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Kyle barrett thesis illustrated

  1. 1. 
 
 
 SMARTFARM:
USING
THE
TOOLS
OF
CONTEMPORARY
CONSUMER
CULTURE
TO
 INFLUENCE
FOOD
BEHAVIOR
 
 By
 
 Kyle
Barrett
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Has
been
approved
 April,
2012




 Scott
Murff,
Director
 
 
 Renata
Hejduk,
Second
Reader
 
 
 Phil
Horton,
Third
Reader










  2. 2. 





































































































































Barrett






































 2


 Table
of
Contents
 
Abstract
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐3
Food
in
the
U.S.
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐3
Psychological
Distancing
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐6
Urban
Farming
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐7
Awareness
and
Accessibility
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐8
“Good”
Food
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐11
Part
I:
Packaging
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐13

 Intrinsic
and
Extrinsic
Motivation


















13

 A
Contemporary
Aesthetic
































14

 Streamlining
and
Value






































19
Part
II:
Use
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐21

 Gamification



























































22

 
 Progression















































24

 
 Community
















































25

 
 Interactive
Aid










































26
Part
III:
Expansion
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐28

 Installation
Wall




















































29

 
 Browsing




















































29

 
 “Plug
in”
Retail










































31

 The
Store

































































33

 
 Concealed
Systems



































35

 
 Dynamic
Façade







































36

 
 Clean
Interiors










































37

 
 Exhibition



















































39

 Basements































































39

 
 Local
Engagement



































40
Conclusion
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­42
Works
Cited
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐43

  3. 3. 





































































































































Barrett






































 3


 Abstract
 

 The
separation
between
food
production
and
consumption
within
the
U.S.
has
lead
to
a
system
that
enables
unhealthy
food
choices
and
behavior.
SmartFarm
is
a
brand
for
urban
agriculture
designed
to
change
this
through
the
tools
of
contemporary
consumer
culture.
Using
Construal
Level
Theory,
the
brand
strategy
proposes
that
mitigating
the
psychological
distances
between
people
and
their
food
will
enable
them
to
make
better
decisions
about
what
they
eat.
In
order
to
achieve
this,
the
brand
strategy
is
designed
in
three
parts
that
specifically
relate
to
the
three
cognitive
aspects
of
psychological
distancing,
which
are
space,
time,
and
social
discourse.

The
first
SmartFarm
component,
packaging,
puts
heirloom
seeds
in
packets
that
make
them
immediately
appealing
and
accessible
as
farming
tools.
The
second
component,
use,
dictates
a
website
model
designed
to
keep
users
engaged
in
the
agricultural
process
and
unaffected
by
the
temporal
gaps
between
purchasing
and
eating
food.
Lastly,
the
third
component,
expansion,
focuses
on
built
forms
that
allow
for
increased
awareness
and
an
agriculturally
driven
social
environment.

 Food
in
the
U.S.
 

 Relative
to
the
developing
world,
only
a
small
portion
of
the
U.S.
population
is
food
insecure1.
And,
in
the
majority
of
the
cases
where
food
insecurity
does
happen,
the
issue
is
episodic
rather
than
chronic.
While
undernourishment
from
























































1
Mark,Nord.
"Improving
Food
Security
in
the
United
States."
Usda.gov.
USDA,
2003.
Web.


  4. 4. 





































































































































Barrett






































 4


poverty
is
rare,
however,
health
problems
resulting
from
being
overweight
and
improperly
nourished
are
widespread.
In
fact,
the
U.S.
ranks
as
the
9th
“fattest”
country
in
the
world,
with
74.1%
of
its
people
that
are
15
years
or
older
classified
as
overweight2.
The
health
problems
and
conditions
associated
with
this
national
trend
are
staggering.
Heart
disease
will
cause
the
deaths
of
one
out
of
every
three
Americans
and,
currently,
over
60
million
Americans
suffer
from
some
sort
of
cardiovascular
disease3.
But
how
can
one
of
the
most
powerful
countries
in
the
world
suffer
so
greatly
from
health
and
food
issues?
The
answer
lies
in
examining
the
industrialized,
urban
environment
and
the
nature
of
consumer
culture
itself.

 Neville
Rigby,
director
of
policy
and
public
affairs
for
the
International
Association
for
the
Study
of
Obesity,
states
that
“due
to
urbanization,
more
people
are
living
in
more
dense
environments,
in
cities
where
they
are
removed
from
traditional
food
sources
and
dependent
on
an
industrial
food
supply,
“4
In
order
to
meet
increasing
demands,
western
farmers
have
adopted
the
practice
of
monoculture‐
or
the
mass
production
of
single
crops.
The
massive
amounts
of
land
required
for
this
practice
naturally
create
distance
between
cities
and
food
producers,
creating
an
increase
in
energy
costs
post
harvest
for
processing,
distribution,
packaging,
and
preparation.
The
average
distance
food
will
travel
from
a
farm
to
an
American
plate
is
around
1,500
miles5.
The
preservatives
added
to
food
to
survive
traversing
this
distance,
along
with
the
pesticides
necessary
to
support
a
























































2
Lauren
Streib.
"Worlds
Fattest
Countries."
Forbes.
Forbes
Magazine,
2007.
Web.
1
Apr.
2012.

3
Richard
H.
Carmona,.
"The
Obesity
Crisis
in
America."
Surgeon
General.
2003.
Web.

4
Lauren
Streib.
"Worlds
Fattest
Countries."
Forbes.
Forbes
Magazine,
2007.
Web.

5
"CUESA
Home."
CUESA.
Web.
19
Feb.
2012.
<http://www.cuesa.org/page/how‐far‐does‐your‐food‐travel‐get‐your‐plate>.

  5. 5. 





































































































































Barrett






































 5


biologically
non‐diverse
crop,
have
all
been
linked
with
a
variety
of
health
problems6.
The
core
issue,
however,
is
that
this
system
has
created
conditions
where
food
production
is
now
fundamentally
separated
from
food
consumption.


 The
areas
where
this
can
be
most
visibly
seen
are
those
classified
as
food
deserts,
which
over
23
million
Americans
currently
live
within.
In
these
specific
types
of
urbanized
areas,
affordable
and
healthy
food
is
difficult
to
obtain
and
cheap,
fast
foods
are
heavily
relied
on
by
the
population7.
These
types
of
conditions
have
been
consistently
shown
to
negatively
affect
the
health
of
their
residents
in
comparison
to
those
who
live
outside
food
deserts8.
The
distance
from
food
isn’t
just
a
physical
issue,
though,
and
has
become
a
psychological
problem
woven
into
the
fabric
of
American
culture.
One
17‐year
old
girl
from
Birmingham,
Alabama,
as
an
extreme
example,
made
headlines
when
she
collapsed
and
it
was
found
that
she
actually
hadn’t
had
any
food
other
than
McDonalds
for
15
years,
voluntarily9.
And
the
overrepresentation
of
cheap,
aversive
food
products
doesn’t
just
lie
in
the
extreme
areas
such
those
in
Birmingham.

A
modern
American
University
campus
such
as
Arizona
State
may
have
an
organic‐based
restaurant
on
the
upper
level
of
its
food
court,
but
it
also
has
five
fast
food
venues
on
the
level
below,
including
Poppa
John’s,
Burger
King,
Chick
File,
Taco
Bell,
and
Quiznos.
While
it
varies
in
severity
from
place
to
place,
there
is
a
clear
imbalance
to
how
good
and
healthy
food
is
made
























































6
"CUESA
Home."
CUESA.

7
"Americas
food
Deserts"
The
Week.
8
Aug.
2011.
Web.

8
Rebecca
Donlanand.
"Chicago
Food
Deserts
Hit
Hard
at
Residents’
Health."
Chicago
Food
Deserts
Hit
Hard
at
Residents
Health.
19
Feb.
2010.
Web
9
"Hooked
on
Chicken
Nuggets:
Girl,
17,
Who
Has
Eaten
Nothing
Else
since
Age
TWO
Rushed
to
Hospital
after
Collapsing."
Mail
Online.
Web.


  6. 6. 





































































































































Barrett






































 6


available
to
the
public
throughout
American
culture,
from
food
deserts
to
the
homes
our
nation’s
future
leaders.


Psychological
Distancing

 Monoculture,
in
and
of
itself,
creates
the
problem
of
a
psychological
distance
between
people
and
their
food.
Research
has
demonstrated
that
things
which
aren’t
experienced
in
the
“here
and
now”
of
a
person’s
physical
area
become
distant
on
a
conceptual
level,
changing
the
way
someone
thinks
about
them10.
More
specifically,
the
farther
someone
is
away
from
something
in
the
physical
world,
the
more
abstractly
they
will
think
about
that
thing11.
This
tendency
for
abstraction
is
known
as
Construal
Level
Theory‐
and
is
one
of
the
mechanisms
that
can
make
a
cheeseburger
seem
more
real
than
an
apple
to
a
seventeen‐year‐old
in
terms
of
food.

 Construal
Level‐
or
the
extent
that
we
think
of
things
abstractly,
dramatically

 affects
the
way
people
make
choices.

When
we
decide
on
a
diet,
we
do
so

 because
the
construal
of
its
outcomes
seems
attractive
to
us.
…
construals

 depend
not
only
on
the
actual
attributes
of
the
objects
but
also
on
the
object’s

 psychological
distance12
Studies
have
consistently
found
that
people
are
more
likely
to
act
when
presented
with
concrete
situations13.
In
other
words,
the
less
abstract
a
concept
is,
the
easier
it
is
for
someone
to
act
on
it.
The
object
becomes
more
real
and
tangible
as
an
actual
























































10Oren
Shapira.
"An
Easy
Way
to
Increase
Creativity:
Scientific
American."
Science
News,
Articles
and
Information.
Scientific
American,
21
July
2009.
Web.

11
Yaacov
Trope,
and
Nira
Liberman.
"Construal‐level
Theory
of
Psychological
Distance."Psychological
Review
117.2
(2010):
440‐63.
Print.
12
Yaacov
Trope,
and
Nira
Liberman.
"Construal‐level
Theory
of
Psychological
Distance."
13
Robert
E.
Gunther.The
Truth
about
Making
Smart
Decisions.
Upper
Saddle
River,
NJ:
FT,
2008.
Print.

  7. 7. 





































































































































Barrett






































 7


choice
when
people
are
physically
able
to
sense
it.
It
can
be
seen,
then,
that
lessening
the
psychological
distance
from
a
concept
makes
it
easier
for
people
to
act
on
it.
This
means
that
surrounding
people
with
unhealthy
food
options
makes
it
more
likely
that
they
will
choose
to
consume
those
products.
This
also
means,
however,
that
increasing
the
immediate
presence
and
availability
of
healthy
food
options
will
increase
the
likelihood
of
people
choosing
them
as
an
alternative
to
fast‐food
products.

 
Urban
Farming

 Some
of
the
negative
effects
of
industrialized
agriculture
can
actually
be
used
as
an
opportunity
to
help
people
eat
better.
One
of
the
most
significant
factors
contributing
to
U.S.
agricultural
land
degradation
is
urban
expansion14.
As
























































14
"The
Problem
of
Land
Degradation."
FAO:
Food
and
Agriculture
Organization
of
the
United
Nations,
for
a
World
without
Hunger.
Web.


  8. 8. 





































































































































Barrett






































 8


communities
expand,
agricultural
land
loses
its
value
and
becomes
more
profitable
to
be
sold
for
development.
Additionally,
private
farms
aren’t
always
passed
down
from
the
owners
to
their
children,
creating
a
generational
decline
in
private
farm
ownership15.

Because
of
this,
empty
lots
and
low‐density
housing
inhabit
some
the
U.S.’s
best
and
most
fertile
cropland.
These
conditions
make
urban
agriculture,
people
growing
food
in
their
immediate
communities,
feasible
on
a
national
scale.
While
urban
farming
may
not
be
viable
as
a
permanent
replacement
for
industrialized
agriculture,
current
urban
conditions
still
make
it
one
of
the
most
realistic
means
of
increasing
the
presence
of
healthy
food
around
those
who
need
to
eat
it.


Awareness
and
Accessibility

 Physical
distance
from
food,
while
prevalent
in
the
U.S.,
isn’t
the
only
factor
that
contributes
to
someone
psychologically
distancing
him
or
herself
from
the
issue.
There
are
three
primary
factors
to
someone’s
construal
level,
including
physical
space,
time,
and
social
prevalence16
(how
people
are
talking
about
something).

If
urban
agriculture
to
be
used
as
the
primary
tool
for
reducing
psychological
distance,
then
a
strategy
for
its
implementation
must
affect
all
the
aforementioned
contributing
factors.

 For
this
purpose,
it
may
help
to
look
at
things
in
more
relevant
terms.
The
majority
of
the
research
that
has
gone
into
Construal
Level
Theory
and
consumer
























































15
Andrew
Marshall..
"End
of
the
Family
Farm?"
­
National
Rural
News.
Feb.‐Mar.
2012.
Web.

16
Liberman,
N.,
Y.
Trope,
and
C.
Wakslak.
"Construal
Level
Theory
and
Consumer
Behavior."
Journal
of
Consumer
Psychology
17.2
(2007):
113‐17.
Print.


  9. 9. 





































































































































Barrett






































 9


decision‐making
has
been
utilized
for
corporate
branding
strategies.
If
urban
agriculture
can
be
thought
of
as
a
brand,
then
psychological
distance
factors
can
be
brought
into
more
familiar
terms
to
help
form
a
solution
strategy

 Physical
and
temporal
distance,
for
instance,
can
be
seen
as
issues
of
accessibility.
If
someone
can’t
easily
get
to
something
from
his
or
her
immediate
situation,
then
the
amount
of
time
separating
the
person
from
experiencing
that
thing
is
increased.
This,
in
turn,
results
in
psychological
distancing
and
the
desired
object
becoming
more
abstract.
Similarly,
the
issue
of
social
distance
can
be
seen
as
one
of
awareness.
The
more
people
are
aware
of
something
and
discussing
it
on
a
social
level,
then
the
more
“real”
and
concrete
it
will
become
in
the
conceptual
sense.


 

 With
the
factors
of
space,
time,
and
social
discourse
reorganized
into
the
issues
accessibility
and
awareness,
the
next
step
is
to
examine
brands
or
strategies
that
have
succeeded
in
these
areas.
For
awareness,
one
can
look
at
an
organization
like
Livestrong.
By
creating
a
branded
item,
the
Livestrong
bracelet,
the
Livestrong
brand
essentially
created
a
”thingness”
for
the
fight
against
cancer.
Lance
Armstrong
became
the
face
of
this
fight,
and
his
yellow
bracelet
became
the
symbol.
It
is
estimated
that
over
50
million
$1
bracelets
have
been
sold17,
solidifying
the
rubberized,
yellow
loop
as
a
cultural
symbol.
With
this,
a
physical
item
was
used
to
represent
an
idea
with
massive
levels
of
success,
bringing
an
abstract
concept
into
a
























































17
Sal
Ruibal.
"Livestrong
Bracelets
Approaching
50
Million
Strong."
USA
Today.
Gannett,
2005.
Web.

  10. 10. 





































































































































Barrett






































 10


concrete,
social
reality.
A
feasible
strategy
for
an
urban
farming
solution
to
food
behavior,
then,
is
to
create
a
physical
product
and
image
that
can
manifest
as
a
symbol
for
the
values
of
urban
agriculture
and
healthy
food
choices.

 For
accessibility,
the
most
pertinent
example
is
the
also
the
most
prolific:
Apple.
Worth
over
500
billion
dollars,
Apple
is
the
most
valuable
company
in
the
world18.
One
of
the
primary
contributing
factors
to
this
massive
success,
however,
has
been
their
approach
to
accessibility‐
both
in
terms
of
making
their
products
easy
to
get
and
to
use19.
Apple
has
made
something
as
complex
as
computing
as
easy
as
moving
a
finger.
They’ve
also
adhered
to
strict
design
principles
of
limiting
the
physical
features
of
their
products
while
enhancing
their
immediate
aesthetic
style
and
appeal20.
This
strategy
of
accessibility
combined
with
an
attention
to
aesthetics,
in
turn,
is
two‐fold.
It
not
only
decreases
the
psychological
distance
between
their
products
and
consumers,
but
also
increases
the
immediate
desirability
of
those
products.
This
study
brings
up
the
generative
question
of
this
thesis:
How
would
Apple
do
a
farm?
How
can
we
do
the
same
thing
to
agricultural
science
that
Apple
has
done
to
computing
science?
























































18
"How
Much
Is
$500
Billion,
Apple’s
Total
Value?"
How
Much
Is
$500
Billion,
Apple’s
Total
Value?
Web.

19
"Why
Accessibility
Is
an
Essential
Ingredient
for
the
IPads
Success."
BlindCanadians.
19
Jan.
2012.
Web.

20
"Why
Apple’s
Aesthetic
Is
Influencing
the
Future
of
Electronics
Design."
The
Independent.
Independent
Digital
News
and
Media,
2010.
Web.


  11. 11. 





































































































































Barrett






































 11


 

 SmartFarm
poses
a
three‐part
answer
to
that
question
based
on
the
packaging,
use,
and
expansion
of
a
new
brand
for
urban
agriculture.
Packaging
and
use
will
deal
most
directly
with
the
issue
of
accessibility,
limiting
the
physical
and
temporal
space
between
people
and
growing
their
own
food.
Expansion,
on
the
other
hand,
will
focus
on
awareness
and
creating
places
that
enable
agriculturally
focused
social
environments.
 

“Good”
Food

 Before
packaging
can
be
specified,
however,
a
suitable
type
of
product
to
promote
urban
agriculture
has
to
be
determined.
Heirloom
seeds
provide
the
ideal
opportunity
for
this.
Organizations
such
as
the
Ark
of
Taste
and
Slow
Food
are
dedicated
to
preserving
and
sharing
unique,
heirloom
varieties
of
plants
and
produce.
Not
only
does
the
organic
production
of
these
seeds
make
them
ideal
for
the
promotion
of
a
healthy
food
product,
but
they
also
act
as
an
incredible
selling
point
for
the
brand
itself.
Currently,
there
are
4
to
5
types
of
tomatoes
made

  12. 12. 





































































































































Barrett






































 12


available
through
monoculture
at
the
average
American
grocery
store21.
The
Ark
of
Taste,
however,
offers
at
least
49
uniquely
tasting
varieties
of
heirloom
tomatoes22.
This
type
of
relationship
is
true
for
the
entire
vegetable
selection
at
any
grocery
store.
In
selling
these
types
of
produce,
then,
SmartFarm
is
giving
consumers
the
notion
of
something
special
that
they
can’t
easily
get
anywhere
else.

 Organic
foods,
such
as
those
provided
by
the
Slow
Food
Movement,
have
also
been
linked
positively
to
increased
dietary
nutrition
and
personal
health23.
There
is
also
significant
evidence
and
research
showing
that
these
types
of
homegrown
foods
don’t
pose
the
same
environmental
and
public
health
risks
that
those
produced
through
monoculture
do24.
Choosing
to
grow
one’s
own
food
and
stay
away
from
unhealthy,
fast‐food
choices,
then,
will
serve
as
SmartFarm’s
definition
of
what
“good”
food
behavior
is.
 

























































21
"Tomato
Varieties‐complete
Variety
Description
for
the
Homegarden."
The
Natural
Food
Hub
Information
Contents
Tree.
Web.
22
"The
Ark
of
Taste."
Slow
Food
Foundation
for
Biodiversity.
Slow
Food.
Web.

23
Dani
Alexis
Ryskamp.
"Health
Benefits
of
Organic
Foods
Vs
Processed
Food."Livestrong.com.
Livestrong,
2012.
Web.
24
Jule
Guthman
.
"Fast
Food/organic
Food:
Reflexive
Tastes
and
the
Making
of
‘yuppie
Chow’."
Social
&
Cultural
Geography
4.1
(2003):
46‐57.
Print.


  13. 13. 





































































































































Barrett






































 13


 Part
I:
Packaging


 With
heirloom
seeds
as
the
chosen
product,
the
next
step
is
to
consider
how
to
sell
that
product.
This
brings
up
the
first
part
of
the
SmartFarm
brand:
Packaging.
Before
the
packaging
design
can
be
fully
fleshed
out,
however,
how
it
relates
back
to
the
notion
of
changing
consumer
behavior
must
be
specified.

Intrinsic
verses
Extrinsic
Motivation

 In
terms
of
marketing
strategy,
the
effectiveness
of
inherent
values
and
intrinsic
motivators
is
essentially
zero
in
comparison
with
the
power
of
extrinsic
motivators.
Research
shows
that
immediate,
tangible
rewards
create
the
most
buyable
products25.
This
effect
is
so
powerful
that,
in
the
right
situations,
extrinsic
motivators
can
completely
replace
their
intrinsic
counterparts.
In
a
study
replicated
multiple
times
over,
children
who
already
liked
playing
pianos
for
their
own
reasons
were
given
verbal
praise
(an
extrinsic
motivator)
for
doing
so.

Once
the
praise
was
retracted,
however,
and
children
no
longer
received
recognition
for
their
work,
they
stopped
playing
the
piano
altogether26.
The
extrinsic
motivator
of
verbal
praise
completely
overrode
the
children’s
original,
intrinsic
desire
to
play.


 The
idea
presented
is
that
people
may
like
a
Toyota
Prius
because
it
is
said
to
be
good
for
the
environment,
but
they
buy
it
because
there
is
a
leaf
on
the
dashboard
that
tells
them
“good
job.”
The
leaf
essentially
takes
the
abstract
notion
























































25
Anderson.
"A
Reward/Measurement
Model
of
Organizational
Buying
Behavior."
Journal
of
Marketing
49.7‐23
(1985):
1‐2.
Print.
26
Lepper,
M.,
Greene,
D.,
&
Nisbett,
R.
(1973).
Undermining
childrens
intrinsic
interest
with
extrinsic
rewards.
Journal
of
Personality
and
Social
Psychology,
28,
129‐137.

  14. 14. 





































































































































Barrett






































 14


of
environmental
responsibility
and
reduces
it
to
an
immediate
stimulus
that
can
be
used
for
persuasion.
These
findings
coincide
with
the
argument
on
Construal
Level
Theory,
with
external
motivators
essentially
being
concrete,
and
intrinsic
motivators
being
abstract
concepts.


 SmartFarm
isn’t
going
to
try
to
convince
people
to
by
better
food
because
it
is
actually
good
for
them‐
at
least
not
immediately.
Studies
show
that
intrinsic
motivation
and
the
internalization
of
values
happens
over
time
and
with
experience27.
The
packaging
design,
then,
is
meant
to
increase
the
overall
value
and
appeal
of
the
product,
providing
immediate
and
tangible
motivators
for
purchase.
With
this
type
of
“foot
in
the
door”
approach,
it
doesn’t
necessarily
matter
how
the
product
gets
into
the
consumer’s
hands.
As
long
as
people
eventually
experience
farming,
they’ll
naturally
begin
to
internalize
its
inherent
values
and
benefits.


A
Contemporary
Aesthetic

 What
is
appeal
in
terms
of
contemporary
consumer
culture?
The
first
study
done
to
get
perspective
on
this
is
a
visual
examination
between
traditional,
organic
packaging
and
contemporary
packaging
designs
that
have
increased
the
sales
of
their
products.
These
samples
appeal
to
a
broad
audience
from
20‐30
years
of
age.
This
group
is
a
part
of
the
largest
age
demographic
in
the
United
States28
and
is
the
most
sensible
audience
for
SmartFarm
to
appeal
to
for
the
purposes
of
maximizing
























































27
Carol
Sansone.
"Intrinsic
Motivation,
Extrinsic
Rewards,
and
Divergent
Views
of
Reality."
Educational
Psychology
Review
15.3
(2003).
Print.

28
Lindsay
M.
Howden,
"Age
and
Sex
Composition:
2010."
Census.gov.
United
States
Census
Bureau,
May
2011.
Web.


  15. 15. 





































































































































Barrett






































 15


potential
changes
in
food
behavior.
Three
visual
trends
can
be
observed.
 

 Firstly,
an
image
of
the
product
itself,
such
as
the
flowers
or
chocolates
displayed
on
organic
packages,
isn’t
nearly
as
emphasized
with
contemporary
designs.
Rather,
simple
text
and
symbols,
such
as
the
die‐cut
of
a
cow,
are
given
precedence.
Clinical
research
supports
this
move
as
well,
finding
that
the
symbols
and
labels
on
products
significantly
affect
the
perception
of
how
they
taste29.

Images
of
the
actual
product
can
do
this
as
well,
but
not
always
to
the
same
extent,
and
seem
to
take
away
from
the
simplicity
and
appeal
of
a
package
design.


 Secondly,
muted
greens
and
browns
do
not
appear
to
be
the
best
way
to
sell
foods
as
the
contemporary
designs
display
a
variety
of
bright,
saturated
colors.
In
























































29
Masako
Okamoto.
"Influences
of
Food‐Name
Labels
on
Perceived
Tastes."
Chem.
Senses
34.187–194
(2009).
Print.


  16. 16. 





































































































































Barrett






































 16


fact,
the
studies
being
done
on
food
and
packaging
show
that
the
color
of
the
packaging
doesn’t
have
to
associate
with
the
food
itself
at
all,
and
different
colors
don’t
change
the
way
people
necessarily
experience
the
food
they
eat30.
While
it
doesn’t
matter
if
the
color
of
the
package
itself
reflects
its
contents,
the
way
color
is
used
does
affect
general
appeal
and
buying
preference
based
on
consumer
demographics31.
The
colors
on
the
designs
studied
are
also
done
simply,
with
one
or
two
colors
per
package,
normally
designating
a
different
type
of
product
within
a
brand.


 Lastly,
it
can
be
seen
that
the
contemporary
packages
themselves
are
simpler
in
their
overall
design,
sticking
to
the
emphasis
of
a
select
few
aesthetic
features.
The
features
emphasized
tend
to
connect
back
to
the
symbolic
elements
of
the
product,
and
it
can
be
seen
that
packaging
designs
that
communicate
clearly
and
creatively
do
better.


 Using
this
information,
multiple
iterations
of
the
seed
packaging
design
were
tested
to
create
the
strongest
possible
design.

























































30
Cornforth,
Daren
P.
"Consumer
Preferences
for
Beef
Color

31
Cornforth,
Daren
P.
"Consumer
Preferences
for
Beef
Color
and
Packaging
Did
Not
Affect
Eating
Satisfaction."



  17. 17. 





































































































































Barrett






































 17


 
 
 Final
Design


 The
final
design
corresponds
with
the
various
successful
aspects
taken
from
the
study
of
contemporary
consumer
designs.
For
the
first
point
of
image
and
connotation,
the
image
of
the
product
itself,
such
as
pea‐pods,
is
left
to
the
back
of
the
package
while
clearly
visible
text
takes
up
the
front.


 For
the
second
notion,
a
single,
vibrant
color
comprises
most
of
the
package’s
design,
with
a
lightly
etched
brand
image
providing
the
only
variation.

The
color
intensity
specifically
responds
to
the
preferences
of
SmartFarm’s
target

  18. 18. 





































































































































Barrett






































 18


demographic32.
Different
types
of
seeds
will
also
have
different
colors
of
the
same
vibrancy.
This
will
allow
for
a
multi‐colored
display
that
will
be
used
as
a
staple
for
the
brand
identity
in
later
stages
of
development.

 

 The
third
notion
focuses
on
the
brand
etching
and
acts
symbolically
towards
the
notion
of
growth
in
general
rather
than
to
that
of
just
a
particular
plant.
The
simple
text,
strong
color,
and
subtle
juxtaposition
of
cities
and
trees
are
designed
to
hit
that
“clear
and
creative”
notion
taken
from
the
contemporary
package
designs.
The
overall
affect
is
to
move
away
from
plainly
representing
what’s
inside
the
box
and
focuses
more
on
the
notion
of
“sensation
transference”‐
creating
a
general
sense
of
appeal
and
value
that
can
be
attributed
to
the
entire
product
as
a
whole33.
























































32
Paul,
P.
(2002,
February
1).
Color
by
numbers.
American
Demographics,
30.
33
"Power
of
Colour
in
Marketing."
Squidoo.
UpMarket,
2011.
Web.


  19. 19. 





































































































































Barrett






































 19


 
Traditional
Seed
Stand





















































SmartFarm
Contemporary
Stand


Streamlining
and
Value

 Enhancing
the
accessibility
of
urban
farming,
however,
doesn’t
just
mean
making
it
appealing.
The
other
half
is
making
it
easy.
Using
local
sources
to
collect
seed
products
allows
for
a
strategy
that
is
regionally
specific.
Rather
than
shipping
one
product
out
and
making
people
consider
when
they
should
plant
it,
SmartFarm
can
move
to
simply
display
local
varieties
of
plants
only
while
they’re
in
season
in
that
area.
This
means
that
people
can
buy
and
plant
whatever
they
see
in
the
store
the
moment
they
get
home.
Taking
the
planning
factor
out
of
the
buyer’s
hands
shortens
the
temporal
distance
from
the
concept,
making
the
decision
to
buy
easier.


 The
seeds
themselves
are
attached
to
nutrient‐impregnated
seed
sticks.
This
technology
has
seen
commercial
use
before,
and
allows
for
allows
for
more
forgiving

  20. 20. 





































































































































Barrett






































 20


soil
conditions34.
This
also
makes
act
of
planting
itself
easier,
as
sticks
contain
plant
labels
as
well
as
depth
lines
for
how
far
they
should
be
buried.
Smaller
seeds,
such
as
carrots,
now
become
easier
to
place,
and
the
act
of
simply
sticking
your
seeds
into
the
ground
makes
the
overall
experience
of
planting
novel.
 

 The
packaging’s
interior
is
also
lined
with
all
the
major
tools
needed
for
farming:
spacing
measurements,
water
and
shading
requirements,
planting
calendars,
and
a
link
to
online
content.
These
elements
make
full
use
of
the
packaging’s
material,
increasing
the
product’s
accessibility
and
overall
value.

























































34
Thomas
H.
Gardner.
"Production
of
Nutrient
Material."
USTPO
Text
and
Image
Database.
United
States
Patent
Office,
21
Mar.
1989.
Web.


  21. 21. 





































































































































Barrett






































 21


 

 Part
II:
Use


 The
packaging’s
connection
to
internet‐based
content
takes
the
form
of
a
Quick
Response
(QR)
code
that
can
immediately
link
a
smart
phone
to
the
SmartFarm
website.
A
numerical
code
and
website
link
also
exist
below
the
QR
code
as
to
not
exclude
content
to
only
smart
phone
users.
This
feature
is
the
first
aspect
of
SmartFarm’s
second
component,
use.

 From
a
motivational
standpoint,
the
time
between
planting
and
reaping
is
dead
time.
This
is
perhaps
one
of
the
largest
issues
with
creating
a
farming
brand
that
changes
food
behavior
by
minimizing
the
psychological
distance
of
good
food
choices.
While
the
actual
spatial
aspect
of
psychological
distancing
can
be
altered
by
changing
one’s
proximity
to
good
food,
the
temporal
distance
involved
with
planting
is
much
more
difficult
to
manipulate.
Plants
can’t
be
made
to
grow
faster‐
at
least
not
within
the
methods
of
healthy
food
production
this
brand
is
promoting.
While

  22. 22. 





































































































































Barrett






































 22


the
packaging
design
adds
some
immediate
value
and
rewards
for
purchasing
seeds,
there
is
still
a
fixed
amount
of
time
separating
consumers
from
their
final
food
product.
If
urban
farming
products
are
to
be
sold
as
viable
competitors
with
fast
food
options
that
specifically
stress
their
immediate
availability,
then
something
needs
to
be
done
about
this
temporal
distance.
 

 The
amount
of
time
itself
may
be
fixed,
but
the
way
it
is
perceived
is
not.
The
saying
“time
flies
when
you’re
having
fun”
comes
to
mind.
Idea
being
that,
if
one
is
engaged
in
an
activity
during
a
certain
span
of
time,
then
that
span
seems
shortened
or
even
negligible.
But
how
does
engagement
happen?

In
recent
years,
there
have
been
significant
advances
in
the
study
of
engagement,
and
the
most
prominent
results
have
come
from
the
study
of
gamification.


Gamification

 Gamification
is
the
use
of
video
game
mechanics
and
rewards
systems
in
non‐video
game
products
as
a
way
to
engage
users
and
create
consumer
loyalty35.
It
is
a
powerful
tool
that
can
have
significant
effects
when
applied
correctly.
Simple
feedback
and
rewards
systems,
which
are
pure
gamification
elements,
have
made
























































35
John
D.
Sutter.
"Browse
the
Web,
Earn
Points
and
Prizes."
CNN.
Cable
News
Network,
30
Sept.
2010.
Web.


  23. 23. 





































































































































Barrett






































 23


Farmville
the
most
used
feature
on
facebook,
with
over
16
million
daily
users36.
There
are
even
promotions
held
where
people
are
incentivized
to
buy
real
products
by
giving
away
Farmville
points
with
every
purchase37.
This
means
that
people
in
the
real
world
will
buy
real
products
for
what
are
essentially
imaginary
numbers
that
dont
physically
exist.
Over
4,000
supermarkets
nation‐wide
are
successfully
using
this
promotional
method38.

 Another
example
of
this
would
be
the
popular
online
game
called
Air
Traffic
Controller.
This
game
has
achieved
high
levels
of
success,
spawning
sequels
and
international
sales,
all
while
simulating
one
of
the
highest
suicide‐rated
jobs
on
the
planet39.
The
essential
element
to
take
away
from
this
is
that
it
isn’t
necessarily
what
someone
is
doing,
but
how
he
or
she’s
doing
it
that
makes
it
fun.
Games
like
these
show
that
the
line
between
boring
and
fun,
good
and
bad,
isn’t
as
fixed
as
it
may
initially
seem.

 
























































36
Frederic
Lardinois.
"Farmville
is
Still
the
Popular
Facebook
App."
ReadWriteWeb.
Nov.
2010.
Web.

37
"Miracle
Grow
FarmVille
Promotion."
FarmVille
Feed.
Web.
38
Vadim
Lavrusik.
"Featured
in
Social
Media."
Mashable.
2010.
Web.

39
"Job
Related
Stress."
Goetzco
Consulting,
2003.
Web.


  24. 24. 





































































































































Barrett






































 24



 The
SmartFarm
website,
in
addition
to
providing
growing
information,
will
act
as
an
engagement
tool
to
allow
for
people
to
contribute
to
a
community
and
be
rewarded
for
their
progress.
The
idea
is
to
make
people
feel
like
they’re
playing
rather
than
waiting.
There
are
three
proposed
components
designed
to
“gamify”
the
SmartFarm
experience:
progression,
community,
and
interactive
aid.



 Progression

 Progression,
the
idea
of
simply
telling
people
that
they’ve
improved,
is
the
most
essential
part
of
any
gamification
model40.
The
packaging’s
QR
code
will
allow
for
consumers
to
effortlessly
register
themselves
for
email
and
text
updates
that
remind
them
to
water
and
take
care
of
their
specific
product.
While
different
products
will
have
different
needs,
the
online
code
will
be
able
to
generate
exact
instructions
for
each
specific
plant,
alleviating
the
user
from
the
temporal
burden
of
planning.
These
will
not
only
remind
users
to
water,
but
also
reward
them
for
doing
so.
For
each
successful
watering
notification,
users
will
receive
points
and
visible
progress
markers.
These
points,
in
turn,
will
be
usable
to
attain
discounts
on
additional
SmarfFarm
products.
Points
will
build
up
into
levels
and
experience
badges,
all
of
which
have
been
shown
to
tremendously
affect
user
engagement
and
motivation41.

This
strategy
is
similar
to
a
frequent
flyer
rewards
model.
The
difference,
however,
is
the
point
system
and
visible
emphasis
rewarding
the
user.
Once
established,
the
nature
of
watering
notifications
and
updates
will
be
positive
and
fun
on
a
basic
level.

























































40
"An
Introduction
to
the
Use
of
Game
Dynamics
to
Influence
Behavior."
Brunchball,
2010.
Web.

41
"An
Introduction
to
the
Use
of
Game
Dynamics
to
Influence
Behavior."


  25. 25. 





































































































































Barrett






































 25


 


 Community

 The
second
aspect
to
gamification
within
the
SmartFarm
brand
is
community
and
allowing
users
to
gain
feedback
from
one
another
in
a
rewarding
manner.
This
will
be
accomplished
through
mechanics
that
allow
user
to
attain
popularity
and
recognition.
Allowing
people
to
get
feedback
and
recognition
for
their
activity
enhances
the
probability
of
their
involvement42,
and
Community‐centered
websites
that
use
these
types
mechanics,
such
as
reddit.com,
have
seen
extensive
growth
in
community
activity43.



 SmartFarm
users
will
be
able
to
post
entries
and
pictures
in
various
farm‐related
categories.
They
will
also
be
able
to
“vote”
on
other
people’s
entries,
sending
projects
up
or
down
a
popularity
ladder.
If
someone
posts
a
good
recipe,
he
or
she
will
receive
comments
and
see
that
recipe
rise
to
the
top
of
the
popularity
ladder.
Popularity
ladders
are
separated
by
category
and
reset
over
time‐‐allowing
for
anyone
to
have
a
chance
at
receiving
recognition.
If
someone
asks
a
good
question,
then
it
will
rise
to
the
top
of
its
corresponding
category.
Likewise,
if
someone
posts
a
























































42

Sarah
Faglio.
"How
To
Engage
Through
Feedback
on
Social
Media
Sites."
Business
2
Community.
2012.
Web.

43
Szalak,
Artur.
"Stumbleupon
vs
Digg
–
Comscore
Statistics."
Graviton.
Web.


  26. 26. 





































































































































Barrett






































 26


good
answer
to
that
question,
then
their
answer
will
be
elevated
to
the
top
of
the
answers
to
that
question.

The
community
will
be
able
to
drive
its
own
interests
and
form
another
level
of
engagement
for
the
entire
brand.
 


 Interactive
Aid

 The
last
aspect
of
“gamifying”
the
SmartFarm
store
isn’t
something
that,
in
and
of
itself,
is
essential
to
the
gamification
of
the
brand.
Rather,
interactive
aid
is
a
way
in
which
this
online
system
can
become
socially
useful.
Recently,
a
debate
has
arisen
on
whether
or
not
Non‐Governmental
Organizations
and
aid
programs
have
been
successful
in
the
long
term44.
One
of
the
proposed
problems
with
NGO’s
from
this
debate
is
the
notion
that
their
business
model
makes
less
gratifying
aid
























































44

Sarah
Faglio.
"How
To
Engage
Through
Feedback
on
Social
Media
Sites."
Business
2
Community.
2012.
Web.


  27. 27. 





































































































































Barrett






































 27


programs
unsuccessful.
People
tend
to
support
the
causes
that
make
them
feel
the
best45,
and
less
“feel
good”
causes
tend
to
lack
in
funding.
This
problem
gained
publicity
in
2011
when
it
was
reported
that
the
NGO
Engineers
Without
Boarders
had
been
building
water
systems
in
impoverished
areas
that
had
a
precedence
for
failing
due
to
a
lack
of
maintenance
funds46.

 The
implication
is
that
it
is
much
easier
to
get
people
to
donate
towards
building
a
school
than
it
is
to
get
them
to
donate
towards
funding
the
salaries
for
the
teachers
who
will
work
there.
This
is
because
a
school
can
be
built
and
then
seen
as
an
accomplished
goal,
whereas
the
teacher’s
salaries
is
an
ongoing
need
that
offers
donors
less
satisfaction.


 Gamification,
however,
is
a
way
of
changing
what
does
or
doesn’t
feel
good
through
the
manipulation
of
rewards
systems.
SmartFarm
can
take
causes
that
would
otherwise
loose
the
publicity
battle
and
weave
them
into
the
website’s
rewards
system.
Before
redeeming
coupon
points,
users
will
be
given
the
option
of
having
SmartFarm
donate
their
points
to
an
underexposed
charity.
Users
will
get
to
choose
which
charity
this
is
and
visibly
see
that
cause’s
progress,
making
the
process
of
donation
inherently
more
enjoyable.
This
type
of
system
wouldn’t
be
purely
altruistic,
however,
and
could
easily
aid
in
creating
socially
positive
associations
with
the
SmartFarn
brand
as
a
whole.
























































45
Lalin
Anik,
and
Elizabeth
W.
Dunn.
"Feeling
Good
about
Giving:
The
Benefits
(and
Costs)
of
Self‐Interested
Charitable
Behavior."
Harvard
Buisness
School
10.12
(2012).
Print.
46
David
Damberger.
"David
Damberger:
What
Happens
When
an
NGO
Admits
Failure."TED:
Ideas
worth
Spreading.
Dec.
2011.
Web.


  28. 28. 





































































































































Barrett






































 28


 

 It
also
should
be
noted
that
gamification
is
not
the
only
intended
function
of
the
SmartFarm
website.
Rather,
it
is
the
potential
versatility
of
the
website
that
will
be
critical
to
the
brand’s
success.
Other
features,
such
as
planning
out
one’s
future
garden,
online
purchasing,
farming
assistance,
and
the
coordination
of
community
events
can
all
be
added
to
the
site’s
functions.
The
flexible
nature
of
an
Internet
model
makes
it
so
that
such
additions
can
be
undertaken
with
relatively
low
cost
while
significantly
enhancing
the
product’s
value.

 Part
III:
Expansion


 The
final
component
of
the
SmartFarm
would
be
that
of
expansion.
While
the
packaging
and
use
components
respond
to
the
accessibility
of
urban
farming
by
shortening
the
spatial
and
temporal
aspects
of
psychological
distancing,
expansion
affects
awareness
and
social
aspects.
There
is
a
need
within
this
strategy
for
a
place
where
people
can
talk
about
and
experience
the
brand
more
directly,
making
the
decision
to
buy
it
easier
and
less
abstract.
The
idea
is
to
build
upon
the
seed
packet

  29. 29. 





































































































































Barrett






































 29


design
as
a
basic
unit
to
form
a
display,
a
series
of
installations,
and
ultimately,
a
stand‐alone
store.

 

Installation
Wall

 As
it
was
noted
before,
the
seed
packet
is
designed
for
integration
into
a
larger
display.
When
put
next
to
one
another,
the
packets
form
a
color
wall
that
acts
as
both
a
display
and
attraction.
This
element,
however,
is
only
the
first
part
of
what
can
be
built
upon
for
a
unique
brand
experience.
 


 Browsing

 The
seed
display
can
be
extended
into
an
installation
that
acts
as
a
wall
of
color
that
has
several
immediate
benefits.
While
novel
and
visually
interesting,
the
wall
design
allows
for
a
unique,
purely
browsing
experience.
People
can
walk
back
and
forth
and
scan
as
they
would
with
a
paint
selection.
The
combination
of
food‐words
and
colors,
however,
creates
a
kind
of
synesthesia
throughout
the
experience,
enriching
it
as
a
whole.


  30. 30. 





































































































































Barrett






































 30



 The
wall
itself
would
be
18
inches
deep,
allowing
for
magnetic
push
shelves
that
users
can
press
to
have
a
row
of
seeds
extend
out.
This
creates
an
element
of
interaction
that
extends
the
browsing
experience
for
people
who
want
the
ability
to
find
exactly
the
seeds
they
want.
Extended
browsing
time
ensures
that
people
will
stay
in
the
store
longer,
filling
it
with
people
and
activity.
This,
in
turn,
increases
the
overall
effectiveness
of
the
wall,
as
groups
of
people
actually
attract
more
people47.
It
should
be
noted
that
this
notion
doesn’t
conflict
with
the
idea
of
shortening
temporal
boundaries
either,
as
someone
who
is
looking
for
a
specific
thing
is
already
engaged
with
a
certain
level
concrete
thinking.
























































47
Consumer
Behavior."
Atmospherics.”
Marketingteacher,
2012.
Web.


  31. 31. 





































































































































Barrett






































 31


 
 

 “Plug
in”
Retail

 As
an
18
inch
deep
piece
of
furniture,
the
installation
wall
can
also
function
as
piece
of
plug‐in
retail.
The
recent
recession
has
left
considerable
amounts
of
unused
and
empty
retail
spaces
throughout
the
country.
Difficult
situations,
such
as
ten‐foot‐deep
inlets,
have
been
abandoned
in
many
cases
due
to
their
inability
to
sustain
lasting
revenue.

This,
however,
has
led
to
the
advent
of
“pop
up”
retail
stores
throughout
suffering
commercial
districts.
These
temporary
stores
occupy
empty
retail
spaces,

  32. 32. 





































































































































Barrett






































 32


unloading
their
inventories
and
testing
new
markets
with
limited
risks.
The
minimal
structure
of
the
wall
enables
it
to
be
set
up
in
a
variety
of
small
or
temporary
“plug
in”
spaces.
This
strategy
is
ideal
for
expanding
the
SmartFarm
brand
into
the
dense,
urban
areas
where
it
could
have
the
highest
impact.

Areas
with
failing
retail
inlets
are
likely
to
have
the
open
lots
and
unused
land
portions
that
make
urban
farming
possible,
and
the
installation
wall
allows
for
a
seed
supply
to
pop
up
in
these
locations
for
however
long
it
may
be
possible
to
positively
affect
food
behavior.
 

  33. 33. 





































































































































Barrett






































 33



The
Store

 In
less
restrictive
situations,
it
may
be
possible
to
turn
the
installation
wall
into
and
entire
store
that
can
enhance
the
SmartFarm
brand
experience
and
food
behavior
strategy.
For
the
purposes
of
example,
a
typical
120
by
80
foot
lot
in
Phoenix,
Arizona
was
selected
as
a
sample
site.
The
idea
is
to
make
a
store
out
of
the
installation
wall
that
emphasizes
the
brand
identity
and
carries
the
motif
of
simplified
design
that
was
established
with
the
seed
packets
themselves.
For
this
purpose,
the
building
was
given
a
thick
wall
that
conceals
most
of
its
complex
functions
behind
an
appealing
“wrapper”.

 



  34. 34. 





































































































































Barrett






































 34


 
 
 
 

  35. 35. 





































































































































Barrett






































 35



 Concealed
Systems

 A
five‐foot
gap
between
interior
and
exterior
allows
for
a
thermal
envelope
that
vents
heat
from
the
exterior
outside
towards
the
building’s
roof,
isolating
the
interior’s
temperature.
Meanwhile,
a
reveal
window
is
cut
through
the
side
of
the
building
as
to
display
the
product
from
the
parking
lot,
and
a
truss
hidden
behind
the
wall’s
skin
creates
the
support
for
an
uninterrupted
view.
This
reveal
is
structured
with
the
appropriate
dimensions
for
only
allowing
winter
sunlight
into
the
building
while
shading
it
from
the
sun
during
hotter
seasons.
Lastly,
the
gap
between
walls
also
conceals
a
gutter
that
takes
rainwater
from
the
roof
and
drains
it
into
a
cistern.


 


  36. 36. 





































































































































Barrett






































 36



 Dynamic
Facade

 The
black,
laminated
glass
skin
serves
as
a
multi‐faceted
tool.
Visually,
it
creates
a
strong
contrast
with
the
green
foliage
and
colorful
seed
packet
display.
It
also
allows
for
the
use
of
solar
thermal
absorption
to
power
the
building’s
cooling
systems.
The
five‐foot
thermal
envelope
is
a
proven
passive
cooling
strategy
that,
in
this
case,
essentially
makes
the
temperature
of
the
building’s
skin
inconsequential48.
This
allows
for
the
opportunity
of
using
a
black
membrane
to
absorb
as
much
heat
as
possible
for
the
purposes
of
transference
into
cooling
power.
This
works
by
attaching
thermal
tubes
containing
water
along
the
backside
of
the
panels,
where
heat
is
then
collected
and
transferred
into
a
chiller
system
that
uses
the
thermal
energy
to
effectively
cool
the
building49.
Solar
thermal
cooling
systems
generally
require
water
temperatures
of
190˚
F
to
operate
at
full
efficiency50.
In
Phoenix,
however,
dark
surfaces
can
easily
reach
over
200˚
F
with
extended
exposure
to
the
summer
sun51.
This
essentially
allows
for
the
building
to
cool
its
interior
by
making
its
exterior
as
hot
as
possible.
The
store
will
actually
save
the
most
energy
during
the
hottest
times
of
the
year.
























































48
Jürgen
Schnieders.
"CEPHEUS
–
Measurement
Results
from
More
than
100
Dwelling
Units
in
Passive
Houses."
Passive
House
Institute
(2003):
341‐51.
Print.
49
Mohamad
Jihad
Almshkawi.
"Modelling
and
Assessing
an
Efficient
Building
with
Absorption
Chillier
for
Two
Different
Climates
in
MENA
Region."
Uni­kasse.
Cairo
University,
2011.
Web.
50
"Solarinstallation
Design
‐
Solar
Cooling
‐
Solaranlagen."
SOLID
Solarinstallation
Design.
Web.

51
"Smart
Parking
Lots."
Emerald
Cool
Pavements.
Emerald
Cities,
2011.
Web.


  37. 37. 





































































































































Barrett






































 37


 










Wall
Sections




 Clean
Interiors


 When
looking
at
how
successful
brands
have
structured
their
retail
interiors,
a
few
patterns
can
be
seen.
The
foremost
of
which
is
the
emphasis
on
clean
and
open
circulation
patterns
that
allow
for
streamlined
product
browsing.
Following
this
notion,
the
SmartFarm
store’s
interior
is
left
to
be
clean
and
simple,
allowing
for

  38. 38. 





































































































































Barrett






































 38


browsing
to
happen
on
the
northern
wall
and
for
demonstration
crops
to
be
grown
on
the
southern.


 The
second,
perhaps
more
subtle
detail
to
be
taken
from
the
examples
is
the
gradual
minimization
of
front
desks
and
points
of
sale.
This
trend
not
only
streamlines
the
purchasing
process,
but
also
frees
up
employees
to
wander
the
store
and
engage
customers
directly,
creating
a
sense
of
community.
With
the
SmartFarm
store,
point
of
sale
will
be
integrated
into
the
display
wall
with
touch
screens,
allowing
for
the
openness
of
the
design
to
channel
people
through
the
building
and
towards
its
exterior
demonstration
gardens.

 


 

  39. 39. 





































































































































Barrett






































 39



 Exhibition

 Demonstration
gardens
will
enable
for
the
sale
of
sample
produce,
and
also
provide
the
valuable
link
between
food
production
and
consumption
that
the
brand
has
set
out
to
bridge.
People
will
be
able
to
see
matured
produce
in
one
hand
and
the
seeds
for
growing
that
produce
in
the
other,
eliminating
the
temporal
and
spatial
distances
created
by
industrialized
agriculture.
This,
in
turn,
will
allow
for
discussion
of
urban
agriculture
to
take
place
in
more
concrete
terms,
increasing
food
awareness
and
mitigating
the
social†

×