Jennifer kitchen2 hw220-01-finalproject

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Jennifer kitchen2 hw220-01-finalproject

  1. 1. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Education Guide 1
  2. 2. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition KAPLAN UNIVERSITY Nutrition Education Guide By Jennifer Kitchen Kaplan University HW220: Contemporary Diet and Nutrition June 20, 2011 2
  3. 3. KAPLAN UNIVERSITY HW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Table of Contents IntroductionUNIT 1 DIETARY TRENDS AND NUTRITION Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 2 FOOD CHOICES Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 3 FOOD CHOICES: ECONOMICS Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 4 FOOD CHOICES: FOODBORNE ILLNESSES Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 5 GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD Information to Remember Resources Tools 3
  4. 4. KAPLAN UNIVERSITY HW220 Contemporary Diet and NutritionUNIT 6 THE ORGANIC FOOD MOVEMENT Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 7 GLOBAL FOOD MARKETS Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 8 CONTEMPORARY WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAMS Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 9 DIVERSITY OF FOOD CHOICES Information to Remember Resources ToolsUNIT 10 ASK A NUTRITIONIST Information to Remember Resources Tools Appendices A) Personal Diet and Physical Activity Assessment B) Dietary Habits of the Native American Community: Focus on Pueblo 4
  5. 5. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 1Dietary Trends and NutritionInformation to Remember: The Science of Nutrition  A body of scientific knowledge has been developed to help people understand importance of nutrition. The fields of anatomy, physiology, chemistry, biochemistry, and cellular biology all play a role in this understanding. The saying, “we are what we eat” has been seen through the research done in these scientific fields. The body has internal control which helps maintain homeostasis and macro and micro nutrients have functions within the body and effects on the body(Schlenker & Roth, 2011). Knowing what a vitamin or mineraldoes within the body and how much protein or fat is found in food can help a person understand what they are consuming and how it may affect their health. Nutrition and Diet  Many people when they hear the word diet think of weight-loss but diet is really a word for the food and drink that a person regularly consumes. Everyone has a regular diet and the food a person consumes nourishes their body. This nourishment is nutrition.The word nutrition literally means “to nourish” (Schlenker 5
  6. 6. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition & Roth, 2011). Nutrients are found in foods and most foods contain variety micronutrients (vitamins & minerals) and macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) to help provide energy, build and repair tissues and structure, and maintain homeostasis (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). Diet and nutrition supports living. Water  Water makes up over half the human body. Children have more body water than adults and men have more body water than women. This water is distributed through-out the body, inside and outside of the cells, and helps the body to maintain homeostasis (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). Being that the human body is more water than any other element it is important to drink plenty of water, especially when exercising and definitely when thirsty. Water is a necessity for absorbing nutrients, as well as, hydration.Resources: NutritionData.com, (2011). Self-Nutrition Data: know what you eat. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.self.com/.  At nutritiondata.com a person can compare foods, learn about diet and health, and find recipes. Becoming a member can help a person to analyze foods in their diet, track consumption, and make better choices. Becoming a member is free and this website is very easy to use. 6
  7. 7. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition U.S. Department of Human and Health Services (DHHS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), (n.d.). Portion Distortion! Do you know how food portions have changed in 20 years?Retrieved from http://hin.nhlbi.nih.gov/portion/.  Portion Distortion is a website dedicated to the awareness of the new ‟super- sized‟ portion people eat today, which is a part of the cause of obesity. There are links to help a person figure their BMI (body mass index), plan a menu, and Ways to Enhance Children‟s Activity and Nutrition. There is also a link to learning about the difference between portions and servings. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), (n.d.). Health.gov: improve health. Learn how. Retrieved from http://health.gov/.  Health has a lot to do with what a person eats. Everyone is an individual but everyone needs proper nutrition and plenty of physical activity to stay healthy. This website is all about health and contains links for nutrition and fitness, as well as, health and wellness. There is a MyHealthFinder box to the right that is a must for anyone who visits this site. Orenstein, B.W., (2009). How to Eat a Healthy Diet: in order to keep yourself in the best shape possible, its essential to eat a healthy diet. Find out exactly what you should be eating on a regular basis. Everyday Health. Retrieved from http://www.everydayhealth.com/healthy-living/basics-of-healthy-living.aspx . 7
  8. 8. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  This article is exactly about what the subtitle says. It lays down the building blocks of what a healthy diet is and speaks of calories and exercise. It is a simple article which is not intimidating.Tools: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), (n.d.). My Pyramid Tracker. Retrieved from http://www.mypyramidtracker.gov/Default.htm.  My Pyramid Tracker is a useful tool in assessing food intake and activity level. It is easy to use and available to everyone. 8
  9. 9. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 2Food ChoicesInformation to Remember: Social Factors in Food Choice  Social factors influence an individual‟s food choices. Family customs, ethnic background, cultural and religious beliefs, socioeconomic status, health status, or familial history play a role in shaping a person‟s eating habits (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). When a person grows up with certain foods they continue to eat these same foods and pass these eating habits on to their children. Psychological Factors in Food choice  Psychological factors influence individual food habits. A person‟s self-image, mood, and thoughts on food can help shape eating patterns (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). When a person is sick they may crave “comfort foods”. When a person is in believes they are to thin or to fat they may eat more or less depending on how they perceive they should be. Many over-weight people may believe there is nothing they can do to lose weight and just keep eating unhealthy foods. Food Misinformation 9
  10. 10. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  Food misinformation is very common for many reasons and targeted toward many people. An individual may or may not eat certain foods because they believe them to be healing or unhealthy. Some foods may be avoided because a person believes they are an unnecessary expense or because they believe the food is unsafe (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). Food misinformation can affect many age groups. Food producers may claim that a supplement will give the elderly more vigoror thatspecific foods are will help a teen fit in, or that more of a food will give an athlete “the competitive edge”. An obese person may believe a food supplement will help them stave off hunger and help them lose weight (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). People must ask themselves if such claims by the food industry are valid or if the claim is “too good to true” and is simply a ploy to sell more product.Resources: National Dairy Council, (2011). Nutrition Explorations: kids‟ nutrition at its best.Retrieved from http://www.nutritionexplorations.org/index.asp .  Nutrition Explorations is a website, designed by the National Dairy Council, for school nutritional professionals, educators, parents, and children. There are activities for kids to learn about nutrition; fun, games, and even recipes. Healthfood-guide.com, (n.d.). Health Food Guide: health food for a healthy life style.Retrieved from http://www.healthfood-guide.com/healthyfoodchoices.aspx. 10
  11. 11. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  This website is a great source for health foods, food supplements, exercise routines, reviews, and articles. The purpose of the site is to help consumers make healthy decisions when it comes to food and exercise. There are many useful articles relating to fast foods, whole foods, and healing foods, as well as, a plethora of other articles relating to nutrition and exercise. Rommereide, J., (n.d.). Nutrition Crash Course. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nutritioncrashcourse.com/index.html.  The Nutrition Crash Course is a great educational website that teaches the basics of nutrition. Rommereide gives people the opportunity to learn what is healthy and what is not with the easy click of a button and covers health foods to fast foods in a simple and understandable way. Nestle, M., (2007). Food Politics: How the Food industry Influences Nutrition andHealth. California: University of California Press.  On television, in magazines, and on every store shelf, advertising is where people are educated on the foods they buy and consume. The food industry is competing for our food dollars and they will do just about anything to do it. Nestle shows us what is really going on behind the scenes with our food and how the food industry strives in their influence of our food choices.Tools: MyPyramid Menu Planner http://www.mypyramidtracker.gov/planner/ 11
  12. 12. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  A person can use MyPyramid Menu Planner to plan menus by searching for foods and beverages they plan to eat and making a daily menu plan. This website is a companion to MyPyramid Tracker and used can give a person a more complete picture of their health choices. 12
  13. 13. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 3Food Choices: EconomicsInformation to Remember: EducationInfluencesFood Choices  Eating habits are learned habits. As a child grows they tend to eat what their family eats. Children learn about food from school, as well as from the media. After eating behaviors are formed the habits that are unhealthy may be difficult to break. Schlenker and Roth state that learning new healthy habits “begins at the point of contact between prior experience and knowledge and the new concepts being presented” (2011). People can take what this new information and over-lap this with previous knowledge to form their own new ideas about foods. Sources of Groceries Vary Economically  Not all stores sell the same products for the same price. Geographical location may play a role in what foods are available and the costs of foods. Some fresh fruits and vegetables that are not in season will cost more, due to having to be shipped, than the frozen or canned variety. If a healthy choice costs too much an individual that has little money to spend on food is more likely to purchase the cheaper, more processed product. When a family is living in poverty they are 13
  14. 14. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition more likely to buy the dented cans or day old foods that are available at a discount (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). This can carry risks, but access to healthy foods is determined by a family‟s income. Food Insecurity  A family‟s income influences the choices they make when buying foods. If there is not enough money for food and a family is suffering food insecurity the government has programs that can help. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), also known as Food Stamps, is the largest food assistance program in the U.S. and not only provides a “food income” but also assists by educating the program participants in making healthy and affordable purchases (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). Having knowledge about nutrition can be a major help for many low-income people.Resources: Helpguide.org, (n.d.). Helpguide.org: a trusted non-profit resource. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/index.htm .  Helpguide.org is an informational website established to help people make healthy choices in life. In the section on Diet and Nutrition an individual can learn about healthy eating, making food choices on a limited income, and nutrition for kids and teens. Bugetingincome.com, (2011). Budgeting Income. Retrieved from http://www.budgetingincome.com/index.php . 14
  15. 15. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  This website gives many tips on how to manage a budget. In the Living on a Budget section there is a link to a list of 20 ways to save money on food and groceries. Administration for Children and Families (ACF), (2011). AFC Assistance. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/index.html .  The official webpage for ACF has many links to help low-income families that need assistance. This page lists links for help with childcare and education, energy assistance, health assistance, and even fun stuff for the kids to enjoy. Frazao, E., Andrews, M., Smallwood, D., & Prell, M., (2007). Food Spending Patterns of Low-Income Households: Will Increasing Purchasing Power Result in Healthier Food Choices? By E. Frazao, M. Andrews, D. Smallwood, & M. Prell. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib29/eib29-4/eib29-4.pdf.  This article compiled by the USDA and Economic Research Project speaks of the research done on what people buy when given the means to purchase healthier foods. Most people, even with the purchasing power viafood stamps, do not purchase more fruits and vegetables.Tools: LIVESTRONG.com, (2011). LIVESTRONG.com. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/ 15
  16. 16. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  On this website there is lots of information on how to live healthy. The Start Tracking link on the top menu bar gives an individual many assessment tools to calculate needed calorie intake, activity levels, track glucose and insulin for diabetes. Easy to use and thorough, anyone can use this site for self- assessment. 16
  17. 17. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 4Food Choices: Foodborne IllnessesInformation to Remember: Foodborne Illness  Foodborne illnesses often happen due to unsafe handling or storage of food. Six common bacteria that cause foodborne illnesses are; E. coli 0157:H7, salmonella, campylobacter, shigella, listeria, and vibrio (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). By refrigerating food properly, washing hands, foods, and preparation surfaces and utensils, and cooking foods to proper internal temperature many of these bacteria can be killed and lower the chances of a foodborne illness. Food Poisoning  Food poisoning is caused by toxins in the food. The 3 most common toxins found in food are; staphylococcus aureus, clostridium botulinum, and clostridium perfringens (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). They can be caused by improper handling and improper storage. When cooked foods, especially meats and dishes including meat or dairy ingredients, are left out for too long a period they may form these toxins. Safe Handling Instructions 17
  18. 18. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  Most packaging has storage and handling instructions, especially meat products. These instructions are simple and straight forward and tell how to store, thaw, and cook these foods(Schlenker & Roth, 2011). By following these instruction people will be better able to avoid foodborne pathogens.Resources: OutBreak, Inc., (2011). Foodborne Illness: common bacteria and viruses that cause food poisoning. Retrieved from http://www.foodborneillness.com/ .  This website gives descriptions of some of the most common bacteria and viruses that cause food poisoning. It also provides information on the symptoms and risks of foodborne illness and how they are detected as the cause of infection. Stop Foodborne Illness, (n.d.). Stop Foodborne Illness: America‟s voice for safe food. Retrieved from http://www.stopfoodborneillness.org/ .  This website is dedicated to the prevention of foodborne illness and food poisoning. They advocate food safety by promoting public awareness. Food poisoning, (2010). Foodpoisoning.com. Retrieved from http://www.foodpoisoning.com/resources.php .  This website gives information about foodborne illness and food poisoning. A person can find out what their rights are if they become ill from foods and contains links to find out about food recalls and safety issues. 18
  19. 19. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Schlosser, E., (2005). Fast Food Nation: the dark side of the all-American meal. New York; Harper Perennial.  Fast Food Nation is a book all about the way food industry has changed in the past century and the effects of these changes. Schlosser writes of the current safety issues in the fast food industry, from the mass production of animals for meat all the way to what ends up on our table.Tools: Partnership for Food Safety Education, (2010). Fight BAC: keep food safe from bacteria. Retrieved from http://www.fightbac.org/ .  Fight BAC is not actually a web tool but a really good site for understanding the risks of bacteria in foods and ways of prevent foodborne illness and food poisoning. It contains pages on safe food handling practices and an education center with information for every age group, including activities for children. 19
  20. 20. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 5Genetically Engineered FoodsInformation to Remember: Agricultural Biotechnology  Biotechnology is the use of microorganisms or biological substances to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes. These microorganisms or substances may include bacteria, yeasts, or enzymes. It has been applied in the making of pharmaceuticals, synthetic hormones, packaged foods, fibers, and animal feeds for centuries (Kitchen, 2011). Biotechnology has now come to include genetic modification of organisms. Genetically Modified Organisms  Also known as genetically modification, the science of genetic engineering alters the genes of a plant or animal to produce a new trait. Genetic engineering is also used to make biological substances, such as a proteins or hormones. It involves the creation of recombinant DNA, which is then inserted into the genetic material of a cell to produce a desired trait in that plant or animal species (Kitchen, 2011). This relatively new science is quite controversial. The Risks of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) 20
  21. 21. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  Genetically modifying plants and animals carry risks to people, as well as, the environment. People may develop allergic reaction or antibiotic resistance. Foods may lose nutritional content due to alteration of DNA. Damage to environment may be caused by gene mutation due to genetic pollution and cross- pollination (Kitchen, 2011). The biotechnology of genetic engineering is too new to know and understand all the implications GMOs carry.Resources: Say No to GMO, (2011). Say No to GMOs.Retrieved from http://www.saynotogmos.org/.  This website is dedicated to helping people become aware of the risks of GMOs by offering information on the “complex and controversial issue of genetic engineering”. They support the labeling of GMO-containing foods and more thorough safety testing.Say No to GMOs consumers plenty of information on why not to eat the new foods created by genetic engineering. The Center for Food Safety (CSF), (n.d.). The Center for Food Safety. Retrieved from http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/.  CSF challenges the harmful food production technologies and methods that have come popular today. They are active in promoting sustainability and an individual can become active by donating to their legal fund to preserve the integrity of organic farming, protect the consumers‟ right to know, stand up for farmer‟s rights, and protect the environment from the hazards of GE crops. 21
  22. 22. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT), (2011). Institute for Responsible Technology: the most comprehensive source of GMO health risk information on the web. Retrieved from http://www.responsibletechnology.org/.  IRT is one of the best resources for comprehensive and up-to-date information on GMOs. Their Campaign for Healthier Eating in America helps to educate the consumer about the health of the population, the environment, and society when dealing with the government and the corporations in control of our food supply that manufacture GMOs. Boyle, R., (2011). How to Genetically Modify a Seed, Step By Step: Using nature as a guide, geneticists build plants with qualities evolution could never produce. Popular Science [electronic version]. Retrieved from http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2011-02/15-years-1-billion-hectares- worldwide-have-been-planted-genetically-modified-crops .  Rebecca Boyles article on how genetically modified seeds come into being is amazing. She really tells the reader what happens from the beginning, finding the desired trait, all the way to the growing of these foods to feed the population. It is a very straight forward look into what happens at Monsanto, genetic engineering.Tools: Institute for Responsible Technology (IRT) (2010). Non-GMO Shopper‟s Guide: how to avoid foods made with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). http://truefoodnow.org/shoppers-guide/ . 22
  23. 23. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  This is not really a web tool, but a guide that can be saved in its PDF form or printed out for use when making a shopping list or actually doing the shopping. It gives lists of companies that are enrolled in the Non-GMO Project and includes a list of GM-ingredients that are commonly used in processed and prepackaged foods. 23
  24. 24. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 6The Organic Food MovementInformation to Remember: 100% Organic, Organic,& Made w/ Organic Ingredients  The term organic used be known to mean “of, relating to, derived from, or characteristic of living plants and animals” but now more commonly means “of, relating to, or grown with the use of fertilizers or pesticides deriving from animal or vegetable matter, rather than from chemicals” (Collins English Dictionary).The word organic, when shopping, may be confusing to consumers but the National Organics Project was established, in 2002, by the USDA to help consumers to know what they are buying when they buy organic. If a consumer wants truly organic they should look for the USDA Organic seal, any foods with this label must be at least 95% organic (Thompson & Manore, 2009). Other foods may have organic on the label they are only made using organic ingredients if the package does not have the seal. Organic Farming  Organic farming requires a lot of time and energy and produces less food products per acre than conventional farming. Farmers must work harder and 24
  25. 25. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition they yield smaller crops because they do not use pesticides. They use beneficial insects and birds to keep pests down and natural fertilizers, like manure or compost to feed soil and plants. Organic farmers also must rotate crops, till, hand weed, and mulch to manage weeds. They feed their animals organic feed and allow them access to the outdoors (Kitchen, 2011).To meet the USDA‟s organic standards farmers must find natural remedies for common problems. The Food Movements for Healthier Alternatives  There is a new social movement bought on by the desire for more sustainable and healthful foods. These food movements are sweeping the nation and changing the way people think of food. There are many ways to promote more healthful alternatives but two apply to the topic of organically grown foods. The Good Food Movement demands for more local, organic, and humanely produced foods. The Community Food Security Movement aims to connect communities with the local farmers that produce their foods (Nestle, 2007). People can make a difference when they make the choice to buy local produce and meat from farmers striving for sustainability.Resources: Farm Aid, (2010). Farm Aid: keep America growing. Retrieved from http://www.farmaid.org/site/c.qlI5IhNVJsE/b.2723595/k.EE67/Family_Farmers_Good _Food_A_Better_America.htm 25
  26. 26. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  A part of the Good Food Movement, Farm Aid educates the consumers about the issues affecting family farmers and the food they eat. A person can find family farmed food and take action by signing petitions and speaking up for family farmers. Slow Food USA, (2010). Slow Food USA: supporting good, clean, and fair food. Retrieved from http://www.slowfoodusa.org/.  Another part of the Good Food Movement is Slow Food USA. They describe themselves as “a global, grassroots movement with thousands of members around the world that links the pleasure of food with a commitment to community and the environment.” Organic Farming Research Foundation (OFRF), (2011). Organic Farming Research Foundation: sowing seeds to transform agriculture. Retrieved from http://ofrf.org/index.html.  OFRF educates the public on organic farming, helps fund research, and promotes policy changes. This is a serious website for anyone who wants to change organic agriculture policy in Congress and USDA. Greene, A., Scowcroft, B., and Tawse, S., (2011). Top 10 Reasons to Support Organic in the 21st Century. Retrieved from http://www.organic.org/articles/showarticle/article-206. 26
  27. 27. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  This is a great article listing reasons to support organic agriculture. Organic farming not only reduces the use of chemicals but also promote bio and cultural diversity.Tools: Local Harvest, Inc., (2011). Local Harvest: real food, real farmers, real community. Retrieved from http://www.localharvest.org/  At localharvest.com an individual can search for the nearest organic food producers and sellers. From Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and local farmer‟s markets to restaurants and meat processors, all can be found by searching the map on the home page. 27
  28. 28. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 7Global Food MarketsInformation to Remember: Global Nutrition  As globalization has united the World the cases of malnutrition has become more evident. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FOA) estimates that 850 million people worldwide are undernourished(Thompson & Manore, 2009). In developing countries many people simply do not have enough to eat, causing undernutrition. There may be plenty of food produced each year worldwide but many people do not have access to healthy foods because of lack of money. Fast Food Impacts World Health  There is another form of malnutrition which has been increasing for some time, especially in the U.S. Overnutrition is caused by an over-consumption of calories and is the cause of obesity. Many countries are experiencing a new growth, not only economically but physiologically, as fast and convenient foods are now available all over the World. The dietary patterns of people, in many developed and developing countries, are moving from ethnic and regional foods to the prepackaged, processed foods and fast foods (McDonald‟s, KFC, Burger King 28
  29. 29. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition are Worldwide) which contain high energy density due to the added fats and sugars (Thompson & Manore, 2009). With the rest of the World eating this “all- American” diet, obesity and the diseases that come along with obesity are changing the shape of foreign culture and health. Fast Food Industry Impact on Foreign Food Markets  America has not only brought fast food to the World it has also brought the fast food way of doing things. As some chain restaurantsmove overseas so do their suppliers, but this is not always so, as some companies simply move their operations. Fast food changes the face of the foreign market by changing agricultural production to suit their needs; they buy land, build plants and warehouses, and raise livestock and vegetables according to the needs of the industry (Schlosser, 2005). This does build up the economy of the country but it also changes the way these peoples have lived for centuries.Resources: World Hunger Education Service (WHES), (2011). Hunger Notes: why are people hungry? Retrieved from http://www.worldhunger.org/index.html .  At the WHES website an individual can learn about hunger around the World and what can be done to relieve that hunger. Food should be a right that all people are born with, yet hunger is something that affects many people in many countries, developing and developed. 29
  30. 30. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition United Nations (UN), (n.d.).Welcome to the United Nations: it‟s your World. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/index.shtml.  The UN has a great website full of all kinds of information about what is going on in our World. From the Development link an individual can learn all aboutwhat is going on around the World when it comes to agriculture and the food market. There is a link for Topics from A-Z which makes information easy to find. Global Organic Market Access (GOMA), (n.d.).Harmonization & Equivelance: the newsletter of GOMA. Retrieved from http://www.goma-organic.org/.  GOMA believes, “Organic agriculture and trade afford the world a high level of agro-ecosystem services, and present social and economic opportunities for people, especially those in need of food security and ways out of poverty.” This site is dedicated to harmonization and equivalence of organic standards around the World. van Waerebeke, D. (2010). How to Feed the World. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/8812686 .  A wonderful short film (9 minutes), aimed mainly at 9-14 year olds, to explain what goes on in the World when it comes to agriculture and food distribution. 30
  31. 31. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and NutritionTools: Food and Agriculture Organization (FOA), (2011). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: for a World without hunger. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/.  This not actually a tool but a website that has a plethora of information on the food and agriculture of the World. There are many articles on the affects globalization has on the countries of the World. 31
  32. 32. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and NutritionUnit 8Contemporary Weight Loss ProgramsInformation to Remember: Obesity  A major health issue in the U.S. is obesity. Schlenker and Roth state that,”71% of men and 61% of women are overweight or obese.” This obesity epidemic not only effects adult but also children, “32% of children are overweight or at risk for overweight” (2011). In the past 25 years people have changed their diets and lifestyles as food became more readily available and advancements in technology made work easier and play more inactive. Energy intake has been rising, while energy expenditure has fallen. A Healthful Diet  Eating a healthful diet is important to reaching and maintaining a healthy weight. A healthful diet must be adequate, moderate, balanced, and varied. An adequate diet will provide all the energy, nutrients, and a fiber a person needs. A moderate diet means eating the right amounts of foods. A balanced diet will give a person the right balance of the nutrients. A varied diet means eating a variety of different foods every day (Thompson & Manore, 2009). Maintaining a healthful diet helps maintain a healthy weight. 32
  33. 33. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Nutrition and Physical Activity  To achieve and maintain a healthy weight an individual must get proper nutrition and be physically active. Physical activity is any movement that increases the amount of energy expended. The Center for Disease Control and prevention report that over half the adults in the U.S. do not meet the national health recommendations for physical activity and almost 16% do not take part in any leisure-time physical activities (Thompson & Manore, 2009). These adults are not doing enough activity to burn off the calories they consume and therefore are becoming overweight and now children are also more inactive so the obesity epidemic is growing.Resources: 3 Fat chicks on a Diet, (2008).3 Fat Chicks on a Diet. Retrieved from http://www.3fatchicks.com/.  A great web community for help in weight loss. Members can blog, join the forum, read great articles on pertinent information regarding diet and health. WeightLoss for All, (2011). WeightLoss for All: weightloss made easy for you. Retrieved from http://www.weightlossforall.com/ .  People lose weight by changing eating habits and lifestyle. There is no „magic pill‟ that works for everybody and this website Education is the key to losing weight and keeping it off. 33
  34. 34. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Women to Women, (2011). Women to Women: changing women‟s health- naturally. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/ .  This is not really a weight loss site but a site to learn about women‟s health. There are questionnaires to help women learn about their personal health and get on track to a healthier life. Down to Earth, (2010). Obesity in America. Retrieved from http://www.downtoearth.org/health/nutrition/obesity-america .  An examination of the eating and lifestyle habits of the American people. Obesity is one of the biggest health related issues in America and people must learn healthy habits in order to become healthier.Tools: FitDay, (2011). FitDay. Retrieved from http://fitday.com/ .  A free diet and weight loss journal. An individual can track their nutrition, exercise, and goals for weight loss. 34
  35. 35. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Unit 9Diversity of Food ChoicesInformation to Remember: Development of Food Patterns  Food patterns develop over time and many factors influence food habits. Farming certain crops and raising specific animals for food depends a lot on the environment. Where a people live determines what can be grown and raised. In arid climates, as in wet climate, only certain foods will grow. Agriculture requires land and water and specific plant and animal breeds are adapted to certain climates(Schlenker & Roth, 2011). Religion may also play a role in what a people eat. Cultural Diversity in Diets  People from different cultures eat different foods and they eat them in different amounts. The USDA is aware of this and there are Diet Pyramids that account for the variation in ethnic and cultural food patterns (Thompson & Manore, 2009). There is a Pyramid for the vegetarian diet and another for the Mediterranean diet. There is a Latin diet Pyramid which differs greatly from the Asian Pyramid. Cross-Cultural Food Patterns 35
  36. 36. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition  In the U.S. people may eat many of the same foods, but that was not always the case. Native Americans did not grow up on burgers and fries a century ago and neither did the Hispanic and African Americans. Many people around the World have eaten rice or corn as a main grain for centuries but now many people eat bleached-wheat products daily (Schlenker & Roth, 2011). This is just one example of how cross-cultural exchange has occurred in America.Resources: OldWays Preservation Trust, (2010). OldWays. Retrieved from http://www.oldwayspt.org/ .  OldWays is about “changing the way people eat through practical and positive programs grounded in science, traditions, and delicious foods and drinks.” This website is for anyone and everyone interested in becoming informed about healthy and pleasurable eating and drinking. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), (n.d.). Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/reach/ .  REACH is a program set up by the CDC to promote community health in ethnic and racial communities. This program hopes to decrease the health disparities in communities that have strayed from their traditional diet and are now suffering due to lack of nutrition education. 36
  37. 37. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Pie in the Sky Productions, (2005). The Meaning of Food. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/opb/meaningoffood/ .  This website by the Public Broadcasting Station (PBS) explores culture through food. What we eat, why we eat, and how we eat differs with each culture and has great meaning. I highly recommend this site for the whole family. Olver, L., (2011). The Food Timeline. Retrieved from http://www.foodtimeline.org/index.html .  This timeline will take an individual through history and on a trip all about food; when people started eating certain foods and when specific recipes were first recorded. Not an easy feat but one that is daring, Leslie Olver, does her best to bring the history of food into a new light.Tools: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), (2011). Dietary Guidance: Ethnic/Cultural food guide pyramid. http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=3&tax_subje ct=256&topic_id=1348&level3_id=5732.  As mentioned above, the USDA has culturally diverse Diet Pyramids and this is the direct link to find out more about how and what other cultures eat. 37
  38. 38. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Appendix APersonal Diet and Physical Activity AssessmentDiet Quality and Physical Activity Status- May 1, 2011Figure 1My Diet Compared to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines My diet has room for improvement in a few areas. Although all the grainproducts I ate, the day I recorded my diet, were whole grains I still did not reach therequirements. My milk group intake is also low. Figure 1 shows that I had no fruits onthe day I recorded but in actuality I had a full serving from tomatoes and peppers. This 38
  39. 39. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutritionbeing so I got an extra cup of vegetables which put me over the recommended amount.Still I would have had a low intake in the fruit category. Figure 2 shows that I onlyconsumed a little more than 1/2 my dairy recommendation and about 2/3 of therecommended grain intake. Again, as seen in figure 1, I have no fruit intake accordingto MyPyramid. I am consuming enough meat and plenty in the vegetable category. Onthe day I recorded my physical activity I met recommended amount of daily moderatephysical activity. Since I mainly do only moderate activity most of the week, I do tryincluding more vigorous activity a couple times a week. Figure 3 shows the results ofmy physical activity.Figure 2Major Influences on Food Choices and Physical Activity 39
  40. 40. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition As I recorded my diet and physical activity I noticed that the real influence on myfood choices is hunger and the need to eat. I sometimes do not eat because I do nothave the hunger feeling and I end up skipping a meal without even thinking. Figure 4shows that my calorie intake was slightly lower than my estimated calorie requirement. Ido not have any trouble maintaining my current rate. I do drink coffee for that “up” inthe morning sometimes but not always and drink water most of the day. I did drink a Dr.Pepper with my lunch the day of my recording because I actually went out to lunch. Agood portion of my day was spent working my housekeeping job and studying, whichwas all I could really fit into my day besides the everyday self-care, walking the dog, andgoing to the library to do returns and check out the movie “Freakonomics”.Figure 32015 Dietary Guidelines Improvements 40
  41. 41. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition I have a couple suggestions for improving the Dietary Guidelines. First, I thinkthat fruits and vegetables need to be properly identified. The fact that I eat tomatoesand a variety of peppers on a regular basis does not show when I use MyPyramidTracker since they are categorized as vegetables. I think that certain dairy productscould also be re-categorized, since ice creams have more sugar and fat in them thanmilk or yogurt. Finally, if the guidelines were easier for the average American tocomprehend and more accessible to all people then we may have a better chance oflowering the number of cases of obesity and degenerative diseases. Overall, theguidelines are good and do have good tips to eating healthy. Not everybody has seenthe guidelines or has access to the guidelines. If the USDA could make the guidelinesinto easy to read brochures and mail those out to all the people more people would atleast have a chance to view them.Figure 4 41
  42. 42. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and NutritionReferencesDietary Guidelines for Americans 2010http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/DietaryGuidelines/2010/PolicyDoc/PolicyDoc.pdfMyPyramid Tracker http://www.mypyramidtracker.gov/default.htm 42
  43. 43. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition Appendix BDietary Habits of the Native AmericanCommunity: Focus on Pueblo In the Native American community three foods have always been the staple inthe dietary habits; corn also known as maize, squash, and beans. Along with “TheThree Sisters”, as this triad of grown food is known, Native Americans hunted game,like deer and rabbit, fished,and gathered other plants, berries, nuts, and fruits. In thelands of the Pueblos, which includes much of New Mexico and parts of Arizona,pumpkin is a common squash and chilies are used in many recipes. Corn meal wasused in breads and blue corn was commonly grown and used, as well as, the yellowvariety. Today things have changed for some of the Pueblo. Now, Native Americans canshop like every other American.They have no need to hunt and gather, although somestill stick to tradition. Many of the Pueblo still grow their own foods, harvest cactus, andhunt jackrabbits. They still use the irrigation systems started by their ancestors longago to water their colorful corn. While others simply drive to the nearest grocers andbuy what the rest of America is buying, fast foods that are convenient and easy filledwith preservatives and artificial colors and flavors. What does this mean for the health of the Native population in America?Obesityis a prevailing issue all across America and 30 percent of the Native population isobese. Obesity among this population is due to the same reasons obesity is commonamong the rest of America; poor food choices and lack of exercise. With obesity come 43
  44. 44. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutritionhigher rates of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. As America hasdeveloped and grown, with new farming technology and new ways of making food,many people have stopped farming and have started eating processed foods. MostAmericans work less and eat more and this effects the health of all people in thiscountry. Native Americans may be affected more by the food additives put in many foodstoday, just like they are more likely to have lactose intolerance due to not being milkdrinkers like the Europeans that brought milk drinking to America. The Europeansbrought with them many habits that may cause more illness for Native Americans. Aftercenturies of eating pure foods from the Earth and naturally preserving foods by drying,Native Americans now eat many additives which have been common among theEuropeans for centuries. The Native population in America has not had the slowadaption to these foods that Europeans went through and now they are having healthissues they may have never seen if not for the modern ways that were brought over bythe British, Spanish, and French.ReferencesTahonka, (2011). American Native Food. Retrieved from http://www.tahtonka.com/food.html.Tahonka, (2011). American Native Health Issues. Retrieved from http://www.tahtonka.com/health.html. 44
  45. 45. KAPLAN UNIVERSITYHW220 Contemporary Diet and Nutrition ReferencesKitchen, J., (2011). Agriculture Today: genetically engineered agricultural practices. Kaplan University.Kitchen, J., (2011). Organic Vs. Conventional Food: a cost comparison. Kaplan University.Nestle, M., (2007). Food Politics: how the food industry influences nutrition and health. California; University of California Press.organic. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/organic .Schlenker, E. and Roth, S., (2011). Williams‟ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Missouri; Elsevier Mosby.Schlosser, E., (2005). Fast Food Nation: the dark side of the all-American meal. New York; Harper Perennial.Thompson, J. and Manore, M., (2007). Nutrition: an applied approach. California; Pearson Education. 45

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