Transcript of "LATEST BIOMEDICAL PROJECTS ABSTRACT-Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure"
DsPIC Based Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure Dialysis is a therapy which eliminates the toxic wastes fromthe body when the kidney fails, and cannot do its job of eliminatingthese toxic wastes. There are two types, hemodialysis andperitoneal dialysis.When Your Kidneys FailHealthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, andwastes. They also make hormones that keep your bones strong and your bloodhealthy. When your kidneys fail, harmful wastes build up in your body, your bloodpressure may rise, and your body may retain excess fluid and not make enoughred blood cells. When this happens, you need treatment to replace the work ofyour failed kidneys.How PD WorksIn PD, a soft tube called a catheter is used to fill your abdomen with a cleansingliquid called dialysis solution. The walls of your abdominal cavity are lined with amembrane called the peritoneum, which allows waste products and extra fluid topass from your blood into the dialysis solution. The solution contains a sugarcalled dextrose that will pull wastes and extra fluid into the abdominal cavity.These wastes and fluid then leave your body when the dialysis solution isdrained. The used solution, containing wastes and extra fluid, is then thrownaway. The process of draining and filling is called an exchange and takes about30 to 40 minutes. The period the dialysis solution is in your abdomen is called thedwell time. A typical schedule calls for four exchanges a day, each with a dwelltime of 4 to 6 hours. Different types of PD have different schedules of dailyexchanges. 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
Peritoneal dialysis.The most common form of PD, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD), doesnt require a machine. As the word ambulatory suggests, you canwalk around with the dialysis solution in your abdomen. Other forms of PDrequire a machine called a cycler to fill and drain your abdomen, usually whileyou sleep. The different types of cycler-assisted PD are sometimes calledautomated peritoneal dialysis, or APD. The APD consists of the following sections • Solution storage. At the beginning of the session, you connect bags of dialysis solution to tubing that feeds the cycler. Most systems include a separate tube for the last bag because this solution may have a higher dextrose content so that it can work for a daylong dwell time. • Pump. The pump sends the solution from the storage bags to the heater to the body and then sends it from the abdomen to the disposal container after its been used. • Temp Control. Before the solution enters your abdomen, a measured dose is warmed to body temperature. Once the solution is the right temperature (37degc) and the previous exchange has been drained, a clamp is released to allow the warmed solution to flow into your abdomen. • Solenoid Control with Timer. The cyclers timer releases a clamp to let the used dialysis solution drain from your abdomen into a weigh bag that measures and records how much solution has been removed. Some systems compare the amount of solution inserted with the amount drained and display the net difference between the two volumes. This lets you know whether the treatment is removing enough fluid from your body. • Disposal container. After the used solution is weighed, its pumped to a disposal container that you can throw away in the morning. 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
• Alarms. Sensors will trigger an alarm and shut off the machine if theres a over temperatureAdvantages of Peritoneal Dialysis Over HemodialysisHemodialysisIn hemodialysis blood is pumped from the body to a filter made of tiny plastic capillaries. The blood is purified when the waste products diffuse from the blood across the membrane of these tiny capillaries. Purified blood is then returned to the arm. • Hemodialysis is performed in a dialysis center for 4 hours three times a week. • Dialysis is performed through an arteriovenous access (a v access) • Advantages: No patient training is required. • Disadvantages: Dialysis graft failure, lack of freedomPeritoneal DialysisIn peritoneal dialysis the bodies own membrane is used as a filter, and the fluid drained in and out of the abdomen replaces the kidneys in getting rid of the body poisons. • It can be done at home, but requires careful technique. • Its advantage is more freedom and less needle sticks. • The disadvantages are peritonitis and membrane failure. 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766
BLOCK DIAGRAM DsPIC EMBEDDED VOLT +5V POWER AGE BLOOD SUPPLY MICROCONTROLLER TEMP 30F4013 FOLLO WER SENSORTRANSFOR MER +12V OPTO TIMING POWER COUPLER CIRCUIT SUPPLY PRE DRIVER SOLID STATE RELAY DC DC SOLENOID SOLENOID PUMP1 PUMP2 VALVE 1 VALVE 2 PERITONEAL DIALYSIS MODEL 89 RANGARAJAPURAM MAIN ROAD,KODAMBAKKAM,CHENNAI-24 PL VISIT www.maastechindia.com,mobile:098402 34766