Starting an Exercise Program


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Starting an Exercise Program

  1. 1. Starting an Exercise Program Spring 2013 By Tim Sebesta
  2. 2. Benefits of Exercise Increases: •feeling of well-being •self-concept and emotional outlook •oxygen supply to the heart •function and efficiency of the heart (stronger, larger, pumps more blood per beat), •electrical stability of the heart, size and strength of the blood vessels (stronger, more elastic, increased diameter) •blood volume •number of red cells (hemoglobin) •blood sugar regulation (reduce risk of diabetes) •sensitivity to insulin (reduce risk for diabetes) •lean body weight •tolerance to stress •muscle strength in trunks and legs •joint range of motion •HDL cholesterol •Density and strength of bones, ligaments and tendons
  3. 3. Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q)For most people physical activity should not pose any problem or hazard. PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity might be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.Common sense is your best guide in answering these few questions. Please read them carefully and check the yes or no opposite the question if it applies to you.YES NO______Has your doctor ever said you have heart trouble?______Do you frequently have pains in your heart and chest?______Do you often feel faint or have spells of severe dizziness?______Has a doctor ever said your blood pressure was too high?______Has your doctor ever told you that you have a bone or joint problem such as arthritis that has been aggravated by exercise, or might be made worse with exercise?______Is there a good physical reason not mentioned here why you should not follow an activity program even if you wanted to?______Are you over age 65 and not accustomed to vigorous exercise?If you answered YES to one or more questions...If you have not recently done so, consult with your personal physician by telephone or in person before increasing your physical activity and/or taking a fitness test.If you answered NO to all questions...If you answered PAR-Q accurately, you have reasonable assurance of your present suitability for an exercise test.Name (Please print): ___________________________________________________Signature: _________________________________________________________Date: ______________________________
  4. 4. Designing Your Fitness Program• Medical Clearance• Pick something you Like!!!• Basic Principles of physical training − overload principle − Frequency (how often) − Intensity (how hard) − Duration (how long)
  5. 5. Getting Started and Staying on Track• Select the best equipment you can afford.• Maintain a well-balanced diet and adequate water/fluids.• Manage your fitness program so that it becomes an integral part of your day.• Consistency: The Key to Improvement
  6. 6. Developing Skills for Change:Creating a Personalized Plan• Monitor behavior and gather data• Analyze data and identify patterns• Set specific goals• Devise a strategy − Obtain information and supplies − Modify your environment − Reward yourself − Involve people around you − Plan ahead for challenging situations• Make a personal contract
  7. 7. 6 Steps For An Effective Workout• Warm-up 2-3 minutes (jump rope, jog in place)• Stretch for 5 minutes• Workout for minimum of 20 minutes in your target heart rate zone• Cool down for 2-3 minutes• Stretch out for 5-10 minutes• Take a warm bath or shower
  8. 8. Calculating Target Heart Rate Zone(Karvonen s Formula)Computational steps:Resting HR = _____________Max. HR = 220 - age = ________________________Max. HR - Rest HR (Answer 2 minus Answer 1) = ______________Answer 3 times .60 (for lower end) = ____________________Answer 4 plus Resting HR = __________________Answer 3 times .90 (for upper end) = ____________________Answer 6 plus Resting HR = __________________Your personal THR range for one minute = Answer 5 and Answer 7 = __________________
  9. 9. Calculating Target Heart Rate Zone(Karvonen s Formula)Computational steps: 50 year oldResting HR = 70Max. HR = 220 - age = 170Max. HR - Rest HR (Answer 2 minus Answer 1) = 100Answer 3 times .60 (for lower end) = 60Answer 4 plus Resting HR = 130Answer 3 times .90 (for upper end) = 90Answer 6 plus Resting HR = 160Your personal THR range for one minute = Answer 5 and Answer 7 = 130 to 160
  10. 10. Staying With It• Social influences• Levels of Motivation and Commitment• Choices of techniques and level of effort• Stress barriers• Games
  11. 11. Preventing and ManagingAthletic Injuries • Care for injuries that may occur. − R.I.C.E. • Staying in condition • Warm-up and Cool down • Use proper body mechanics • Not exercising when ill • Use proper equipment • Not returning to normal exercise programs until injury has healed
  12. 12. Walking• Walking – one of the best low-impact endurance exercises. It takes very little planning to get started, and its easy enough on the joints. You can keep up a walking routine until very late in life. The keys to a beneficial walking routine are the right pair of shoes and some good stretching after your walk.• Look for a pair of walking shoes with good cushioning and heel support, and dont be afraid try on different shoes until you find a pair that feels right. You want to make sure they dont pinch your toes in front or allow your heel to slip out in back. Comfortable shoes will make your walks safer and more enjoyable.• While youre walking, you want to focus on your posture, keeping your back straight and shoulders rolled back. If youre new to walking, start with a short distance and increase your walks by a few minutes each time until youre able to walk for 30- to 60-minute stretches.• After your walk, youll want to do a few stretches to protect the muscles that you just worked and prevent injury. Do a few stretches for your calves and hamstrings, along with ankle rolls, to help your muscles recover.
  13. 13. LSC-CyFair College Fitness Center Hours of Operation – Spring 2013Monday Through Thursday11:30-12:50 pm2:45-5:45 pm7:30 pm-9:00 pmFriday8:00 am-5:00 pmYou must present your LSC-CyFair College Faculty, StaffOr student ID every time you want access to the fitnesscenter.Fitness Center: 281-290-5930
  14. 14. 3 Times around = ½ mile
  15. 15. 0.43 Miles
  16. 16. 0.78 Miles
  17. 17. 1.00 Mile
  18. 18. 1.42 Miles
  19. 19. 5K = 3.1 Miles
  20. 20. Start at outside door near sand volleyball court. Proceed north past tennis courts to outdoor trail. Turn left when you cross over bridge and loop1.5 Miles around Towne Lake and return to bridge. Return to outside door near sand volleyball court.
  21. 21. Start at outside door near sand volleyball court. Proceed north past tennis courts to outdoor trail. Turn left when you cross over bridge and loop around Towne Lake and return to bridge. Stay on fitness trail and proceed2.5 Miles to front of campus and loop around north lake and return to bridge. Return to outside door near sand volleyball court.
  22. 22. Start at outside door near sand volleyball court. Proceed north past tennis courts to outdoor trail. Turn left when you cross over bridge and loop around Towne Lake and return to bridge. Stay on fitness trail5K = 3.1 Miles and proceed to front of campus and loop around both lakes and return to bridge. Return to outside door near sand volleyball court.
  23. 23. Swimming• Helps improve endurance and flexibility, and its a very beneficial low-impact exercise. Because the water relieves stress on your bones and joints, swimming carries a lower risk of injury than many other endurance exercises, and it conditions your whole body as you move through the water. Swimming can even help post-menopausal women avoid bone loss.• When you swim laps in the pool, youre simultaneously stretching and strengthening the muscles in your back, arms, legs and shoulders. Trying out different strokes can help keep your routine fun while also working out different muscle groups.• When youre swimming, its easy to forget about staying hydrated, but working out in water doesnt mean you can get away with drinking less. Make sure you drink plenty of water before and after swimming laps.• If you dont have access to a neighborhood pool, you can look into joining the local gym or YMCA. New to swimming? You might look into hiring a trainer or swimming coach to get you started with common strokes and some stretches to help you cool down after your workout.
  24. 24. Cycling• While it might not seem like a low-impact exercise, cycling is actually very easy on the joints since your body absorbs minimal shock from pedaling. You can ride a stationary bike at the gym or invest in a road bike to pedal around your neighborhood. If an upright bicycle is too hard on your back, neck and shoulders, try a recumbent bike instead. Unlike an upright bike, where youre bent over the handlebars, a recumbent bike allows you to sit back with the pedals and handlebars right in front of you. Planning to ride a recumbent bike outdoors? Since this style of bike is much lower to the ground than an upright, its a good idea to invest in a flag to make you more visible to drivers.• Whether you opt to bike inside or outdoors, cycling can improve their health by easing arthritis pain, helping with high blood pressure and improving mood. A recent study even found that cycling reduces the risk of heart attack in people over 60.• Not only is cycling an excellent low-impact exercise, but it can also help you save money and protect the environment. Once you feel like youre getting stronger on your bike, you can try riding on short errands that youd normally run in your car.
  25. 25. Stretching• No matter what your workout routine, adding some gentle stretches will improve your flexibility and range of motion. Youll want to do stretches that focus on muscles youre working during the rest of your routine, but some general stretches in the morning and evening can be especially beneficial, since our muscles tend to lose flexibility as we age.• The National Institute on Aging recommends regularly stretching your neck, shoulders, upper arms, upper body, chest, back, ankles, legs, hips and calves. This might sound like a lot of stretching, but if you do a few stretching exercises each day, you can hit all of these areas fairly quickly.• You want to make sure youre doing stretches properly to avoid injury. Take it slowly, and never push yourself to the point of pain. You just want to feel a gentle pull on your muscle, and focus on taking slow, deep breaths as you hold your stretch.
  26. 26. Flexibility Exercises•Lateral Head Tilt – Neck flexors and extensors, ligaments ofcervical spine.•Arm Circles – shoulder muscle & ligaments.•Side Stretch – Muscles & ligament, pelvic region•Body Rotation – Hip, abductors, chest, back, neck, &shoulders; hip & spinal ligaments.•Shoulder Hyperextension – Deltoid & pec muscles; ligamentsof shoulder.•Quad Stretch – quads; knee & ankle ligaments.•Heel Cord Stretch – heel cord, gastrocnemius soleus.•Adductor Stretch – hip adductor muscles.•Sit and Reach – hamstrings & lower back muscles, lumberspinal muscles.•Triceps Stretch – triceps, shoulder stretch
  27. 27. Lifting Weights• Certain weight-lifting exercises are actually an excellent low-impact way to build muscle and improve overall health. The key is to start with lighter weights, or even do the moves with no weights, and increase the amount that youre lifting over time as you improve your strength.• Youll want to do 30 minutes of strength training for each muscle group twice a week, taking at least one day off in between working the same group. For example, if you do upper-body exercises on a Monday, youd want to wait until Wednesday at the earliest before doing upper body again. If you can, take a few sessions with a personal trainer to learn some good upper- and lower-body exercises and get tips on maintaining good form. Once you have the hang of it, you can work out on your own.• Like with stretching or any other exercise, the rule with weight lifting is "no pain is good pain." If an exercise causes you pain, back off and try a lighter weight. If it continues to hurt, stop that particular strength exercise until you can talk to your doctor. Its better to be cautious than to push too hard and risk injury.
  28. 28. Water Aerobics• Water aerobics combines cardiovascular exercise with strength training for a low- impact, full-body workout. By exercising in water, you take advantage of the waters resistance to strengthen your muscles as you move.• This form of exercise has become the stereotypical senior workout, but with good reason. Like with swimming, the water takes stress off of your joints and allows you to build strength and endurance with very little impact. Its a common misconception that you need to be able to swim to participate in water aerobics classes. Most take place in shallow water -- between waist and chest deep -- so swimming is not a requirement.• You can find water aerobics classes at gyms, the YMCA and community pools. Some cities offer low- and even no-cost water aerobics classes for seniors, making it easy to get started. Check with local community centers or your citys parks and recreation department to see whats offered in your area.
  29. 29. Yoga/Tai Chi• When you picture a yoga class, you probably envision a room full of people contorted into impossible positions that your body would never abide. In fact, yoga fulfills all of the categories of good exercise, combining endurance with stretches, strength training and balance.• More and more gyms are offering senior yoga classes, but if you cant find a class geared toward your age group, a beginner yoga class will do just as well. A good yoga instructor will offer alternative positions to poses that you have trouble with, so dont fret if you cant touch your toes or have trouble getting up and down. There are even some yoga instructors who drop in to senior centers to offer specialized classes.• Its tempting to try to save money by picking up a yoga DVD or following a yoga program on TV, but beginners should invest in at least a few classes before trying yoga alone. An instructor can help make sure you have the proper alignment, which is critical for avoiding injury.
  30. 30. Gardening• Spending time in the garden is an enjoyable, beneficial way to get in your daily exercise. Digging in the dirt, watering plants, weeding and other gardening activities work your muscles, and you can watch your efforts pay off with beautiful flowers and vegetables along with better health.• If bending and squatting to pull weeds or dig is too much for you, a gardening stool can help make the ground more accessible and help you avoid injuring your back or knees. Choosing the right tools can go a long way, as well. You want tools with a good grip and long handles that help you avoid stooping over when possible. You can also make your garden more accessible by planting in containers, raised beds or on a trellis, so youll be doing less kneeling on the ground.• Since gardening is generally a warm weather activity, its very important to drink plenty of water and try to limit your gardening to the cooler times of day: before 10 a.m. or late in the afternoon. Youll also want to dress appropriately, in lightweight clothing, and make sure you wear sunscreen and a hat to protect you from sunburn.
  31. 31. Exercise GoalsFinal Goal: _______________________________________________________________By the end of week 1, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 2, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 3, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 4, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 5, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 6, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 7, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 8, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 9, I plan to ______________________________________________By the end of week 10, I plan to _____________________________________________By the end of week 11, I plan to _____________________________________________By the end of week 12, I plan to _____________________________________________
  32. 32. Sample Journal EntryWhat: ____________________When (Day, Date, Time): ___________________________________Where: _____________________________How Long: _______ minutesHeart Rate: ________ bpmWeight or weight lost (optional): _______Feelings (minimum of half a page):
  33. 33. Contract(1) I _________________________ (name) agree to ____________________________________________________________________________________(specify behavior you want to change)(2) I will begin on ____________ (start date) and plan to reach my goal of _______________________________________________________________________by ___________ (final target date).(3) In order to reach my final goal, I have devised the following schedule of minigoals.For each step in my program, I will give the reward listed.______________________________ (minigoal 1) _______ (target date) ________________ (reward)______________________________ (minigoal 2) _______ (target date) ________________ (reward)______________________________ (minigoal 3) _______ (target date) ________________ (reward)My overall rewards for reaching my final goal will be(a)________________________________________________________________________________(b) _______________________________________________________________________________(4) I will use a journal to monitor my progress toward reaching my final goal:I sign this contract as an indication of my personal commitment to reach my goal.______________________________________________ (your signature) ________________ (date)I have recruited a helper who will witness my contract and _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________(list any way your helper will participate in your program)____________________________________________ (witness signature) _______________ (date)
  34. 34. Thank You!!
  35. 35. 125 - 174 175 - 250 250 + Activity pounds pounds pounds Calorie Values for 10 MinutesNecessities of ActivitySleeping 10 14 20Sitting and Watching Television 10 14 18Sitting and Talking 15 21 30Dressing or Washing 26 37 53Standing 12 16 24 Calorie Values for 10 MinutesLocomotion of ActivityWalking Downstairs 56 78 111Walking Upstairs 146 202 288Walking at 2 miles per hour 29 40 58Walking at 4 miles per hour 52 72 102Running at 5.5 miles per hour 90 125 178Running at 7 miles per hour 118 164 232Running at 12 miles per hour 164 228 326Cycling at 5.5 miles per hour 42 58 83Cycling at 13 miles per hour 89 124 178 Calorie Values for 10 MinutesHousework of ActivityMaking Beds 32 46 65Washing Floors 38 53 75Washing Windows 35 48 69Dusting 22 31 44Preparing a Meal 32 46 65Light Gardening 30 42 59Weeding Garden 49 68 98Mowing Grass with Power Mower 34 47 67Mowing Grass with Manual Mower 38 52 74 Calorie Values for 10 MinutesSedentary Occupations of ActivitySitting Writing 15 21 30Light Office Work 25 34 50Standing with Light Activity 20 28 40Typing with Computer 19 27 39
  36. 36. 125 - 174 175 - 250 250 + Activity pounds pounds pounds Calorie Values for 10 MinutesNecessities of ActivitySleeping 10 14 20Sitting and Watching Television 10 14 18Sitting and Talking 15 21 30Dressing or Washing 26 37 53Standing 12 16 24 Calorie Values for 10 MinutesSports of ActivityBadminton 43 65 94Baseball 39 54 78Basketball 58 82 117Bowling (nonstop) 56 78 111Canoeing at 4 miles per hour 90 128 182Dancing (moderate) 35 48 69Dancing (vigorous) 48 66 94Football 69 96 137Golfing 33 48 68Horseback Riding 56 78 112Ping-Pong 32 45 64Racquetball 75 104 144Skiing (Alpine) 80 112 160Skiing (Cross Country) 98 138 194Skiing (Water) 60 88 130Swimming (Backstroke) 32 45 64Swimming (Crawl) 40 56 80Tennis 56 80 115Volleyball 43 65 94