Democratic Theory and Communication History<br />Dr. Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez<br />Correo-e: juan.manfredi@yahoo.es<br /...
2<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />Conflicting views of the history of communications often reflect disagr...
3<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />1. Minimalist Perspective<br />Democracy is an institutional arrangemen...
4<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />1. Minimalist Perspective<br />Marketplace of ideas:<br />Persecution f...
5<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />Minimalist Perspective<br /><ul><li>News is a commodity: what informati...
Quality Journalism is a trade off: breadth vs. depth
People desire information for four functions: consumption, production,
entertainment, and voting
Soft news programs will be more prevalent if advertisers value those viewers more highly
If programmers pay less for soft news, then they will be more likely to program this type of information
How an increase in the number of competitors may increase diversity but may decrease quality, as measured by depth of cove...
Objectivityevolved in themarket as a commercial product, as publishers frequently found it more profitable to remove parti...
6<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Democracy calls for ...
7<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Freedom of speech an...
8<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Actions to improve t...
Real diversity and pluralism of channels of expression a media outlets
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Session 1 Democratic Theory and Communication History

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Democratic Theory and Communication History
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E Government: democracy and technology
IE University Juan Luis Manfredi

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Session 1 Democratic Theory and Communication History

  1. 1. Democratic Theory and Communication History<br />Dr. Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez<br />Correo-e: juan.manfredi@yahoo.es<br />juan.manfredi@ie.edu<br />Twitter: @juanmanfredi<br />http://ciberdemocracia.blogspot.com<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />Conflicting views of the history of communications often reflect disagreements about democracy and its possibilities<br /> <br />Three perspectives:<br />Minimalist<br />Strong, Radical or participatory<br />Government by discussion<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />1. Minimalist Perspective<br />Democracy is an institutional arrangement in which individuals acquire the power to make political decisions by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote (Joseph Schumpeter)<br /> <br />People not demand extensive popular engagement in <br />politics<br />The free flow of ideas is the central argument for freedom <br />of expression and against censorship<br />People can use reason in order to distinguish right and wrong<br />How? The individual must have unlimited access to the ideas of his fellow men in “a free and open encounter”<br />Ideally, when people argue against each other the better argument will prevail.<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />1. Minimalist Perspective<br />Marketplace of ideas:<br />Persecution for the expression of opinions seems to me perfectly logical. If you have no doubt of your premises or your power and want a certain result with all your heart you naturally express your wishes in law and sweep away all opposition...But when men have realized that time has upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believe even more than they believe the very foundations of their own conduct that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas...that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out. <br />(Justice Holmes, 1919)<br />The ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />Minimalist Perspective<br /><ul><li>News is a commodity: what information becomes news depends on a different set of five Ws, those asked in the market
  6. 6. Quality Journalism is a trade off: breadth vs. depth
  7. 7. People desire information for four functions: consumption, production,
  8. 8. entertainment, and voting
  9. 9. Soft news programs will be more prevalent if advertisers value those viewers more highly
  10. 10. If programmers pay less for soft news, then they will be more likely to program this type of information
  11. 11. How an increase in the number of competitors may increase diversity but may decrease quality, as measured by depth of coverage or type of news programming offered
  12. 12. Objectivityevolved in themarket as a commercial product, as publishers frequently found it more profitable to remove partisan coverage in order to attract more readers.</li></ul>Some views<br />James T. Hamilton All the News Thats Fit to Sell: How the Market Transforms Information into News (70 minutes Duke Law)<br />
  13. 13. 6<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Democracy calls for the active engagement of citizens in public affairs and an equal distribution of power in society.<br />Democratic principles ought to apply not simply to elections, but also between elections to the process of government and to other economic and social institutions<br /> <br />The market as a corrupting influence that degrades political discussion and reinforces what used to be described as the cultural hegemony of the capitalist class and is now usually just characterized as the dominance or “monopoly” of big media corporations.<br /> <br />If the public is inattentive to public affairs, it is because the political system and the media have failed to engage them. <br /> <br />As the old radical maxim goes, the cure for the ailments of democracy is more democracy. <br />
  14. 14. 7<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Freedom of speech and the press are demanding plenty of interference to break up media monopolies, counteract commercialism, and create an informed citizenry. <br /> <br />Freedom of speech and the press are individual rights<br />People has the right to be free of governmental interference <br />The interpretation is based on the people, not on the companies<br />Robert McChesney and Ben Scott: <br />A social right shared equally by all citizens in a democracy ... to be exposed to a wide range of uncensored, informed analysis of social affairs<br />
  15. 15. 8<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Actions to improve the participatory and citizen-oriented approach<br /><ul><li>Access to infrastructure, capabilities, skills, services and qualitative contents
  16. 16. Real diversity and pluralism of channels of expression a media outlets
  17. 17. Vibrant and pluralistic public sphere
  18. 18. Independence, ethical norms and protection to journalists
  19. 19. The common good and knowledge sharing
  20. 20. Fair trade and sustainable development of media companies
  21. 21. Support to citizens media initiatives</li></li></ul><li>9<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Strong, radical or participatory democracy<br />Some final ideas<br /><ul><li>The interpretation is based on aspirational criteria
  22. 22. It is difficult to measure the success
  23. 23. It is useful to analyze the relationship among media, democracy, people and corporations </li></ul>Some views<br />Who Controls the Media: Free Press and Ownership<br />R. McChesney: Media and Politics in the United States Today (90 minutes)<br />Dan Rather reveals how the Corporation controls the Media <br />The Myth of the Liberal Media: The Propaganda Model of News <br />
  24. 24. 10<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />3. Deliberative Democracy<br />Democracy by discussion<br /> <br />Government requires that all those interested in influencing political decisions offer reasons justifying their positions in terms of generally accepted values democracy calls for mutual respect between those on opposing sides and seeks to create a basis for cooperation that transcends particular moral and political disagreements<br /> <br />Deliberative means “partnership model of democracy rather than a purely majoritarian conception” (Ronald Dworkin)<br /> <br />Goals of public deliberation<br />To focus attention on the public good rather than private and partial interests <br />To bring failures and mistakes to light and thereby lead to the discovery of more effective policies<br />To promote equality of respect in public life <br />To make political decisions more legitimate by subjecting them to scrutiny and counterargument<br />
  25. 25. 11<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />3. Deliberative Democracy<br />Because the quality of public discussion matters for deliberative democracy, there is reason to be concerned if market forces drive out public-affairs programming and serious journalism<br /> <br />The best policy is to promote diversity of sources of opinion and information<br />Legal framework develops the freedom of speech and press + civil society through different incentives <br />It is a positive legal action > non-interference in the market<br />Indeed, some actions have been vital for the growth of well-functioning markets<br />Examples: postal policies, broadcast licensing decisions, intellectual property laws, laws governing libel and some other else<br /> <br />Moreover, in political communication, the government may make provisions for the financing of campaigns to encourage fair and sustained debate between political candidates<br />
  26. 26. 12<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />3. Deliberative Democracy: Dewey – Lippmann Debate<br />The Lippmann-Dewey debate on the role of citizens in modern democracies continues to exist today, and it can be found both in philosophical arguments raised by contemporary authors like Richard Rorty, Cornel West, JürgenHabermas and Benjamin Barber<br />Key topics in the debate<br />The role of the people and journalism in democracy<br />The accountability and transparency of political institutions<br />Media must play a key role in sustaining democracy<br />What do you think?<br />
  27. 27. 13<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />4. What about Internet and the New Media?<br />Some of the new developments are deeply threatening to established interests, which may use their political influence to bend law and regulation to their own advantage<br /> <br />New frontiers:<br /><ul><li>Privacy
  28. 28. Net neutrality
  29. 29. Copyrights and intellectual property</li></ul>New menaces<br /><ul><li>Civic Engagement – Gladwell’s discussion
  30. 30. High Quality Journalism  </li></ul>How can the government foster the public sphere and enrich the diversity of voices without distorting the market? <br />
  31. 31. 14<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />4. What about Internet and the New Media?<br />Internet contribute to new structural changes in public opinion<br />Producing Public Sphere?<br />Governing Public Sphere?<br />
  32. 32. 15<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />5. Some conclusions<br />Markets, however much reviled, make vital contributions to a democratic public sphere that are unlikely to be made any other way<br />The entrepreneurial activity expands the scale and scope of the public sphere, extending its known frontiers<br />The discovery of a new market may thereby trigger public (and private) self-discovery and alter what politics is about <br />The growth of markets does not extinguish noncommercial interests in culture and public life<br />Markets in liberal societies enrich the public sphere far more than they impoverish it: innovation and risk<br />If all is left to the market, the public sphere would be poor<br />
  33. 33. Thanks!<br />Questions?<br />Answers?<br />Now?<br />Latter?<br />C U Online<br />Juan.manfredi@ie.edu<br />Juan.manfredi@yahoo.es <br />@juanmanfredi<br />ciberdemocracia.blogspot.com<br />16<br />JL Manfredi, Ph.D. @juanmanfredi<br />

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