Costs of Closed Science
1.

3.5 mg / 100g

2.

3.5 mg / 100g  ~ 30 mg / 100g
fresh

(c) by http://www.flickr.com/photos/nick_hardcastle

dry

htt...
+ 30 % !
IN NEED FOR MONEY
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Median_and_Average_Sales_Prices_of_New_Homes_Sold_in_the_US_1963-2010_Monthly.png
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15639.pdf
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Bold Statements

1. Median growth rates for countries with public debt over 90
percent of GDP are rou...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Hard Actions (Dancing)

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Conti...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Save the Dime

http://www.stern.de/politik/deutschland/medienschlacht-zur-eurokrise-merkel-ist-in-gri...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Data, where aret thou?

Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. The University for Conti...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Inconsistencies and Errors within data material
1. Unjustified, selective Exclusions
2. Unconventiona...
PUBLICATION MECHANISM
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Science Busters

To be part of it
requires a TV-set
Department for E-Governance
Danube University Kre...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

To be part of it requires
scientific rigor

OR?
Department for E-Governance
Danube University Krems. ...
<< I knew that their business depends
on publishing “sexy” papers >>

http://www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=1439

http://www...
I’d discovered a species of bacteria that uses arsenic
in its DNA instead of phosphorus

But I made the science so egregio...
And what do you know? They

accepted it!
www.donau-uni.ac.at

What has happened?
• Subscription-based Journals
– Are seeking to increase the number of citations to...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

The Blogosphere Voice

• If journals are serious about advancing knowledge ..
• Ummm - No. Journals a...
COSTS OF OVERLY CLOSED SCIENCE
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Closed Science
1. Closed Science is unpublished scientific research, available
only to the researcher...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Costs hard to measure

1984: High-doses of Methylprednisolon will ameliorate the
devastating neurolog...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

„Based on the controversial data and the vague
clinical proves Methylprednisolon can no
longer be gen...
WHAT IS OPEN ACCESS?
Grey Literature
WAS IST OPEN SCIENCE?
www.donau-uni.ac.at

Open Science is …

1. Transparency in experimental
methodology, observation, and collection of data

...
THE STATE OF OPEN ACCESS AND OPEN
SCIENCE IN AUSTRIA AND THE EU
www.donau-uni.ac.at

FWF – Wissenschaftsfond
• Open Access Policy
–
–
–
–

Re-producibility of results
Science as a public...
http://oa.mpg.de/files/2010/04/publwege_en.jpg
www.donau-uni.ac.at

• Open Access at Academy of Sciences
– Explicit Open-Access-Policy
– Recommendation to all researcher...
https://phaidra.univie.ac.at/
http://epub.wu.ac.at/
www.donau-uni.ac.at

EU – Level
• EU: Open Access Policy Officer (DG RTD)
• Horizon 2020: Research results have to be publ...
NOT ALL PROBLEMS WILL BE
SOLVED BY OPEN SCIENCE
1999
NASA uses the metric system
while Lockheed Martin uses the English system when building a satellite

busted, $165.6 m...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

• Ocorrafoo Cobange of Wassee Institute of Medicine in
Asmara receives a letter of acceptance for a p...
www.donau-uni.ac.at

But …
• There is no Ocorrafoo Cobange
• There is no Wassee Institute of Medicine
• The results are dr...
TimBerners Lee created the Web in 1991 with the aim of
better facilitating scientific communication and the
dissemination ...
Today we buy books online, listen to music
from the cloud and Skype for communication.
But our way of scientific communica...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Open Data, Transparency and Open Innovation
E-Democracy and E-Participation
E-Voting
Bottom-U...
Johann Höchtl
johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at
http://www.slideshare.net/jhoechtl/
https://www.facebook.com/myprivate42

htt...
Costs of Closed Science
Costs of Closed Science
Costs of Closed Science
Costs of Closed Science
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Costs of Closed Science

  1. 1. Costs of Closed Science
  2. 2. 1. 3.5 mg / 100g 2. 3.5 mg / 100g  ~ 30 mg / 100g fresh (c) by http://www.flickr.com/photos/nick_hardcastle dry http://www.flickr.com/photos/f4/2339969681
  3. 3. + 30 % !
  4. 4. IN NEED FOR MONEY
  5. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Median_and_Average_Sales_Prices_of_New_Homes_Sold_in_the_US_1963-2010_Monthly.png
  6. 6. http://www.nber.org/papers/w15639.pdf
  7. 7. www.donau-uni.ac.at Bold Statements 1. Median growth rates for countries with public debt over 90 percent of GDP are roughly one percent lower than otherwise; 2. Mean growth rates are several percent lower. 3. Countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 90 percent have a slightly negative average growth rate, in fact. Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 7 ADV ShareConomy
  8. 8. www.donau-uni.ac.at Hard Actions (Dancing) Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 8 ADV ShareConomy
  9. 9. www.donau-uni.ac.at Save the Dime http://www.stern.de/politik/deutschland/medienschlacht-zur-eurokrise-merkel-ist-in-griechenland-haeftling-4339-1866072.html Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 9 ADV ShareConomy
  10. 10. www.donau-uni.ac.at Data, where aret thou? Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 10 ADV ShareConomy
  11. 11. www.donau-uni.ac.at Inconsistencies and Errors within data material 1. Unjustified, selective Exclusions 2. Unconventional grouping and weighting of data 3. Excel region selection mistakes “ … future historians note that one of the core empirical points providing the intellectual foundation for the global move to austerity in the early 2010s was based on someone accidentally not updating a row formula in Excel ” http://www.nextnewdeal.net/rortybomb/researchers-finally-replicated-reinhart-rogoff-and-there-are-serious-problems#.UW14rDQo2L4.twitter Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 11 ADV ShareConomy
  12. 12. PUBLICATION MECHANISM
  13. 13. www.donau-uni.ac.at Science Busters To be part of it requires a TV-set Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 13 ADV ShareConomy
  14. 14. www.donau-uni.ac.at To be part of it requires scientific rigor OR? Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 14 ADV ShareConomy
  15. 15. << I knew that their business depends on publishing “sexy” papers >> http://www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=1439 http://www.flickr.com/photos/joker21/3684005076
  16. 16. I’d discovered a species of bacteria that uses arsenic in its DNA instead of phosphorus But I made the science so egregiously bad … poor or absent controls in every figure …. failed to include a simple, obvious experiment that would have definitively shown that arsenic was really in the bacteria’s DNA. I then submitted the paper to Science, punching up the impact the work would have on our understanding of extraterrestrials and the origins of life on Earth http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/monsters-vs-aliens/images/5375160/title/monsters-vs-aliens-photo http://www.zazzle.at/weissbecher_des_elements_33_arsen_tee_tasse-168479586161372168
  17. 17. And what do you know? They accepted it!
  18. 18. www.donau-uni.ac.at What has happened? • Subscription-based Journals – Are seeking to increase the number of citations to their articles – Would like to increase the number of subscriptions (subscriptions = money) Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 18 ADV ShareConomy
  19. 19. www.donau-uni.ac.at The Blogosphere Voice • If journals are serious about advancing knowledge .. • Ummm - No. Journals are serious about making money. That means being restrictive, closed and inaccessible as possible to everybody, especially laymen. • Even professional academics for the most part, are not interested in advancing knowledge. For the most part they are interested only in advancing themselves... http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20090820/0153145940.shtml Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 19 ADV ShareConomy
  20. 20. COSTS OF OVERLY CLOSED SCIENCE
  21. 21. www.donau-uni.ac.at Closed Science 1. Closed Science is unpublished scientific research, available only to the researcher and a select few others (very drastic) - or 2. Closed Science involves publishing proprietary, often corporately funded, research in pay-per-use journals Problem – Public funded research is payed twice by the tax payer 1. Spending tax money to fund the research; 2. by paying through university library subscriptions to access the results of that research. 2012: 13.000+ petitions against that habit of Elsevier http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/feb/02/academics-boycott-publisher-elsevier Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 21 ADV ShareConomy
  22. 22. www.donau-uni.ac.at Costs hard to measure 1984: High-doses of Methylprednisolon will ameliorate the devastating neurologic consequences of posttraumatic spinal cord degeneration and thereby SCI (USA, NASCIS-I (& II) study) „From the very beginning the study was heavily criticized for study design, clinical study, relive effect, results after 6 months and after a year, statistical methods, cancelled studies, reactions of study representatives in PR, prior peerto-peer publications “ 2008: 3% increased mortality rating, effects without statistical relevance Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 22 ADV ShareConomy
  23. 23. www.donau-uni.ac.at „Based on the controversial data and the vague clinical proves Methylprednisolon can no longer be generally advised“ http://www.medicalforum.ch/pdf/pdf_d/2008/2008-14/2008-14-425.PDF Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 23 ADV ShareConomy
  24. 24. WHAT IS OPEN ACCESS?
  25. 25. Grey Literature
  26. 26. WAS IST OPEN SCIENCE?
  27. 27. www.donau-uni.ac.at Open Science is … 1. Transparency in experimental methodology, observation, and collection of data 2. Public availability and reusability of scientific data. 3. Public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication. 4. Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration. http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269 Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 29 ADV ShareConomy
  28. 28. THE STATE OF OPEN ACCESS AND OPEN SCIENCE IN AUSTRIA AND THE EU
  29. 29. www.donau-uni.ac.at FWF – Wissenschaftsfond • Open Access Policy – – – – Re-producibility of results Science as a public good Visibility and knowledge transfer Scientific networking • Funding for OA-Journals in Humanities and Social Sciences • Support for the Green Road – Publishers shall no longer receive unrestricted exploitation rights • Support for the Gold Road – Publication funds for those journals requiring publication fee – “robust, empirical proves that non-commercial publication bodies […] a much better value-for-money ratio provide compared to commercial publishers“ Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 31 ADV ShareConomy
  30. 30. http://oa.mpg.de/files/2010/04/publwege_en.jpg
  31. 31. www.donau-uni.ac.at • Open Access at Academy of Sciences – Explicit Open-Access-Policy – Recommendation to all researchers to publish according to the Green-Road-Principles • University of Vienna – – – – Open Access Office Open Access working group Open Access Board Phaidra: Archive and Share Research and Teaching https://phaidra.univie.ac.at/ Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 33 ADV ShareConomy
  32. 32. https://phaidra.univie.ac.at/
  33. 33. http://epub.wu.ac.at/
  34. 34. www.donau-uni.ac.at EU – Level • EU: Open Access Policy Officer (DG RTD) • Horizon 2020: Research results have to be published according to an OA-policy – However there is no obligation to publish • Digital Agenda: Scientific data: Open Access to research results will boost Europe's innovation capacity http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-790_en.htm?locale=en Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 36 ADV ShareConomy
  35. 35. NOT ALL PROBLEMS WILL BE SOLVED BY OPEN SCIENCE
  36. 36. 1999 NASA uses the metric system while Lockheed Martin uses the English system when building a satellite busted, $165.6 million gone
  37. 37. www.donau-uni.ac.at • Ocorrafoo Cobange of Wassee Institute of Medicine in Asmara receives a letter of acceptance for a paper he submitted • Properties of a Chemicals from a lichen have clear anticancer properties Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 41 ADV ShareConomy
  38. 38. www.donau-uni.ac.at But … • There is no Ocorrafoo Cobange • There is no Wassee Institute of Medicine • The results are drawn without any scientific rigor • He received 150+ acceptances of Open Access Journals http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/60.full Department for E-Governance Danube University Krems. The University for Continuing Education. 10. Oktober | 2013 | Page 42 ADV ShareConomy
  39. 39. TimBerners Lee created the Web in 1991 with the aim of better facilitating scientific communication and the dissemination of scientific research. He didn’t designed it for bookstores, telecommunications, newspapers, pornography, st ock trading, music distribution, or LOLcats. after http://eaves.ca/2011/12/22/the-future-of-academic-research/
  40. 40. Today we buy books online, listen to music from the cloud and Skype for communication. But our way of scientific communication is pretty much there where it used to be in 1991. Time for a shift.
  41. 41. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open Data, Transparency and Open Innovation E-Democracy and E-Participation E-Voting Bottom-Up Movements Social and Mobile Media for Public Administration Open Collaborative Government Democracy, Globalization and Migration Connected Smart City Technology and Architecture Self-governance in Complex Networks Rethinking Information Visualization for the People Freedom and Ethics in Digital Societies Design and Co-creation for E-democracy • PhD Colloquium Important Deadlines Deadline for the submission of papers, workshop proposals, reflections: 6. December 2013 Notification of acceptance 7. February 2014 Camera-ready paper submission 28 February 2014 Conference 21. - 23. May 2014
  42. 42. Johann Höchtl johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at http://www.slideshare.net/jhoechtl/ https://www.facebook.com/myprivate42 http://at.linkedin.com/in/johannhoechtl/

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