News, Media and Power Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D.  January, 2010
The Sociology of  Spanish Media System
Spain comes into democracy in 1978 Now, it is a case of successful transition to liberal democracy However, there’s a stro...
Professionalization? The journalism tradition connects the political and the literary roots It means substantial emphasis ...
Constitutional guidelines  in Media Law
The media started a new era in 1978, just after the approval of the Constitución Española The Law recognizes two basic cit...
<ul><li>The article protects the following aspects of the press freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ind...
<ul><li>The Media Law in Spain is complex (as in other countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Some keys to retain are the following:...
Main characteristics of the  Spanish Media Companies
<ul><li>(1) There are public and private audiovisual operators </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The multimedia groups are consolidate...
(6) Typology of media groups Main players Telefonica and PRISA Players with important foreign capital Telecinco (Mediaset)...
The Daily Press
<ul><li>The market is around 18M daily readers (less than 40% population) </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 150 daily pres...
Total readers (million people)
Daily readers (million people/day)
<ul><li>The reference press </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most influential media in a country </li></u...
<ul><li>El País </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Madrid and founded in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>2,8M daily readers </li></ul><ul><...
ABC Based on Madrid and founded in 1903 728.000 daily readers Owned by Vocento Traditionally, linked to the Monarchy and t...
La Razón Based on Madrid and founded in 1998 355.000 daily readers Owned by Planeta Liberal economics and very conservativ...
La Vanguardia Based on Barcelona and founded in 1881 731.000 daily readers Owned by Godó Critical support to regional part...
Expansión Based on Madrid 194.000 daily readers Owned by Unidad Editorial The most influential economic newspaper Growing ...
The TV
The Spanish people watch TV 229 minutes daily
Public Service Broadcasting National and regional level Highly pressured by political parties Now, in process of depolitic...
FORTA  Regional radio and TVs federation 12 regional channels dependent on  regional Parliaments International broadcast v...
Antena 3 Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 About 17,5% Owned by Planeta Tele 5 Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 About...
La Sexta Based on Madrid and founded in 2007 About 8% Owned by Mediapro - Imagina Cuatro Based on Madrid and founded in 20...
Digital Plus Leader option in PPV and thematic TV provider Owned by PRISA Not interesting business, despite its popularity...
The radio
Radio is a really influential mass media It dominates the political agenda thanks to early morning news It is market with ...
General radio includes news and entertainment There are five big stations
The Internet
Broadband penetration
Daily users (%)
<ul><li>Some influentials blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Microsiervos </li></ul><ul><li>Enrique Dans </li></ul><ul><li>Genbeta </...
Audiences
AIMC: ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH ON MEDIA http://www.aimc.es Activities include audience measurement AIMC publishes every th...
OJD: OFFICE OF JUSTIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTION http://www.ojd.es   Official data from Spanish Newspaper circulation.  It al...
Thanks! More Questions? More Answers? Now? Later? See you online! [email_address]   ciberdemocracia.blogspot.com
Thank you!
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News, Media And Power In Spain

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News, Media And Power In Spain

  1. 1. News, Media and Power Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D. January, 2010
  2. 2. The Sociology of Spanish Media System
  3. 3. Spain comes into democracy in 1978 Now, it is a case of successful transition to liberal democracy However, there’s a strong relationship between the media and the political establishment The public service broadcasting never existed in the British sense of the word (BBC paradigm) Continuing news oligopoly Until today, the commercial market is weak
  4. 4. Professionalization? The journalism tradition connects the political and the literary roots It means substantial emphasis to commentary, literature and op-ed They use to be part of the cultural elite of the country! Formal education in Journalism in relatively new (50 years) Newspapers (more than other media) tend to represent distinct political tendencies One survey of Spanish journalist shows that more than 85% believed information and opinion were often mixed
  5. 5. Constitutional guidelines in Media Law
  6. 6. The media started a new era in 1978, just after the approval of the Constitución Española The Law recognizes two basic citizens’ rights 1.- Freedom of speech and the press (article 20) 2.- Freedom of enterprise (article 38) Both rights are well-developed underpinning the practice of journalism in Spain Let’s see how.
  7. 7. <ul><li>The article protects the following aspects of the press freedom: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual right to speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The journalist has the right to seek, to get and to spread information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>There’s no real differentiation between the journalist (practitioner) and the ordinary citizens </li></ul><ul><li>So, in Spain, there’s no limitations to practice journalism or to be hired as one </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Media Law in Spain is complex (as in other countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Some keys to retain are the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration to digital media: digital TV, radio and newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new functions and the new purposes of the state-owned public service broadcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The future General Audiovisual Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new Economic Law and the copyright question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, how to legislate the digital world? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Main characteristics of the Spanish Media Companies
  10. 10. <ul><li>(1) There are public and private audiovisual operators </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The multimedia groups are consolidated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an increasing trend into the mergers and acquisitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower players, the same market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The market is dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) The audiovisual divisions are the heart of the companies and the content providers </li></ul><ul><li>(4) New players are changing the face of the Spanish market </li></ul><ul><li>(5) The lack of financial strength in comparison to banking, energy or services </li></ul>
  11. 11. (6) Typology of media groups Main players Telefonica and PRISA Players with important foreign capital Telecinco (Mediaset) Unidad Editorial (Rizzoli) Planeta (A3 50% with De Agostini and RTL) Growing groups Mediapro (Imagina) Auna Family groups Zeta Godó Regional and family groups Joly Prensa Ibérica Grupo Voz
  12. 12. The Daily Press
  13. 13. <ul><li>The market is around 18M daily readers (less than 40% population) </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 150 daily press, but the majority are local or regional based </li></ul><ul><li>There’s no yellow press, but the sports and women magazines are really important in the advertisement market </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, MARCA leads the readership </li></ul><ul><li>It is very important the impact of the free press: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It opened new markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It expanded the advertisement industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, we see the biggest crisis in newspaper industry </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Total readers (million people)
  15. 15. Daily readers (million people/day)
  16. 16. <ul><li>The reference press </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most influential media in a country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They set the agenda and the public interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration from press to new media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>El País, El Mundo and ABC are the most important dailies of national circulation </li></ul><ul><li>In some regions, like Catalonia or Basque Country, the regional based newspapers are much more important </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>El País </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Madrid and founded in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>2,8M daily readers </li></ul><ul><li>The newspaper is leader in the Spanish market: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>430,000 (M-F) and 780,000 (weekend) daily sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29% of the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sells 100,000 more than the follower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Owned by PRISA </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, linked to PSOE’s interest, but now there’s a growing gap </li></ul><ul><li>Javier Moreno (about 40 years old), the current director, is not journalist </li></ul><ul><li>Two challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elpais.com is not leader at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Spanish Press reference </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. ABC Based on Madrid and founded in 1903 728.000 daily readers Owned by Vocento Traditionally, linked to the Monarchy and the Catholic Church Very influential in the right wing The only Berliner daily in Spain! El Mundo Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 1,3M daily readers Owned by Unidad Editorial Similar to British tabloids Right wing oriented
  19. 19. La Razón Based on Madrid and founded in 1998 355.000 daily readers Owned by Planeta Liberal economics and very conservative politics (Osservatore) Few, but loyal readers Público Based on Madrid and founded in 2007 238.000 daily readers Owned by Mediapro Youngest daily Left oriented
  20. 20. La Vanguardia Based on Barcelona and founded in 1881 731.000 daily readers Owned by Godó Critical support to regional parties and its causes (and excellent international reports!) Catalonian middle-class
  21. 21. Expansión Based on Madrid 194.000 daily readers Owned by Unidad Editorial The most influential economic newspaper Growing audience
  22. 22. The TV
  23. 23. The Spanish people watch TV 229 minutes daily
  24. 24. Public Service Broadcasting National and regional level Highly pressured by political parties Now, in process of depoliticization RTVE Officially, controlled by the Parliament It operates radio, TV and Internet media, as well as TVE International and Radio Exterior de España
  25. 25. FORTA Regional radio and TVs federation 12 regional channels dependent on regional Parliaments International broadcast via satellite platforms Cities and councils About 500 local public radio stations depending on the Town Hall Not so interesting
  26. 26. Antena 3 Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 About 17,5% Owned by Planeta Tele 5 Based on Madrid and founded in 1989 About 17,5% Owned by Mediaset
  27. 27. La Sexta Based on Madrid and founded in 2007 About 8% Owned by Mediapro - Imagina Cuatro Based on Madrid and founded in 2005 (1989) About 7,5% Owned by Tele 5, formerly by PRISA Really interesting case of the market: before Cuatro, it was Canal Plus
  28. 28. Digital Plus Leader option in PPV and thematic TV provider Owned by PRISA Not interesting business, despite its popularity Mature market, but where’s the money? Other DDT Emerging market Nice opportunity to develop niche contents in the audiovisual market Gol TV: niche TV broadcasts only soccer and it has 1M suscribers
  29. 29. The radio
  30. 30. Radio is a really influential mass media It dominates the political agenda thanks to early morning news It is market with about 23M daily listeners The average is 108 minutes daily How?
  31. 31. General radio includes news and entertainment There are five big stations
  32. 32. The Internet
  33. 33. Broadband penetration
  34. 34. Daily users (%)
  35. 35. <ul><li>Some influentials blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Microsiervos </li></ul><ul><li>Enrique Dans </li></ul><ul><li>Genbeta </li></ul><ul><li>Kirai </li></ul><ul><li>Xataka </li></ul><ul><li>Escolar.net </li></ul><ul><li>Barrapunto </li></ul><ul><li>Error 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Google Dirson </li></ul><ul><li>No puedo creer que lo hayan inventado </li></ul>
  36. 36. Audiences
  37. 37. AIMC: ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH ON MEDIA http://www.aimc.es Activities include audience measurement AIMC publishes every three months the General Media Study (EGM) which measures the ratings of the press, radio, Internet television in Spain.    EGI: GENERAL STUDY OF INTERNET http://www.estudiogeneraldeinternet.com Madrid-based company that produces studies for hearing on websites in Spain.
  38. 38. OJD: OFFICE OF JUSTIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTION http://www.ojd.es Official data from Spanish Newspaper circulation. It also allows access to data dissemination conventional paper media. Updated monthly. Very controversial office    SOFRES MEDIA AUDIENCE http://www.sofresam.com It provides data weekly audience figures reached by the national television channels and regional.
  39. 39. Thanks! More Questions? More Answers? Now? Later? See you online! [email_address] ciberdemocracia.blogspot.com
  40. 40. Thank you!
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