Transcript of "Starting an exercise program all spring 2014"
Starting an Exercise Program
By Tim Sebesta
Benefits of Exercise
•oxygen supply to the heart
•function and efficiency of the heart (stronger, larger, pumps more blood per
•electrical stability of the heart, size and strength of the blood vessels (stronger,
more elastic, increased diameter)
•number of red cells (hemoglobin)
•blood sugar regulation (reduce risk of diabetes)
•sensitivity to insulin (reduce risk for diabetes)
•lean body weight
•tolerance to stress
•muscle strength in trunks and legs
•joint range of motion
•Density and strength of bones, ligaments and tendons
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q)
For most people physical activity should not pose any problem or hazard. PAR-Q has been designed to identify the
small number of adults for whom physical activity might be inappropriate or those who should have medical
advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.
Common sense is your best guide in answering these few questions. Please read them carefully and check the yes
or no opposite the question if it applies to you.
______Has your doctor ever said you have heart trouble?
______Do you frequently have pains in your heart and chest?
______Do you often feel faint or have spells of severe dizziness?
______Has a doctor ever said your blood pressure was too high?
______Has your doctor ever told you that you have a bone or joint problem such as arthritis that has been
aggravated by exercise, or might be made worse with exercise?
______Is there a good physical reason not mentioned here why you should not follow an activity program even if
you wanted to?
______Are you over age 65 and not accustomed to vigorous exercise?
If you answered YES to one or more questions...
If you have not recently done so, consult with your personal physician by telephone or in person before increasing
your physical activity and/or taking a fitness test.
If you answered NO to all questions...
If you answered PAR-Q accurately, you have reasonable assurance of your present suitability for an exercise test.
Name (Please print):
Designing Your Fitness Program
• Medical Clearance
• Pick something you Like!!!
• Basic Principles of physical training
− overload principle
− Frequency (how often)
− Intensity (how hard)
− Duration (how long)
Getting Started and Staying on Track
• Select the best equipment you can afford.
• Maintain a well-balanced diet and adequate
• Manage your fitness program so that it
becomes an integral part of your day.
• Consistency: The Key to Improvement
Developing Skills for Change:
Creating a Personalized Plan
Monitor behavior and gather data
Analyze data and identify patterns
Set specific goals
Devise a strategy
Obtain information and supplies
Modify your environment
Involve people around you
Plan ahead for challenging situations
• Make a personal contract
6 Steps For An Effective Workout
• Warm-up 2-3 minutes (jump rope, jog in place)
• Stretch for 5 minutes
• Workout for minimum of 20 minutes in your
target heart rate zone
• Cool down for 2-3 minutes
• Stretch out for 5-10 minutes
• Take a warm bath or shower
• Lateral Head Tilt – Neck flexors and
extensors, ligaments of cervical spine.
• Arm Circles – shoulder muscle & ligaments.
• Side Stretch – Muscles & ligament, pelvic
• Body Rotation – Hip, abductors, chest, back,
neck, & shoulders; hip & spinal ligaments.
• Shoulder Hyperextension – Deltoid & pec
muscles; ligaments of shoulder.
• Quad Stretch – quads; knee & ankle
• Heel Cord Stretch – heel cord, gastrocnemius
• Adductor Stretch – hip adductor muscles.
• Sit and Reach – hamstrings & lower back
muscles, lumber spinal muscles.
• Triceps Stretch – triceps, shoulder stretch
Calculating Target Heart Rate Zone
Resting HR = _____________
Max. HR = 220 - age = ________________________
Max. HR - Rest HR (Answer 2 minus Answer 1) = ______________
Answer 3 times .60 (for lower end) = ____________________
Answer 4 plus Resting HR = __________________
Answer 3 times .90 (for upper end) = ____________________
Answer 6 plus Resting HR = __________________
Your personal THR range for one minute = Answer 5 and Answer 7 = __________________
Preventing and Managing
• Care for injuries that may occur.
• Staying in condition
• Warm-up and Cool down
• Use proper body mechanics
• Not exercising when ill
• Use proper equipment
• Not returning to normal exercise programs until injury has
Walking – one of the best low-impact endurance exercises. It takes very little
planning to get started, and it's easy enough on the joints. You can keep up a
walking routine until very late in life. The keys to a beneficial walking routine are
the right pair of shoes and some good stretching after your walk.
Look for a pair of walking shoes with good cushioning and heel support, and don't
be afraid try on different shoes until you find a pair that feels right. You want to
make sure they don't pinch your toes in front or allow your heel to slip out in
back. Comfortable shoes will make your walks safer and more enjoyable.
While you're walking, you want to focus on your posture, keeping your back
straight and shoulders rolled back. If you're new to walking, start with a short
distance and increase your walks by a few minutes each time until you're able to
walk for 30- to 60-minute stretches.
After your walk, you'll want to do a few stretches to protect the muscles that you
just worked and prevent injury. Do a few stretches for your calves and
hamstrings, along with ankle rolls, to help your muscles recover.
LSC-CyFair College Fitness Center
Hours of Operation – Spring 2014
Monday Through Thursday
7:30 pm-9:00 pm
1:00 pm-5:00 pm
You must present your LSC-CyFair College Faculty, Staff
Or student ID every time you want access to the fitness
Fitness Center: 281-290-5930
Start at outside door near sand volleyball court. Proceed north past tennis
courts to outdoor trail. Turn left when you cross over bridge and loop
around Towne Lake and return to bridge. Return to outside door near sand
Start at outside door near sand volleyball court. Proceed north past tennis
courts to outdoor trail. Turn left when you cross over bridge and loop
around Towne Lake and return to bridge. Stay on fitness trail and proceed
to front of campus and loop around north lake and return to bridge. Return
to outside door near sand volleyball court.
5K = 3.1 Miles
Start at outside door near sand volleyball court. Proceed north past
tennis courts to outdoor trail. Turn left when you cross over bridge
and loop around Towne Lake and return to bridge. Stay on fitness trail
and proceed to front of campus and loop around both lakes and return
to bridge. Return to outside door near sand volleyball court.
Helps improve endurance and flexibility, and it's a very beneficial low-impact
exercise. Because the water relieves stress on your bones and joints, swimming
carries a lower risk of injury than many other endurance exercises, and it
conditions your whole body as you move through the water. Swimming can even
help post-menopausal women avoid bone loss.
When you swim laps in the pool, you're simultaneously stretching and
strengthening the muscles in your back, arms, legs and shoulders. Trying out
different strokes can help keep your routine fun while also working out different
When you're swimming, it's easy to forget about staying hydrated, but working out
in water doesn't mean you can get away with drinking less. Make sure you drink
plenty of water before and after swimming laps.
If you don't have access to a neighborhood pool, you can
look into joining the local gym or YMCA. New to swimming?
You might look into hiring a trainer or swimming coach to
get you started with common strokes and some stretches
to help you cool down after your workout.
While it might not seem like a low-impact exercise, cycling is actually very easy
on the joints since your body absorbs minimal shock from pedaling. You can ride a
stationary bike at the gym or invest in a road bike to pedal around your
neighborhood. If an upright bicycle is too hard on your back, neck and
shoulders, try a recumbent bike instead. Unlike an upright bike, where you're
bent over the handlebars, a recumbent bike allows you to sit back with the pedals
and handlebars right in front of you. Planning to ride a recumbent bike outdoors?
Since this style of bike is much lower to the ground than an upright, it's a good
idea to invest in a flag to make you more visible to drivers.
Whether you opt to bike inside or outdoors, cycling can improve their health by
easing arthritis pain, helping with high blood pressure and improving mood. A
recent study even found that cycling reduces the risk of heart
attack in people over 60.
Not only is cycling an excellent low-impact exercise, but it can also
help you save money and protect the environment. Once you feel
like you're getting stronger on your bike, you can try riding on short
errands that you'd normally run in your car.
No matter what your workout routine, adding some gentle stretches will improve
your flexibility and range of motion. You'll want to do stretches that focus on
muscles you're working during the rest of your routine, but some general
stretches in the morning and evening can be especially beneficial, since our
muscles tend to lose flexibility as we age.
The National Institute on Aging recommends regularly stretching your neck,
shoulders, upper arms, upper body, chest, back, ankles, legs, hips and calves.
This might sound like a lot of stretching, but if you do a few stretching exercises
each day, you can hit all of these areas fairly quickly.
You want to make sure you're doing stretches properly to avoid injury. Take it
slowly, and never push yourself to the point of pain. You just want to feel a
gentle pull on your muscle, and focus on taking slow,
deep breaths as you hold your stretch.
Certain weight-lifting exercises are actually an excellent low-impact way to build
muscle and improve overall health. The key is to start with lighter weights, or
even do the moves with no weights, and increase the amount that you're lifting
over time as you improve your strength.
You'll want to do 30 minutes of strength training for each muscle group twice a
week, taking at least one day off in between working the same group. For
example, if you do upper-body exercises on a Monday, you'd want to wait until
Wednesday at the earliest before doing upper body again. If you can, take a few
sessions with a personal trainer to learn some good upper- and lower-body
exercises and get tips on maintaining good form. Once you have the hang of it,
you can work out on your own.
Like with stretching or any other exercise, the rule with weight lifting is "no pain
is good pain." If an exercise causes you pain, back off
and try a lighter weight. If it continues to hurt, stop that
particular strength exercise until you can talk to your
doctor. It's better to be cautious than to push too hard
and risk injury.
Water aerobics combines cardiovascular exercise with strength training for a lowimpact, full-body workout. By exercising in water, you take advantage of the
water's resistance to strengthen your muscles as you move.
This form of exercise has become the stereotypical senior workout, but with good
reason. Like with swimming, the water takes stress off of your joints and allows
you to build strength and endurance with very little impact. It's a common
misconception that you need to be able to swim to participate in water aerobics
classes. Most take place in shallow water -- between waist and chest deep -- so
swimming is not a requirement.
You can find water aerobics classes at gyms, the YMCA and community pools.
Some cities offer low- and even no-cost water aerobics classes for seniors, making
it easy to get started. Check with local community centers or your city's parks and
recreation department to see what's offered in your area.
When you picture a yoga class, you probably envision a room full of people
contorted into impossible positions that your body would never abide. In
fact, yoga fulfills all of the categories of good exercise, combining endurance
with stretches, strength training and balance.
More and more gyms are offering senior yoga classes, but if you can't find a class
geared toward your age group, a beginner yoga class will do just as well. A good
yoga instructor will offer alternative positions to poses that you have trouble
with, so don't fret if you can't touch your toes or have trouble getting up and
down. There are even some yoga instructors who drop in to senior centers to
offer specialized classes.
It's tempting to try to save money by picking up a yoga
DVD or following a yoga program on TV, but beginners
should invest in at least a few classes before trying yoga
alone. An instructor can help make sure you have the
proper alignment, which is critical for avoiding injury.
Spending time in the garden is an enjoyable, beneficial way to get in your daily
exercise. Digging in the dirt, watering plants, weeding and other gardening
activities work your muscles, and you can watch your efforts pay off with
beautiful flowers and vegetables along with better health.
If bending and squatting to pull weeds or dig is too much for you, a gardening
stool can help make the ground more accessible and help you avoid injuring your
back or knees. Choosing the right tools can go a long way, as well. You want tools
with a good grip and long handles that help you avoid stooping over when
possible. You can also make your garden more accessible by planting in
containers, raised beds or on a trellis, so you'll be doing less kneeling on the
Since gardening is generally a warm weather activity, it's very
important to drink plenty of water and try to limit your gardening
to the cooler times of day: before 10 a.m. or late in the afternoon.
You'll also want to dress appropriately, in lightweight clothing, and
make sure you wear sunscreen and a hat to protect you from sunburn.
Final Goal: _______________________________________________________________
By the end of week 1, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 2, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 3, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 4, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 5, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 6, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 7, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 8, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 9, I plan to ______________________________________________
By the end of week 10, I plan to _____________________________________________
By the end of week 11, I plan to _____________________________________________
By the end of week 12, I plan to _____________________________________________
Sample Journal Entry
When (Day, Date, Time):
How Long: _______ minutes
Heart Rate: ________ bpm
Weight or weight lost (optional): _______
Feelings (minimum of half a page):
(1) I _________________________ (name) agree to ____________________________________
________________________________________________(specify behavior you want to change)
(2) I will begin on ____________ (start date) and plan to reach my goal of ____________________
___________________________________________________by ___________ (final target date).
(3) In order to reach my final goal, I have devised the following schedule of minigoals.
For each step in my program, I will give the reward listed.
______________________________ (minigoal 1) _______ (target date) ________________ (reward)
______________________________ (minigoal 2) _______ (target date) ________________ (reward)
______________________________ (minigoal 3) _______ (target date) ________________ (reward)
My overall rewards for reaching my final goal will be
(4) I will use a journal to monitor my progress toward reaching my final goal:
I sign this contract as an indication of my personal commitment to reach my goal.
______________________________________________ (your signature) ________________ (date)
I have recruited a helper who will witness my contract and _________________________________
(list any way your helper will participate in your program)
____________________________________________ (witness signature) _______________ (date)