Post-Conflict Reconciliation and Reconstruction in Africa


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Presentation made at UNC-Chapel Hill on a faculty development project exploring reconciliation and reconstruction efforts in Uganda, Rwanda and South Africa. 2006.

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  • Twubakane, the Kinyarwanda word meaning “Let’s build together,” unites many partners—the Government of Rwanda, USAID, nongovernmental organizations, health care providers and communities. Launched in 2005, the Twubakane Decentralization and Health Program supports the Government of Rwanda in addressing the many challenges it faces in meeting the growing population’s priority health care needs. Twubakane focuses on: Increasing the use of quality family health services in health facilities and communities Strengthening the capacity of local governments and communities to support improved health service delivery at decentralized levels.
  • Post-Conflict Reconciliation and Reconstruction in Africa

    1. 1. Post-Conflict Reconciliation and Reconstruction in AfricaUganda, Rwanda & South Africa<br />ACC-IAC Faculty Development Trip<br />June 8-31, 2007<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />Participants<br />The Journey<br />Country Summaries, Highlights & Opportunities<br />Uganda<br />Rwanda<br />South Africa<br />Contrasts<br />Future Prospects<br />Presentation Outline<br />Kigali @ Night<br />Rwanda<br />
    3. 3. Study conflict resolution and post-conflict reconciliation and reconstruction is the selected countries<br />Explore potential partnership opportunities with institutions<br />Research<br />Teaching<br />service-learning<br />community-outreach<br />Explore ways to capitalize on the experience by developing new programs or courses, or revamping existing ones to incorporate the knowledge gained during the trip.<br />Objectives<br />Genocide Memorial Museum Garden<br />Kigali, Rwanda<br />
    4. 4. Selection Process<br />Applications received from 10 of 11 ACC Institutions <br />Total of ?? Applications received<br />Criteria<br />Diversity of interests (scholarship, discipline, gender)<br />Previous experience in Arica<br />Desired objectives<br />Participants<br />
    5. 5. Robin Kirk<br />Duke University<br />Human Rights<br />Bernice L. Hausman<br />Virginia Tech University<br />English/Women’s Studies<br />Karen K. Miller<br />Boston College<br />History<br />Barbara S. Anderson<br />University of North Carolina<br />African Studies<br />ZeynepTaydas<br />Clemson University<br />Political Science<br />The Women<br />
    6. 6. Billy R. Close<br />Florida State University<br />Criminology<br />William J. Long<br />Georgia Tech University<br />Political Science<br />James Beshara<br />Wake Forest University<br />Senior Economics Major<br />Angel David Nieves<br />University of Maryland<br />Historic Preservation<br />Craig C. Brookins<br />Co-Director<br />North Carolina State University<br />Psychology & Africana Studies<br />Richard Grant<br />University of Miami<br />Geography<br />Sylvain H. Boko<br />Co-Director<br />Wake Forest University<br />Economics<br />The Men<br />
    7. 7. NC State UniversityRaleigh, NC<br />Review of Program Objectives<br />Orientation to Travel<br />Orientation to Countries<br />Pre-Trip Orientation<br />
    8. 8. Trip Itinerary<br />
    9. 9. Country Comparisons<br />
    10. 10. Makerere University Instituteof Social Research<br />The Aids Service Organization, an aids clinic and advocacy group in Kampala<br />Ministry of Reconstruction and Development for Northern Uganda<br /><ul><li>Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi</li></ul>Jinja, Source of the White Nile<br />Uganda<br />
    11. 11. Lucy Hoving, Refugee Law Project<br />Moses Okello, Refugee Law Project<br />Veronica Bichetero, Uganda Human Rights Commission<br />Martin Wandera, former member of parliament, and our very capable host in Uganda<br />James Odong, director of peace and reconciliation at World Vision, who was an abducted child soldier himself and spoke about post traumatic stress.<br />Lam OryemCosmas, Executive Secretary, Justice and Peace Council (JPC), Ecclesiastical Province of Gulu (Northern Uganda)<br />Arthur Bainomugisha, head of Research and Peace and Conflict Program, Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment<br />Dr. Edith Natukunda, who spoke on HIV/AIDS<br />Highlights -People<br />Minister of Reconstruction for <br />Northern Uganda<br />The AIDS Support Organization (TASO)<br />
    12. 12. Challenges<br />Ongoing “War” in North with “Lords Resistance Army”<br />Opportunities<br />Linkages with Makerere University<br />Student-faculty exchange, study abroad<br />Institute for Social Research<br />Research<br />Impact of Psychosocial Trauma (i.e., post-traumatic stress) on conflict survivors (e.g., child soldiers)<br />Impact of resettlement efforts and other interventions<br />Building a sustainable peace process<br />Community-based surveys of key social and development issues<br />Challenges & Opportunities – Uganda<br />
    13. 13. City of Kigali<br />Gasabo District Villages (outside Kigali)<br />Travauxd'InterêtsGénérales(TIG) Camp<br />Government Ministries<br />AVEGA AGAHOZO – Association of Genocide Widows <br />Non-Governmental Organizations Coalition Meeting<br />Twubakane Program – IntraHealth International<br />Ntarama<br />Church genocide site<br />Kigali Memorial Centre<br />Rwanda<br />
    14. 14. Paul Jabo, Deputy-Mayor of the Gasabo District<br />Dr. AchourAitMohand, psychiatrist, Belgian technical cooperation<br />Mme. Claire Nancy Misago, director of National Mental Health program of psychosocial and mental health services<br />Dr. Eugene Rutembesa, Dean, Psychology, National University of Rwanda<br />Josephine Murebwayire, vice president, AVEGA, a woman survivors’ organization<br />Laura Hoemeker, Director of Twubakane, a USAID-funded health project in Rwanda<br />Highlights – People<br />TIG Camp<br />
    15. 15. Patrice Mulama, Executive Secretary, High Council of the Press<br />FatumaNdangiza, Executive Secretary; and Antoine Rutayisire, vice-chair, National Unity and Reconciliation Commission<br />Dean Swerdlin, Twubakane Project (USAID/Intrahealth/RTI), who organized a meeting of Rwanda’s development partners, including the World Bank, IMF, USAID, <br />Karl Jean-Louis, Consultant at the Ministry of Justice<br />Francine Rutagengwa, Ministry of Local Government, and our very capable host<br />The Executive Secretary of the Ministry of Justice<br />Highlights – People (cont’d)<br />
    16. 16. Challenges & Opportunities – Rwanda<br />Government Decentralization<br />University Linkages?<br />Research<br />Decentralization<br />Impact of Gacaca Process<br />Impact and Implementation of Reconciliation and Unity Efforts<br />Implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategy<br />“Building a National Framework for the Psychosocial Rehabilitation & Reintegration of Ex-combatants”<br />Legal and Judicial Reconstruction<br />
    17. 17. <ul><li>City of Cape Town</li></ul>Kayamandi Township<br />Guguleti Township and Community Center<br />District 6 museum<br />Robben Island<br />Cape of Good Hope<br />Table Mountain<br />Western Cape<br />South Africa<br />District Six Museum<br />Cape Town<br />
    18. 18. Tyrone Savage, a lecturer at Stellenbosch University, who served as our principal expert of issues of post-conflict justice and reconciliation<br />DineoGaofhiwe, our very capable host<br />Glenda Wildshut, former TRC Commissioner and former director, Desmond Tutu Leadership Academy<br />Mills Soko, Senior Lecturer, UCT Graduate School of Business: “Economic Justice & Equity in the Reconciliation and Reconstruction Process<br />NofudaWalaza, Post Traumatic Effects of Apartheid: Desmond Tutu Peace Trust<br />Carnita Ernest, Center for the study of violence and reconciliation<br />Highlights – People<br />Tyrone Savage & DineoGaofhiwe<br />Stellenbosch University<br />J L Zwane Church and Center<br />Guguletu Township<br />
    19. 19. Centre for the Study of Violence & Reconciliation<br />Desmond Tutu Peace Centre<br />University Linkages, Faculty-Student Exchange, and Study Abroad, Internships<br />Research<br />Reconciliation Processes<br />“Black Empowerment” <br />Community Development<br />Psychological Processes of Empowerment<br />Long-term impact of “apartheid trauma” on South Africans (all groups)<br />Documenting The Movement<br />Challenges & Opportunities – South Africa<br />
    20. 20. Definitions<br />Originating in 1960s America<br />Transformation of “individual” oriented psychology<br />Emphasis on mental health problems arising from social contexts<br />Focus on prevention as opposed to treatment<br />Focus on empowerment and community development<br />Focus on a liberation psychology<br />Conscientization<br />Resistance to oppression<br />Participatory Action Research<br />Community-based Intervention<br />Promote and incorporate indigenous knowledge and practices<br />Community Psychology Dimensions<br />
    21. 21. A Comprehensive and National Mental Health Strategy<br />Local Flexibility<br />Targeted to specific groups/generations<br />Preventative<br />Treatment of existing mental health problems<br />E.g., Post Traumatic Stress<br />MaintainLiberatory Orientation<br />Maintain Focus on Political Struggle<br />Challenges<br />
    22. 22. Contrasts (X = thegreater the problem)<br />
    23. 23. Closing Thoughts<br />