The cuban missile crisis, 1962 modified.ppt

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  • 1. Cuban Missile CrisisCuban Missile CrisisAndrew Wood and Dave RyanAndrew Wood and Dave Ryan
  • 2. The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 3. Lesson overviewLesson overview What was the background to the events inWhat was the background to the events inCuba?Cuba? How successful were early attempts atHow successful were early attempts at‘containment’?‘containment’? Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba?Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba? What happened during the October Crisis?What happened during the October Crisis? What was the outcome of the crisis?What was the outcome of the crisis?
  • 4. What was the background to theWhat was the background to theevents in Cuba?events in Cuba? Cuba, small island, 160Cuba, small island, 160km from coast of Floridakm from coast of Florida US ally, US businesses &US ally, US businesses &US military baseUS military base(Guantanamo)(Guantanamo) 1959, Fidel Castro1959, Fidel Castrooverthrows Battista (US-overthrows Battista (US-backed dictator),backed dictator),establishingestablishing CommunistCommunistgovernment.government.Why was Cuba so important to theAmericans?
  • 5. How successful were early attemptsHow successful were early attemptsat ‘containment’?at ‘containment’? Castro takes over USCastro takes over USbusinessesbusinesses January 1961, US breaks offJanuary 1961, US breaks offdiplomatic relationsdiplomatic relations April, 1961, Bay of Pigs – 1,400April, 1961, Bay of Pigs – 1,400anti-Cuban exiles attempted toanti-Cuban exiles attempted tooverthrow Castrooverthrow Castro Autumn 1962, Cuba hasAutumn 1962, Cuba hasreceived 1000s of USSRreceived 1000s of USSRmissiles, jets, boats & personnelmissiles, jets, boats & personnelThe US committed $100 million to overthrowingCastro, the CIA tried to sabotage the economy,they even planned to send him an explodingcigar! Why did they go to such lengths afterApril 1961?
  • 6. Why was the USSR interested inWhy was the USSR interested inhelping Cuba?helping Cuba? Cuba was a new Communist stateCuba was a new Communist state Cuba provided a launch base for USSR inter-continentalCuba provided a launch base for USSR inter-continentalmissiles (ICMs)missiles (ICMs) Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president,Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president,JFKJFK Khrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over USKhrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over USmissile in Europemissile in EuropeWhy does this cartoonistthink that Khrushchev wasinterested in Cuba?
  • 7. What happened during the OctoberWhat happened during the OctoberCrisis?Crisis? 14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane takes photos of14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane takes photos ofsuspected USSR missile sites on Cubasuspected USSR missile sites on Cuba Sites nearing completion, experts believe they could beSites nearing completion, experts believe they could beready in 7 daysready in 7 days US spy planes identify 20 Soviet ships bound for CubaUS spy planes identify 20 Soviet ships bound for Cubacarrying missilescarrying missilesWhy have somemodern historiansquestioned theaccuracy of these spyplane pictures?
  • 8. Castro’s RoleCastro’s Role No real role in decision makingNo real role in decision making Apparently out of touch with theApparently out of touch with thesituationsituation Oct. 26: “AggressionOct. 26: “Aggressionimminent/imperialists disregardingimminent/imperialists disregardingworld opinion”—Clearly not theworld opinion”—Clearly not thecasecase Khrushchev plays along to someKhrushchev plays along to someextent but it is clear he disagreesextent but it is clear he disagreeswith him (“your suggestion wouldwith him (“your suggestion wouldhave started a thermonuclearhave started a thermonuclearworld war”)world war”)
  • 9.  Your taskYour taskPresident John F Kennedy was faced with a number ofPresident John F Kennedy was faced with a number ofextremely difficult decisions that could decide the fate ofextremely difficult decisions that could decide the fate ofthe world! Read through the list of options on your taskthe world! Read through the list of options on your tasksheet. Reduce the options to 2 and explain your reasonssheet. Reduce the options to 2 and explain your reasonsto the class.to the class.Problem-solving task
  • 10. One of our U-2 flights over Cuba has revealed whatOne of our U-2 flights over Cuba has revealed whatanalysts believe to be nuclear missiles. Sir, theanalysts believe to be nuclear missiles. Sir, themissiles look to be from the Soviet Union.missiles look to be from the Soviet Union.
  • 11. The Missiles: One SiteThe Missiles: One Site
  • 12.  Your taskYour taskYou are about to find out what actually happened duringYou are about to find out what actually happened duringthe Cuban Missile Crisis. Complete a timeline in yourthe Cuban Missile Crisis. Complete a timeline in yournotes. There are 10 key events to include.notes. There are 10 key events to include.
  • 13. It’s time to discuss military options sir. The SovietsIt’s time to discuss military options sir. The Sovietsstill deny that there are nuclear missiles in Cuba.still deny that there are nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • 14. What happened during the OctoberWhat happened during the OctoberCrisis?Crisis? 20 October, Kennedy20 October, Kennedydecides to blockade Cubadecides to blockade Cuba 22 October, Kennedy22 October, Kennedypublicly calls onpublicly calls onKhrushchev to removeKhrushchev to removeweaponsweapons
  • 15. What happened during the OctoberWhat happened during the OctoberCrisis?Crisis? 23 October Khrushchev23 October Khrushchevrefuses to acknowledgerefuses to acknowledgeblockade or presence ofblockade or presence ofSoviet missiles on CubaSoviet missiles on Cuba 24 October, 124 October, 1ststSovietSovietships (accompanied byships (accompanied bysubmarine) approach 800submarine) approach 800km exclusion zonekm exclusion zone
  • 16. What happened during the OctoberWhat happened during the OctoberCrisis?Crisis? 24 October, 10:32 am, Soviet ships stop and turn round24 October, 10:32 am, Soviet ships stop and turn round 25 October, aerial photos show continued construction25 October, aerial photos show continued constructionof missile sitesof missile sites 26 October, Kennedy receives another letter offering to26 October, Kennedy receives another letter offering tonegotiate over missiles in Cuba with removal ofnegotiate over missiles in Cuba with removal ofblockade and US invasion threatblockade and US invasion threat 27 October, Kennedy receives second letter calling for27 October, Kennedy receives second letter calling forwithdrawal of US missiles in Turkey toowithdrawal of US missiles in Turkey too
  • 17. The American DecisionThe American Decision In September Kennedy had stated andIn September Kennedy had stated andCongress had passed a resolution sayingCongress had passed a resolution sayingthat if the Soviet Union placed offensivethat if the Soviet Union placed offensiveweapons in Cuba we would not tolerate it.weapons in Cuba we would not tolerate it. Could we then rely solely on diplomacy?Could we then rely solely on diplomacy?Kennedys thought John could beKennedys thought John could be“impeached” if he didn’t act in accordance“impeached” if he didn’t act in accordancewith his prior warningswith his prior warnings Determined in first 48 hours of crisis thatDetermined in first 48 hours of crisis thatthe removal of missiles was the primarythe removal of missiles was the primaryobjectiveobjective This objective effectively ruled outThis objective effectively ruled outisolated diplomacy, and left two options…isolated diplomacy, and left two options…
  • 18. What happened during the OctoberWhat happened during the OctoberCrisis?Crisis? 27 October, US U2 plane27 October, US U2 planeshot down over Cuba &shot down over Cuba &pilot killed.Kennedypilot killed.Kennedydecides to ignore seconddecides to ignore secondletter, but accepts termsletter, but accepts termsof 1of 1ststletterletter 28 October, Khrushchev28 October, Khrushchevagrees to dismantleagrees to dismantleSoviet missiles in CubaSoviet missiles in CubaWhat is this cartoonist trying to say about thedifficulties facing Kennedy during the Crisis?
  • 19. What was the outcome of the crisis?What was the outcome of the crisis? Cuba remained Communist & heavily armed (withoutCuba remained Communist & heavily armed (withoutnuclear missiles)nuclear missiles) Both leaders didn’t lose face and came away withBoth leaders didn’t lose face and came away withconcessionsconcessions Helped renew the thaw – world saw the futility ofHelped renew the thaw – world saw the futility ofMADMAD Permanent hotline between White House & KremlinPermanent hotline between White House & Kremlinset upset up Supported theory of containment & co-existenceSupported theory of containment & co-existencebecause alternatives unimaginablebecause alternatives unimaginable
  • 20.  Your taskYour task Read source 1 & 2 and discuss how they differRead source 1 & 2 and discuss how they differin their interpretation of the crisis.in their interpretation of the crisis. Read all 3 sources and discuss how useful theyRead all 3 sources and discuss how useful theyare to students studying the results of the Cubanare to students studying the results of the CubanMissile Crisis.Missile Crisis. Who do you think won the missile crisis?Who do you think won the missile crisis?Kennedy, Khrushchev or neither? Explain yourKennedy, Khrushchev or neither? Explain youranswer.answer.Sources
  • 21.  Extension taskExtension taskDivide into student A or B. Student A must produce aDivide into student A or B. Student A must produce ashort press release explaining the background, key eventsshort press release explaining the background, key events& outcome for the Soviet news agency ‘Pravda’. Student& outcome for the Soviet news agency ‘Pravda’. StudentB must do the same for the White House spokesmen’sB must do the same for the White House spokesmen’sspeech to journalists.speech to journalists.
  • 22. Congratulations Mr. President, Khrushchev isCongratulations Mr. President, Khrushchev isremoving the missiles from Cuba. We made theremoving the missiles from Cuba. We made theright choices.right choices.