.[edit] 20th centuryBy about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as athoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examplesinclude Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors ThePrinciples of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study(1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college managementtextbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became firstmanagement consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneeredJapanese quality assurance.The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard BusinessSchool invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People likeHenri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of managementand their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973),Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while otherwriters, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard(1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - )approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept ofthe Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motorsuntil 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, manyin the same vein.H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniquesinto management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories withmicroeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research,sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylors scientific management),attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areasof logistics and operations.
  • 20. Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management byobjectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such asagile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder.As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gaveperceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the wayopened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context manymanagement fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories ofmanagement.Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separatebranches, namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management • Information technology management responsible for management information systems[edit] 21st centuryIn the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management intofunctional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve severalcategories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objectssubject to management.Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such aspublic administration, public management, and educational management. Further, managementprograms related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofitmanagement and social entrepreneurship.Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from businessethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and moreadvocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each ofwhom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue,and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degreeembraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support tomanagement; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move towardworkplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace andthe de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control canbe seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected farless than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has evenrewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off.[6]
  • 21. [edit] TopicsThe photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign companyfrom Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Endomarketing is a part of the management and is very important tomotivate the work force[edit] Basic functions/RolesManagement operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing,staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. • Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. • Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. • Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesnt take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).[edit] Formation of the business policy • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • 22. • The businesss policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. • The businesss strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the businesss advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.[edit] Implementation of policies and strategies • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. • A plan of action must be devised for each department. • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the businesss mission. • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the businesss future environment. • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in theexecution of any departmental policy. • Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight- step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, dont let up, and make change stick.[7][edit] Policies and strategies in the planning process • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the businesss strategic ones.[edit] Multi-divisional hierarchyThe management of a large organization may have about five levels:
  • 23. 1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management") 2. Middle management 3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders 4. Foreman 5. Rank and FileTop-level management • Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature • Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes • They are responsible for strategic decisions. • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future. • They are executive in nature.Middle management • Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. • They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. • finance,marketing etc comes under middle level managementLower management • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. • Lower-level managers decisions are generally short-term ones.Foreman / lead hand • They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office, factory, sales field, or other workgroup or area of activity.Rank and File • The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.[edit] References 1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organization - commandment, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 3. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
  • 24. 4. ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 5. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 6. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal. [1] 7. ^ Kotter, John P. & Dan S. Cohen. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)[edit] External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Management
  • 25. v · d · eManagementOutline of business management · ManagerManagement branchesHuman resource management · Operations management or production management · Strategicmanagement · Marketing management · Financial management · Information technologymanagementOther Management areasAccounting management · Agile management · Association management · CapabilityManagement · Change management · Conflict management · Communication management ·Cost management · Crisis management · Critical management studies · Customer relationshipmanagement · Design management · Disaster management · Distributed management · Earnedvalue management · Educational management · Engineering Management · Environmentalmanagement · Facility management · Hospital management · Hospitality management · Hotelmanagement · Information technology management · Innovation management · Interimmanagement · Inventory management · Knowledge management · Land management · Logisticsmanagement · Lifecycle management · Marine fuel management · Materials management ·Office management · · Perception management · Practice management · Program management ·Project management · Process management · Performance management · Product management ·Public administration · Public management · Quality management · Records management ·Relationship management · Resource management · Restaurant management · Riskmanagement · Skills management · Spend management · Strategic management · Stressmanagement · Supply chain management · Systems management · Talent management · Timemanagement · Technology ManagementManagement-related topicsAssociation of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering · Applied Engineering(field) · Chartered Management Institute · Decision making styles Organization development ·Organizational studies · Social entrepreneurship · Forecasting · Leadership
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  • 29. • Žemaitėška • 中文 • • ma i • This page was last modified on 21 March 2011 at 14:37. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Contact us • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • •ManagementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Management (disambiguation).Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose ofaccomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of humanresources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as humanaction, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This viewopens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Theoretical scope • 2 Nature of managerial work • 3 Historical development o 3.1 Early writing
  • 30.  3.1.1 Sun Tzus The Art of War  3.1.2 Chanakyas Arthashastra  3.1.3 Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince  3.1.4 Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations o 3.2 19th century o 3.3 20th century o 3.4 21st century • 4 Topics o 4.1 Basic functions/Roles o 4.2 Formation of the business policy  4.2.1 Implementation of policies and strategies  4.2.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.3 Multi-divisional hierarchy • 5 References • 6 External links[edit] HistoryThe verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which inturn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement)influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18thcenturies.[1]Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.[edit] Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantityon a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach onesintended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this
  • 31. perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol(1841–1925)[2] considers management to consist of sixfunctions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was oneof the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the earlytwentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Shedescribed management as philosophy.[3]Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase"management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of definingmanagement, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices withthe existence of a managerial cadre or class.One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thusexcludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the publicsector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes,technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer touniversity departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (suchas the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School ofManagement) employ the more inclusive term "management."English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective worddescribing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use ofthe term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.[edit] Nature of managerial workIn for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range ofstakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valuedproducts at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employmentopportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faithof donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board ofdirectors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimentedwith other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; butthis occurs only very rarely.In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters electpoliticians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in somecountries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a newpresident/governor/mayor.[edit] Historical developmentDifficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a latemodern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-
  • 32. modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent butsometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, giventheir small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically.However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and thecodification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment,planning and control.Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping andrecording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in thosetimes to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size andcomplexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groupsof shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control)gradually became more common.[edit] Early writingWhile management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background ofworks that assisted in modern management theories.[4][edit] Sun Tzus The Art of WarWritten by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategybook that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths andweaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4][edit] Chanakyas ArthashastraChanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various stategies, techniques andmanagement theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires,economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli.[edit] Niccolò Machiavellis The PrinceBelieving that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.[edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims forefficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes inprocesses could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists,enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5]
  • 33. [edit] 19th centuryClassical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Aboutthe same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and MatthewBoulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization,quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the USeconomy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed"in profitable quasi-mass production.By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), Léon Walras(1834–1910), and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinningsof management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.[edit] 20th centuryBy about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as athoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examplesinclude Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors ThePrinciples of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study(1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college managementtextbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became firstmanagement consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneeredJapanese quality assurance.The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard BusinessSchool invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People likeHenri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of managementand their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973),Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while otherwriters, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard(1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - )approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept ofthe Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motorsuntil 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, manyin the same vein.H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniquesinto management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories withmicroeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research,sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylors scientific management),attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areasof logistics and operations.
  • 34. Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management byobjectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such asagile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder.As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gaveperceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the wayopened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context manymanagement fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories ofmanagement.Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separatebranches, namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management • Information technology management responsible for management information systems[edit] 21st centuryIn the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management intofunctional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve severalcategories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objectssubject to management.Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such aspublic administration, public management, and educational management. Further, managementprograms related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofitmanagement and social entrepreneurship.Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from businessethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and moreadvocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each ofwhom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue,and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degreeembraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support tomanagement; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move towardworkplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace andthe de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control canbe seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected farless than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has evenrewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off.[6]
  • 35. [edit] TopicsThe photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign companyfrom Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Endomarketing is a part of the management and is very important tomotivate the work force[edit] Basic functions/RolesManagement operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing,staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. • Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. • Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. • Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesnt take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).[edit] Formation of the business policy • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • 36. • The businesss policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. • The businesss strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the businesss advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.[edit] Implementation of policies and strategies • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. • A plan of action must be devised for each department. • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the businesss mission. • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the businesss future environment. • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in theexecution of any departmental policy. • Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight- step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, dont let up, and make change stick.[7][edit] Policies and strategies in the planning process • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the businesss strategic ones.[edit] Multi-divisional hierarchyThe management of a large organization may have about five levels:
  • 37. 1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management") 2. Middle management 3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders 4. Foreman 5. Rank and FileTop-level management • Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature • Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes • They are responsible for strategic decisions. • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future. • They are executive in nature.Middle management • Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. • They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. • finance,marketing etc comes under middle level managementLower management • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. • Lower-level managers decisions are generally short-term ones.Foreman / lead hand • They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office, factory, sales field, or other workgroup or area of activity.Rank and File • The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.[edit] References 1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organization - commandment, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 3. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
  • 38. 4. ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 5. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 6. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal. [1] 7. ^ Kotter, John P. & Dan S. Cohen. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)[edit] External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Management
  • 39. v · d · eManagementOutline of business management · ManagerManagement branchesHuman resource management · Operations management or production management · Strategicmanagement · Marketing management · Financial management · Information technologymanagementOther Management areasAccounting management · Agile management · Association management · CapabilityManagement · Change management · Conflict management · Communication management ·Cost management · Crisis management · Critical management studies · Customer relationshipmanagement · Design management · Disaster management · Distributed management · Earnedvalue management · Educational management · Engineering Management · Environmentalmanagement · Facility management · Hospital management · Hospitality management · Hotelmanagement · Information technology management · Innovation management · Interimmanagement · Inventory management · Knowledge management · Land management · Logisticsmanagement · Lifecycle management · Marine fuel management · Materials management ·Office management · · Perception management · Practice management · Program management ·Project management · Process management · Performance management · Product management ·Public administration · Public management · Quality management · Records management ·Relationship management · Resource management · Restaurant management · Riskmanagement · Skills management · Spend management · Strategic management · Stressmanagement · Supply chain management · Systems management · Talent management · Timemanagement · Technology ManagementManagement-related topicsAssociation of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering · Applied Engineering(field) · Chartered Management Institute · Decision making styles Organization development ·Organizational studies · Social entrepreneurship · Forecasting · Leadership
  • 40. v · d · eSocial sciencesAnthropology · Archeology · Business studies · Criminology · Cultural studies · Demography ·Development studies · Economics · Education · Environmental studies · Gender and sexualitystudies · Gerontology · History · Geography & Human geography · Industrial relations ·Information science · International studies · Law, Legal management & Paralegal studies ·Library science · Linguistics · Management · Media studies & Communication studies ·Philosophy · Political science · Psychology · Public administration · Sociology & Social workIn Italics: Further discipline fields, subbranches, and interdisciplinary areas, sometimes also categorized asbelonging to the humanities or applied sciences.Portal · Index · Publication · Task Force · WikiversityCategories: Management occupations | Management • Log in / create account • Article • Discussion • Read • Edit
  • 41. • View historyNavigation • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to WikipediaInteraction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact WikipediaToolbox • What links here • Related changes • Upload file • Special pages • Permanent link • Cite this pagePrint/export • Create a book • Download as PDF • Printable versionLanguages • ‫العربية‬ • অসমীয়া • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • Boarisch • Bosanski • Български • Česky
  • 42. • Dansk• Deutsch• Ελληνικά• Español• Euskara• ‫فارسی‬• Français• Frysk• 한국어• Հայերեն• ििनदी• Hrvatski• Bahasa Indonesia• Italiano• ‫עברית‬• ქართული• Кыргызча• Kiswahili• ລາວ• Lietuvių• Македонски• മലയാളം• Монгол• Nederlands• 日本語• Norsk (bokmål)• ‫پښتو‬• Polski• Português• Română• Русский• Shqip• Sicilianu• Slovenčina• Slovenščina• Српски / Srpski• Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски• Svenska• Tagalog• தமிழ• ไทย• Türkçe• Українська• Tiếng Việt• ‫ייִדיש‬
  • 43. • Žemaitėška • 中文 • • ma i • This page was last modified on 21 March 2011 at 14:37. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Contact us • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • •ManagementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Management (disambiguation).Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose ofaccomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of humanresources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as humanaction, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This viewopens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Theoretical scope • 2 Nature of managerial work • 3 Historical development o 3.1 Early writing
  • 44.  3.1.1 Sun Tzus The Art of War  3.1.2 Chanakyas Arthashastra  3.1.3 Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince  3.1.4 Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations o 3.2 19th century o 3.3 20th century o 3.4 21st century • 4 Topics o 4.1 Basic functions/Roles o 4.2 Formation of the business policy  4.2.1 Implementation of policies and strategies  4.2.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.3 Multi-divisional hierarchy • 5 References • 6 External links[edit] HistoryThe verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which inturn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement)influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18thcenturies.[1]Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.[edit] Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantityon a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach onesintended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this
  • 45. perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol(1841–1925)[2] considers management to consist of sixfunctions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was oneof the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the earlytwentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Shedescribed management as philosophy.[3]Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase"management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of definingmanagement, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices withthe existence of a managerial cadre or class.One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thusexcludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the publicsector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes,technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer touniversity departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (suchas the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School ofManagement) employ the more inclusive term "management."English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective worddescribing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use ofthe term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.[edit] Nature of managerial workIn for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range ofstakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valuedproducts at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employmentopportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faithof donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board ofdirectors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimentedwith other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; butthis occurs only very rarely.In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters electpoliticians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in somecountries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a newpresident/governor/mayor.[edit] Historical developmentDifficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a latemodern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-
  • 46. modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent butsometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, giventheir small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically.However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and thecodification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment,planning and control.Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping andrecording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in thosetimes to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size andcomplexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groupsof shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control)gradually became more common.[edit] Early writingWhile management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background ofworks that assisted in modern management theories.[4][edit] Sun Tzus The Art of WarWritten by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategybook that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths andweaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4][edit] Chanakyas ArthashastraChanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various stategies, techniques andmanagement theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires,economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli.[edit] Niccolò Machiavellis The PrinceBelieving that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.[edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims forefficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes inprocesses could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists,enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5]
  • 47. [edit] 19th centuryClassical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Aboutthe same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and MatthewBoulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization,quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the USeconomy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed"in profitable quasi-mass production.By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), Léon Walras(1834–1910), and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinningsof management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.[edit] 20th centuryBy about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as athoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examplesinclude Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors ThePrinciples of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study(1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college managementtextbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became firstmanagement consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneeredJapanese quality assurance.The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard BusinessSchool invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People likeHenri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of managementand their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973),Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while otherwriters, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard(1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - )approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept ofthe Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motorsuntil 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, manyin the same vein.H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniquesinto management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories withmicroeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research,sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylors scientific management),attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areasof logistics and operations.
  • 48. Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management byobjectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such asagile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder.As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gaveperceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the wayopened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context manymanagement fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories ofmanagement.Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separatebranches, namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management • Information technology management responsible for management information systems[edit] 21st centuryIn the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management intofunctional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve severalcategories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objectssubject to management.Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such aspublic administration, public management, and educational management. Further, managementprograms related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofitmanagement and social entrepreneurship.Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from businessethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and moreadvocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each ofwhom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue,and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degreeembraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support tomanagement; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move towardworkplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace andthe de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control canbe seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected farless than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has evenrewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off.[6]
  • 49. [edit] TopicsThe photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign companyfrom Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Endomarketing is a part of the management and is very important tomotivate the work force[edit] Basic functions/RolesManagement operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing,staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. • Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. • Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. • Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesnt take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).[edit] Formation of the business policy • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • 50. • The businesss policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. • The businesss strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the businesss advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.[edit] Implementation of policies and strategies • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. • A plan of action must be devised for each department. • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the businesss mission. • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the businesss future environment. • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in theexecution of any departmental policy. • Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight- step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, dont let up, and make change stick.[7][edit] Policies and strategies in the planning process • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the businesss strategic ones.[edit] Multi-divisional hierarchyThe management of a large organization may have about five levels:
  • 51. 1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management") 2. Middle management 3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders 4. Foreman 5. Rank and FileTop-level management • Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature • Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes • They are responsible for strategic decisions. • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future. • They are executive in nature.Middle management • Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. • They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. • finance,marketing etc comes under middle level managementLower management • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. • Lower-level managers decisions are generally short-term ones.Foreman / lead hand • They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office, factory, sales field, or other workgroup or area of activity.Rank and File • The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.[edit] References 1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organization - commandment, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 3. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
  • 52. 4. ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 5. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 6. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal. [1] 7. ^ Kotter, John P. & Dan S. Cohen. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)[edit] External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Management
  • 53. v · d · eManagementOutline of business management · ManagerManagement branchesHuman resource management · Operations management or production management · Strategicmanagement · Marketing management · Financial management · Information technologymanagementOther Management areasAccounting management · Agile management · Association management · CapabilityManagement · Change management · Conflict management · Communication management ·Cost management · Crisis management · Critical management studies · Customer relationshipmanagement · Design management · Disaster management · Distributed management · Earnedvalue management · Educational management · Engineering Management · Environmentalmanagement · Facility management · Hospital management · Hospitality management · Hotelmanagement · Information technology management · Innovation management · Interimmanagement · Inventory management · Knowledge management · Land management · Logisticsmanagement · Lifecycle management · Marine fuel management · Materials management ·Office management · · Perception management · Practice management · Program management ·Project management · Process management · Performance management · Product management ·Public administration · Public management · Quality management · Records management ·Relationship management · Resource management · Restaurant management · Riskmanagement · Skills management · Spend management · Strategic management · Stressmanagement · Supply chain management · Systems management · Talent management · Timemanagement · Technology ManagementManagement-related topicsAssociation of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering · Applied Engineering(field) · Chartered Management Institute · Decision making styles Organization development ·Organizational studies · Social entrepreneurship · Forecasting · Leadership
  • 54. v · d · eSocial sciencesAnthropology · Archeology · Business studies · Criminology · Cultural studies · Demography ·Development studies · Economics · Education · Environmental studies · Gender and sexualitystudies · Gerontology · History · Geography & Human geography · Industrial relations ·Information science · International studies · Law, Legal management & Paralegal studies ·Library science · Linguistics · Management · Media studies & Communication studies ·Philosophy · Political science · Psychology · Public administration · Sociology & Social workIn Italics: Further discipline fields, subbranches, and interdisciplinary areas, sometimes also categorized asbelonging to the humanities or applied sciences.Portal · Index · Publication · Task Force · WikiversityCategories: Management occupations | Management • Log in / create account • Article • Discussion • Read • Edit
  • 55. • View historyNavigation • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to WikipediaInteraction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact WikipediaToolbox • What links here • Related changes • Upload file • Special pages • Permanent link • Cite this pagePrint/export • Create a book • Download as PDF • Printable versionLanguages • ‫العربية‬ • অসমীয়া • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • Boarisch • Bosanski • Български • Česky
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  • 57. • Žemaitėška • 中文 • • ma i • This page was last modified on 21 March 2011 at 14:37. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Contact us • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • •ManagementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Management (disambiguation).Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose ofaccomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of humanresources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as humanaction, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This viewopens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Theoretical scope • 2 Nature of managerial work • 3 Historical development o 3.1 Early writing
  • 58.  3.1.1 Sun Tzus The Art of War  3.1.2 Chanakyas Arthashastra  3.1.3 Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince  3.1.4 Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations o 3.2 19th century o 3.3 20th century o 3.4 21st century • 4 Topics o 4.1 Basic functions/Roles o 4.2 Formation of the business policy  4.2.1 Implementation of policies and strategies  4.2.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.3 Multi-divisional hierarchy • 5 References • 6 External links[edit] HistoryThe verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which inturn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement)influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18thcenturies.[1]Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.[edit] Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantityon a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach onesintended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this
  • 59. perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol(1841–1925)[2] considers management to consist of sixfunctions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was oneof the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the earlytwentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Shedescribed management as philosophy.[3]Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase"management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of definingmanagement, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices withthe existence of a managerial cadre or class.One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thusexcludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the publicsector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes,technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer touniversity departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (suchas the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School ofManagement) employ the more inclusive term "management."English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective worddescribing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use ofthe term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.[edit] Nature of managerial workIn for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range ofstakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valuedproducts at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employmentopportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faithof donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board ofdirectors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimentedwith other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; butthis occurs only very rarely.In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters electpoliticians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in somecountries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a newpresident/governor/mayor.[edit] Historical developmentDifficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a latemodern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-
  • 60. modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent butsometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, giventheir small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically.However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and thecodification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment,planning and control.Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping andrecording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in thosetimes to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size andcomplexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groupsof shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control)gradually became more common.[edit] Early writingWhile management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background ofworks that assisted in modern management theories.[4][edit] Sun Tzus The Art of WarWritten by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategybook that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths andweaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4][edit] Chanakyas ArthashastraChanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various stategies, techniques andmanagement theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires,economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli.[edit] Niccolò Machiavellis The PrinceBelieving that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.[edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims forefficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes inprocesses could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists,enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5]
  • 61. [edit] 19th centuryClassical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Aboutthe same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and MatthewBoulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization,quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the USeconomy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed"in profitable quasi-mass production.By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), Léon Walras(1834–1910), and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinningsof management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.[edit] 20th centuryBy about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as athoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examplesinclude Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors ThePrinciples of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study(1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college managementtextbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became firstmanagement consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneeredJapanese quality assurance.The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard BusinessSchool invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People likeHenri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of managementand their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973),Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while otherwriters, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard(1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - )approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept ofthe Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motorsuntil 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, manyin the same vein.H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniquesinto management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories withmicroeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research,sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylors scientific management),attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areasof logistics and operations.
  • 62. Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management byobjectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such asagile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder.As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gaveperceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the wayopened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context manymanagement fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories ofmanagement.Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separatebranches, namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management • Information technology management responsible for management information systems[edit] 21st centuryIn the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management intofunctional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve severalcategories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objectssubject to management.Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such aspublic administration, public management, and educational management. Further, managementprograms related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofitmanagement and social entrepreneurship.Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from businessethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and moreadvocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each ofwhom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue,and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degreeembraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support tomanagement; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move towardworkplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace andthe de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control canbe seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected farless than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has evenrewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off.[6]
  • 63. [edit] TopicsThe photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign companyfrom Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Endomarketing is a part of the management and is very important tomotivate the work force[edit] Basic functions/RolesManagement operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing,staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. • Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. • Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. • Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesnt take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).[edit] Formation of the business policy • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • 64. • The businesss policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. • The businesss strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the businesss advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.[edit] Implementation of policies and strategies • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. • A plan of action must be devised for each department. • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the businesss mission. • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the businesss future environment. • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in theexecution of any departmental policy. • Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight- step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, dont let up, and make change stick.[7][edit] Policies and strategies in the planning process • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the businesss strategic ones.[edit] Multi-divisional hierarchyThe management of a large organization may have about five levels:
  • 65. 1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management") 2. Middle management 3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders 4. Foreman 5. Rank and FileTop-level management • Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature • Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes • They are responsible for strategic decisions. • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future. • They are executive in nature.Middle management • Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. • They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. • finance,marketing etc comes under middle level managementLower management • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. • Lower-level managers decisions are generally short-term ones.Foreman / lead hand • They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office, factory, sales field, or other workgroup or area of activity.Rank and File • The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.[edit] References 1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organization - commandment, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 3. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
  • 66. 4. ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 5. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 6. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal. [1] 7. ^ Kotter, John P. & Dan S. Cohen. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)[edit] External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Management
  • 67. v · d · eManagementOutline of business management · ManagerManagement branchesHuman resource management · Operations management or production management · Strategicmanagement · Marketing management · Financial management · Information technologymanagementOther Management areasAccounting management · Agile management · Association management · CapabilityManagement · Change management · Conflict management · Communication management ·Cost management · Crisis management · Critical management studies · Customer relationshipmanagement · Design management · Disaster management · Distributed management · Earnedvalue management · Educational management · Engineering Management · Environmentalmanagement · Facility management · Hospital management · Hospitality management · Hotelmanagement · Information technology management · Innovation management · Interimmanagement · Inventory management · Knowledge management · Land management · Logisticsmanagement · Lifecycle management · Marine fuel management · Materials management ·Office management · · Perception management · Practice management · Program management ·Project management · Process management · Performance management · Product management ·Public administration · Public management · Quality management · Records management ·Relationship management · Resource management · Restaurant management · Riskmanagement · Skills management · Spend management · Strategic management · Stressmanagement · Supply chain management · Systems management · Talent management · Timemanagement · Technology ManagementManagement-related topicsAssociation of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering · Applied Engineering(field) · Chartered Management Institute · Decision making styles Organization development ·Organizational studies · Social entrepreneurship · Forecasting · Leadership
  • 68. v · d · eSocial sciencesAnthropology · Archeology · Business studies · Criminology · Cultural studies · Demography ·Development studies · Economics · Education · Environmental studies · Gender and sexualitystudies · Gerontology · History · Geography & Human geography · Industrial relations ·Information science · International studies · Law, Legal management & Paralegal studies ·Library science · Linguistics · Management · Media studies & Communication studies ·Philosophy · Political science · Psychology · Public administration · Sociology & Social workIn Italics: Further discipline fields, subbranches, and interdisciplinary areas, sometimes also categorized asbelonging to the humanities or applied sciences.Portal · Index · Publication · Task Force · WikiversityCategories: Management occupations | Management • Log in / create account • Article • Discussion • Read • Edit
  • 69. • View historyNavigation • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to WikipediaInteraction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact WikipediaToolbox • What links here • Related changes • Upload file • Special pages • Permanent link • Cite this pagePrint/export • Create a book • Download as PDF • Printable versionLanguages • ‫العربية‬ • অসমীয়া • Azərbaycanca • বাংলা • Беларуская (тарашкевіца) • Boarisch • Bosanski • Български • Česky
  • 70. • Dansk• Deutsch• Ελληνικά• Español• Euskara• ‫فارسی‬• Français• Frysk• 한국어• Հայերեն• ििनदी• Hrvatski• Bahasa Indonesia• Italiano• ‫עברית‬• ქართული• Кыргызча• Kiswahili• ລາວ• Lietuvių• Македонски• മലയാളം• Монгол• Nederlands• 日本語• Norsk (bokmål)• ‫پښتو‬• Polski• Português• Română• Русский• Shqip• Sicilianu• Slovenčina• Slovenščina• Српски / Srpski• Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски• Svenska• Tagalog• தமிழ• ไทย• Türkçe• Українська• Tiếng Việt• ‫ייִדיש‬
  • 71. • Žemaitėška • 中文 • • ma i • This page was last modified on 21 March 2011 at 14:37. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. • Contact us • Privacy policy • About Wikipedia • Disclaimers • •vvvManagementFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor other uses, see Management (disambiguation).Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together toaccomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling anorganization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose ofaccomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of humanresources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as humanaction, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This viewopens the opportunity to manage oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Theoretical scope • 2 Nature of managerial work • 3 Historical development o 3.1 Early writing
  • 72.  3.1.1 Sun Tzus The Art of War  3.1.2 Chanakyas Arthashastra  3.1.3 Niccolò Machiavellis The Prince  3.1.4 Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations o 3.2 19th century o 3.3 20th century o 3.4 21st century • 4 Topics o 4.1 Basic functions/Roles o 4.2 Formation of the business policy  4.2.1 Implementation of policies and strategies  4.2.2 Policies and strategies in the planning process o 4.3 Multi-divisional hierarchy • 5 References • 6 External links[edit] HistoryThe verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially tools), which inturn derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement)influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18thcenturies.[1]Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to manage an enterprise. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firms resources to achieve the policys objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms the board of directors formulates the policy which is implemented by the chief executive officer.[edit] Theoretical scopeAt the beginning, one thinks of management functionally, as the action of measuring a quantityon a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan; or as the actions taken to reach onesintended goal. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. From this
  • 73. perspective, Frenchman Henri Fayol(1841–1925)[2] considers management to consist of sixfunctions:forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling. He was oneof the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.Another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), who wrote on the topic in the earlytwentieth century, defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". Shedescribed management as philosophy.[3]Some people, however, find this definition, while useful, far too narrow. The phrase"management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of definingmanagement, the shifting nature of definitions, and the connection of managerial practices withthe existence of a managerial cadre or class.One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thusexcludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the publicsector. More realistically, however, every organization must manage its work, people, processes,technology, etc. in order to maximize its effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer touniversity departments which teach management as "business schools." Some institutions (suchas the Harvard Business School) use that name while others (such as the Yale School ofManagement) employ the more inclusive term "management."English speakers may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective worddescribing the managers of an organization, for example of a corporation. Historically this use ofthe term was often contrasted with the term "Labor" referring to those being managed.[edit] Nature of managerial workIn for-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range ofstakeholders. This typically involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valuedproducts at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employmentopportunities (for employees). In nonprofit management, add the importance of keeping the faithof donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board ofdirectors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimentedwith other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; butthis occurs only very rarely.In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters electpoliticians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in somecountries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a newpresident/governor/mayor.[edit] Historical developmentDifficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a latemodern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-
  • 74. modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent butsometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, giventheir small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically.However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and thecodification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment,planning and control.Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping andrecording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in thosetimes to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size andcomplexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groupsof shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control)gradually became more common.[edit] Early writingWhile management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background ofworks that assisted in modern management theories.[4][edit] Sun Tzus The Art of WarWritten by Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War is a military strategybook that, for managerial purposes, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths andweaknesses of both a managers organization and a foes.[4][edit] Chanakyas ArthashastraChanakya wrote the Arthashastra around 300BC in which various stategies, techniques andmanagement theories were written which gives an account on the management of empires,economy and family. The work is often compared to the later works of Machiavelli.[edit] Niccolò Machiavellis The PrinceBelieving that people were motivated by self-interest, Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince in1513 as advice for the city of Florence, Italy.[5] Machiavelli recommended that leaders use fear—but not hatred—to maintain control.[edit] Adam Smiths The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims forefficient organization of work through Specialization of labor.[5] Smith described how changes inprocesses could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists,enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[5]
  • 75. [edit] 19th centuryClassical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. Aboutthe same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and MatthewBoulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization,quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning.Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the USeconomy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed"in profitable quasi-mass production.By the late 19th century, marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), Léon Walras(1834–1910), and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinningsof management. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiary-level course in management in 1881.[edit] 20th centuryBy about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as athoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examplesinclude Henry R. Townes Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylors ThePrinciples of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreths Applied motion study(1917), and Henry L. Gantts charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college managementtextbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became firstmanagement consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneeredJapanese quality assurance.The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard BusinessSchool invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People likeHenri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of managementand their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973),Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management, while otherwriters, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard(1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (1923 - )approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept ofthe Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motorsuntil 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, manyin the same vein.H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniquesinto management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories withmicroeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. Operations research,sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylors scientific management),attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems, particularly in the areasof logistics and operations.
  • 76. Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management byobjectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such asagile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cogs Ladder.As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gaveperceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the wayopened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context manymanagement fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories ofmanagement.Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separatebranches, namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management • Information technology management responsible for management information systems[edit] 21st centuryIn the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management intofunctional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve severalcategories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objectssubject to management.Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such aspublic administration, public management, and educational management. Further, managementprograms related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofitmanagement and social entrepreneurship.Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from businessethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism.As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and moreadvocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each ofwhom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue,and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management to some degreeembraces democratic principles in that in the long term workers must give majority support tomanagement; otherwise they leave to find other work, or go on strike. Despite the move towardworkplace democracy, command-and-control organization structures remain commonplace andthe de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control canbe seen in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected farless than employees at the lower levels of organizations. In some cases, management has evenrewarded itself with bonuses when lower level employees have been laid off.[6]
  • 77. [edit] TopicsThe photo shows a training meeting with factory workers in a stainless steel ecodesign companyfrom Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Endomarketing is a part of the management and is very important tomotivate the work force[edit] Basic functions/RolesManagement operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing,staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring.i.e • Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc.) and generating plans for action. • Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. • Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. • Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. • Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. • Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesnt take place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management).[edit] Formation of the business policy • The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. • The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. • The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.
  • 78. • The businesss policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. • The businesss strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the businesss advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form.[edit] Implementation of policies and strategies • All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. • Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. • A plan of action must be devised for each department. • Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. • Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. • Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. • A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. • The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the businesss mission. • The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the businesss future environment. • A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in theexecution of any departmental policy. • Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight- step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, dont let up, and make change stick.[7][edit] Policies and strategies in the planning process • They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. • A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. • Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the businesss strategic ones.[edit] Multi-divisional hierarchyThe management of a large organization may have about five levels:
  • 79. 1. Senior management (or "top management" or "upper management") 2. Middle management 3. Low-level management, such as supervisors or team-leaders 4. Foreman 5. Rank and FileTop-level management • Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. • They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. • Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature • Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and/or behavioral/participative processes • They are responsible for strategic decisions. • They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in the future. • They are executive in nature.Middle management • Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. • They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. • finance,marketing etc comes under middle level managementLower management • This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. • Lower-level managers decisions are generally short-term ones.Foreman / lead hand • They are people who have direct supervision over the working force in office, factory, sales field, or other workgroup or area of activity.Rank and File • The responsibilities of the persons belonging to this group are even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman.[edit] References 1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2. ^ Administration industrielle et générale - prévoyance organization - commandment, coordination – contrôle, Paris : Dunod, 1966 3. ^ Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
  • 80. 4. ^ a b Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 5. ^ a b c Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 20. ISBN 978-0-07-302743-2. 6. ^ Craig, S. (2009, January 29). Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. Wall Street Journal. [1] 7. ^ Kotter, John P. & Dan S. Cohen. (2002). The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)[edit] External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Management
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