PhD Student Conference

  • 365 views
Uploaded on

A brief overview of my PhD research into how amateur volunteered information can enhance the user experience of online geographic information.

A brief overview of my PhD research into how amateur volunteered information can enhance the user experience of online geographic information.

More in: Design , Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
365
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Juicy Selif – This lives on my mantle piece at home
  • Some of you have notepads and pens, please put them down, you wont need them for this presentation. All the slides from today will be on the website above by the end of the day, so please visit there and get the slides later if you are interested.At the start of each section, published work is listed so you can read more if you are interested.
  • Some of you have notepads and pens, please put them down, you wont need them for this presentation. All the slides from today will be on the website above by the end of the day, so please visit there and get the slides later if you are interested.At the start of each section, published work is listed so you can read more if you are interested.
  • When we’re at University we are at our most creative
  • Then we go to work and our creativity is but a memory of why we did that degree in the first place.
  • So we take a PhD and very quickly human emotion, creativity and experience is drawn down into a series of formulae and theory
  • But we forget about the things which make us smile. That is why this presentation is all about relating my research to how it improves the lives of everyday people beyond the functional and into the emotional.So rather than give a highly detailed PhD report full of theory and high thinking, this presentation is a brief overview relating my work to improving the human condition
  • So before I get onto my research, a little background to my subject, something that has been very close to my heart for the last 3 years
  • Knowing the position of an object in space used to be a highly complex task, leading to vast organisations such as Ordnance Survey investing huge quantities or time and money into producing maps.This is Professional Geographic Information
  • But since the 1980’s knowing our exact location at any point in time has become so cheap and simple that untrained amateurs have been able to achieve in a day what would take professional cartographers months in the past.The is Volunteered Geographic Information: locating our thoughts, emotions and opinions about the world around us to single points in space and time, as well as covering the ground previously reserved for the professional.
  • And now we live in a world where the geographic information we use and interact with is a no longer the product of the professional alone, but that of the amateur volunteer. THIS IS A MASHUPBut we have a problem, VGI has only been possible since 2005 (Web 2.0) and named since 2007. As designers looking to utilise it, we don’t yet KNOW what we are doing as the old rule book has partly been torn up and a new one has yet to be written.So like anyone on a journey of understanding, we have a question: “How can VGI be combined with PGI to deliver information in the most usable way to the consumer”
  • Or to put it simpler“how can we remove the ‘suffering’ from the user experience when VGI and PGI are put together”
  • And like all PhD’s we don’t just attack the big question, we break it down into five research questions and tackle it piece by piece, seeing the whole vision at the end.You can see on the left side the research questions. While this is interesting as guiding the research, we’re not going to dwell on them, but instead look at the investigations and what they mean.
  • So why is enjoyment in the user experience important? It allows the joy and happiness of the activity the information supports to come through.And as Don Normal showed, when we are happy, we accept and use information better.Happiness with information unlocks happiness in the activity
  • I started my PhD in 2008VGI had only been named the year beforeWhile lots of research had been done in Computer Science and GIScience, nothing had been done within Human FactorsSo every question was open, and it was a blank slate
  • But out of everything, these were the main research aims.
  • 4 key user groups
  • So armed with the basic groups and a need to understand how they perceive VGI in terms of its value to them, I set out and interviewed a whole load of them!
  • These are the main user groups that emerged from the interviewsEach user group perceives the other one differently, unique relationshipsEach one perceived VGI and PGI differentlyThis is based on user requirements AND existing beliefs.HAPPYNESS: We can’t please all the people all the time
  • So we knew who the users were and knew something about themBut for user centred design you need to really understand the user, or in this case the consumerSo I focused specifically on the consumer community
  • Again, lots of unknown territory, but these are the three key research aims
  • But we can’t just research any user group, we need on which fits our requirementsCLICKSo as you might have guessed by now, kayakers were selected!
  • Focus Groups – Thematic AnalysisParticipatory Observation – Analogous UnderstandingDiary Studies – Analysis of Information formality
  • Some photos of my data gathering with focus groups, participatory observations and diary studies.I didn’t capsize but I did manage to sink my kayak in the middle of the river!
  • First task was to understand where information was used and usefulCLICKWe can see that VGI has the greatest potential to increase the user experience during the planning phaseWhat does this mean? We put all our thoughts and efforts into smartphones and mobile devices for on the move data access, which is the one time we don’t need the data!HAPPYNESS: You cant influence the activity with a smartphone, its all about the planning
  • Focus Group Graph = Impact of Information on Outcomes; #refs madeEarliest stages of kayaking activity rely on external informationLater stages rely on internal information (water gauges)Lots of VGI used in planning, therefore sharing experiences importantNo mention about volunteering the info – GAP!!!!VGI best for fast changing, subjective areasPGI best for static, objective features.HAPPYNESS: The info only helps make you happy when it helps you achieve your activity
  • Diary Studies: information source formalityWhile VGI has great potential as a source of external information, we see here that it has limitations.We ask the question, why don’t users use as many sources of informal information in the most crucial stage?
  • So we understood about the role VGI and PGI played in a real world situation. This was a big step forward because it gave the boundaries to the subject area that were not there beforeBut how did they impact on the user experience?That is the key subject of this PhD!
  • So again, more study aims!EXPLAIN WHY STUDY 3 AND 4 ARE TOGETHER
  • But we can’t just research any user group, we need on which fits our requirementsCLICKSo as you might have guessed by now, wheelchair users were selected!Compatible to kayakers, but different enough to understand the wider issues of use of VGI
  • So I went out in London with a group of wheelchair users and created my own VGI data set.Each wheelchair user had a diary and we recorded the good and the bad points about public transport in London
  • That was the route we took over 6 hours!
  • Does adding VGI to PGI increase the quality, accuracy and usability perceptions of the mashup?Does telling people there is VGI in the PGI increase quality, accuracy and usability perceptions?
  • So we analyses the data, compiled it and presented it through a website FREE TRAVELLERTalk about website and survey
  • And here is an example of the data with presented the participants withAt the end of using the maps a 32 question Likert scale (5 point) was presented to test the perceptions of Quality, Authority and Usability
  • So far, we are low on participants and research is still going on. We will undoubtedly discover more as we go on, but based on statistics I ran on Tuesday, here are the outcomes so far
  • As we can see, there is no significant equality of error variance, which is a good thing as it means we can perform some stats on the data
  • Considering information presented to the usersOverall usability may be considered significantly enhancedIncluding VGI with PGI increases the overall assessment of information clarityMay be explained by more info = better picture = clearerIncluding VGI with PGI produces better levels of satisfactionSatisfaction in HAPPYNESS using the dataVGI gives the missing broad picture increasing satisfactionNot just about more information, but more different information.
  • Considering what participants were told they were usingTelling participants the data contains VGI makes them feel it is more current and up to dateNo Significance in the interaction between Presented & ToldThe VGI was ‘as current’ as the PGI (we collected it) so this is a perception rather than an observation
  • Here are all the graphs of the initial analysis. As you can see, the influences I talked about just now are not drastic, but they are significant.
  • Date ProvidedNot dependant on personal biasShows hidden strengths of VGI interacting with the userPlacebo of what's toldPerceptual and susceptible to user bias
  • So we knew who the users were and knew something about themBut for user centred design you need to really understand the user, or in this case the consumerSo I focused specifically on the consumer community
  • So we come to the end of the presentationAs you can see, it wasn’t really about how information makes us happyBut instead presented a short overview of a framework through which we can create positive experiences by removing the concerns of the user

Transcript

  • 1. Christopher ParkerThe Joy Of Volunteered Information Christopher J. Parker
  • 2. WWW.USERGENERATEDDESIGN.COM
  • 3. WWW.MOBRO.CO/CHRIS210
  • 4. Introduction What is VGI and PGI?
  • 5. Study 1 USER PERCEPTIONS OF VGI• Papers • An Exploration of Volunteered Geographic Information, GISRUK 2010 • Understanding the Volunteer in VGI, Slideshare • Characteristics of VGI Stakeholders, Online
  • 6. Study 1Study Aims• What are the different characteristics of the key users?• Understand how different users perceive VGI, and the differences between them.• What is the nature of VGI?
  • 7. Special InterestConsumers Professionals Groups Local Communities
  • 8. Study 2 THE ROLE OF VGI AND PGI IN OUTDOOR ACTIVIIES• Papers • The Role Of VGI And PGI In Outdoor Activities, Applied Ergonomics • Advantages Of VGI From A Human Factors Perspective, Transactions in GIS • Relevance of Volunteered Geographic Information In A Real World Context, GISRUK 2011
  • 9. Study 2Study Aims• How VGI and PGI offer different benefits to the end user in a real world scenario• The strengths and weaknesses of VGI and PGI relative to how they meet the information requirements of the user’s tasks and activities• How VGI and PGI may be effectively integrated to produce highly usable and effective applications.
  • 10. Study 2Participants• Need to critically evaluate information• Can be bounded in as a simple user group• Make use of PGI as well as generating and utilising VGI• Allow for scalable, in depth investigation• Be fun to talk about at presentations
  • 11. Study 2Methodology• Multi Methods [qualitative] • Focus Groups • Participatory Observation • Diary Studies• Non-Probability Sampling • 2 years experience • Familiar with trip planning • User of VGI and PGI• Number • 32 kayakers [focus groups] • 100 + participants [observations] • 4 diaries on 2 trips
  • 12. 16/11/2011
  • 13. Study 3 & 4THE IMPACT OF VGI ON USER JUDGEMENT
  • 14. Study 3 & 4Study Aims• How VGI and PGI offer different benefits to the end user in a real world scenario• The strengths and weaknesses of VGI and PGI relative to how they meet the information requirements of the user’s tasks and activities• How VGI and PGI may be effectively integrated to produce highly usable and effective applications.
  • 15. Study 3 & 4Participants• Need to critically evaluate information• Can be bounded in as a simple user group• Make use of PGI as well as generating and utilising VGI• Critically assess information for risk management
  • 16. Study 3 & 4Methodology• Study 3 • Observation • VGI: Generate Data Set • Literature Review • PGI: Pool data• Study 4 • Mono Methods • Experimental • Online • Altering data gathered to influence user
  • 17. 16/11/2011
  • 18. Information In Map PGI PGI + VGI PGI Group 1 Group 2Participant Told What Group 3 Group 4 PGI + VGIMap Contained
  • 19. Quality Authority UsabilityGood Trustworthy UsefulnessAccurate Credible ClearCurrent Reliable EfficientUseful Official SatisfactionImportant Authority
  • 20. Quality Authority Usability (1)Good Trustworthy UsefulnessAccurate Credible Clear (2)Current Reliable EfficientUseful Official Satisfaction (3)Important Authority
  • 21. Quality Authority Usability (1)Good Trustworthy UsefulnessAccurate Credible Clear (2)Current (4) Reliable EfficientUseful Official Satisfaction (3)Important Authority
  • 22. Fig 1. Fig 2.Fig 3. Fig 4.
  • 23. Study 3 & 4Key Outcome• Impact of Data Provided • Enhanced Usability in clarity and satisfaction • Including VGI doesn’t increase perceptions of authority or quality• Impact of ‘placebo’ • Enhanced perceptions of currency • Knowing its VGI doesn’t make it more or less authoritative or usable
  • 24. Finishing Points?
  • 25. Finishing PointsKey Outcome• All user groups perceive VGI differently • Understand the user, no universals• VGI and PGI are just information • Not the magic early literature talked about• The greatest potential to influence the user experience is during planning • We should question the hype around mobile communication devices
  • 26. Finishing PointsKey Outcome• More descriptive compared to PGI’s objective • Helps provide an additional perspective not offered traditionally• In consumers • The perception of VGI had little impact on assessment of information • But the content of VGI is unique and helps increase the usability of the mashup