Fist aid

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Fist aid

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE ECUADORIAN RED CROSS
  2. 2. Ecuadorian Red Cross BASIC FIRST AID CONCEPT ACCIDENT DISEACE/CRISIS QUALIFIED MEDICALIST CRE 2
  3. 3. Ecuadorian Red Cross IS FIRST AID IMPORTANT ? ¿…? SAVING LIVES AVOID AGGRAVATE INJURIES PROMOTE THEIR RECOVERYIST CRE 3
  4. 4. Ecuadorian Red Cross Lateral Decubitus Dorsal Decubitus Prone or Supine Position HUMAN BODYIST CRE 4
  5. 5. Ecuadorian Red CrossIST CRE 5
  6. 6. Ecuadorian Red Cross DY BO IES CAVITIES CONTENTCA VIT Cranial Cerebum, Cerebellum, medulla oblongata, Pons, meninges and cerebrospinal fluid Thoracic Heart, Respiratory System (trachea, Bronchy, Longs and Great Vessels. Abdominal Gastrointestinal tract, liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Urinary, reproductive organs Pelvic Genital organs, uterus, ovaries, ureters, bladder Espinal MedullaIST CRE 6
  7. 7. Ecuadorian Red Cross EMERGENCY ACTION STEPS IS VERY IMPORTANT TO MAINTAIN CONTROL AND KEEP CALM SEMAREARECOGNITION VICTIM VICTIM 2nd RECOGNITION RECOGNITION IST CRE 7
  8. 8. Ecuadorian Red Cross AREA RECOGNITION ¿WHAT HAPPENED? IS THIS AREA SAFE INJURED PEOPLE IS THERE ANY PEOPLE WHO CAN HELPIST CRE 8
  9. 9. Ecuadorian Red Cross VICTIM RECOGNITION REQUEST PERMIT YES PERMIT GRANTED CONCISENESS NO A B CIST CRE 9
  10. 10. Ecuadorian Red Cross TO CALL S.E.M. INSTITUTIONS QUEVEDO QUITO GYE CRUZ ROJA 1-3-1 1-3-1 1-3-1 CENTRO EMERGENCIA 9-1-1 9-1-1 POLICIA NACIONAL 1-0-1 1-0-1 1-0-1IST CRE 10
  11. 11. Ecuadorian Red Cross RECONOCIMIENTO SECUNDARIO A… ALLERGIESINTERVIEW M… MEDICAMENTS• VICTIM P… PATHOLOGIES• FAMILY• PEOPLE L… LAST MEAL ( INGESTA )AROUND THEAREA E… ANTECEDENTS VITAL SIGNS VALUES SISTEMATIC EXAMIST CRE 11
  12. 12. Ecuadorian Red Cross BIOSECURTY EQUIPMENTIST CRE 12
  13. 13. Ecuadorian Red Cross VITAL SIGNSIST CRE 13
  14. 14. RESPIRACION ADULT: 12 – 20 R/M CHILDREN: 20 – 30 R/M NEONATE: 30 – 40 R/M VARIATION CAUSES EXERCISE Patological disease Stress Thoracic Trauma Penetraiting wounds (Thorax) Respiratory Relaxation Thermal Increment FeedingIST CRE 14
  15. 15. PULSO ADULT: 60 – 100 P/M CHILDREN: 100 – 120 P/M NEONATE: 120 – 140 P/M PULSE VARIATION STRESS physical Exercise Eating Pathology Bleedings PCR HypothermiaIST CRE 15
  16. 16. TEMPERATURE 36.5 – 37.5° C NORMAL VALUE TIPES OF THERMOMETERSIST CRE 16
  17. 17. BLOOD PRESSURE TA SYSTOLIC: 140 – 100 mm Hg. DIASTOLIC: 90 – 60 mm Hg. MERCURY INDICATOR GAUGE AIR PUMPING DEVICE STETHOSCOPE ARM CUFFIST CRE 17
  18. 18. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIAC AND RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES • Smoke or gas saturated ambient • Liquid Immersion • Debris in Landslides • Thorax Injuries • Burns • Electrocutions • Poisons • OVACE • Cardiovascular Disease • ShockIST CRE 18
  19. 19. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIAC AND RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES AIST CRE 19
  20. 20. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIAC AND RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES BIST CRE 20
  21. 21. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIAC AND RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES CIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 21
  22. 22. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIAC AND RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES DIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 22
  23. 23. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIO- RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES CHILDREN AND NEONATESIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 23
  24. 24. Ecuadorian Red Cross CARDIO-RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES OVACEIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 24
  25. 25. Ecuadorian Red CrossIST CRE 25
  26. 26. Ecuadorian Red CrossIST CRE 26
  27. 27. Ecuadorian Red Cross Place 2 or 3 fingers just below the nipple line on the babys breastbone and give 5 quick chest thrusts (same position as chest compressions in CPR for a babyIST CRE 27
  28. 28. Ecuadorian Red Cross CLEAR AIRWAY MANUALLYIST CRE 28
  29. 29. Ecuadorian Red Cross EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL EXTERNAL: Stabbing INCISORS ABRASIVE SHARP WOUNDS AVULSED AMPUTATION Protrude EYE VICERATION INJURY BY FIREARMSIST CRE 29
  30. 30. Hemorrhage FEATURES FEATURES FEATURES Little bleedingCOLOR: Clear Read COLOR: Dark Red bright Red Outflow: Bubbling Outflow: Continuous Flesh Wound IST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 30
  31. 31. Abrasive Wounds PUNCTATE BLEEDING PAINFUL EASILY INFECT QUICK CURE (SMALL) LONG HEALING (LARGE) ASEPCIA AND ANTISEPCIA SOAP AND WATER ANTISEPTICIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 31
  32. 32. STABBING WOUND MAJOR BLEEDING Deformed OF THE WOUND EDGE IRREGULAR OBJECTS S.S.S. TREATMENT: Proceed to stop bleeding. Shock Treatment Transport to a hospitalIST CRE 32
  33. 33. INCISED WOUNDS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS S.S.S. (If there is a large bleeding) Weakness Local pain TREATMENT: Treating Shock Aseptic Approaching Butterlfy Steps to stop haemorrhage Travel Health Centre.IST CRE 33
  34. 34. STABBING WOUNDS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS TREATMENT Wounds generally circular (in the case of Inmovilize the object (thread, dressings) blowing thorax ) Treating Shock Bleeding. Transfer to the nearest health center S.S.S.IST CRE 34
  35. 35. IST CRE 35
  36. 36. AVULSIONS SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Wounds and bleeding Local pain deformity TREATMENT Treating Shock Steps to control bleeding. Relocation Assistance CentreIST CRE 36
  37. 37. AMPUTATION SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS S.S.S. Despair. Disembodied limb Severe pain TREATMENT Treating Shock Perform a compression bandage Control of bleeding Proceedings of the limb DisembodiedIST CRE 37
  38. 38. SHOCK Reduced irrigation Blood tissue CIRCULATION (Deficit on percussion) DISORDER CAUSE Alteration of vital signsIST CRE 38
  39. 39. CLASIFICACION HYPOVOLEMIC DISTRIBUTIVE CARDIOGENIC SHOCK SHOCK SHOCKIST CRE 39
  40. 40. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Pale skin TREATMENT Cold, clammy perspiration Try to eliminate the cause Low temperature OF THE SHOCK Rapid pulse Cover but not heat the patient Devil and shallow breathing Vital Signs Monitoring Sleepiness Transportation. Thirst DecayIST CRE 40
  41. 41. BURNSIST CRE 41
  42. 42. 1st Degree Burn SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Redness Local Heat Burning Swelling TREATMENT Soak zone Do not use toothpaste, butterIST CRE 42
  43. 43. 2nd Degree Burn SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS redness Pain Bullae (blisters) Signs and symptoms of Shock TREATMENT Do not punch blisters Soak the burned area Make a bandage Gentle Clean dryIST CRE 43
  44. 44. 3rd Degree BurnIST CRE 44
  45. 45. WALLACE SCALE PORCENTAGE 100% 1 – 10% LOW 11 – 33% SEVERE 34 – 60 VERY SERIOUS > 60% MORTALIST CRE 45
  46. 46. CHEMICAL BURNSIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 46
  47. 47. HYPOTHERMIA Hot, dry skin is a typical sign of hyperthermia The skin may become red and hot as blood vessels dilate in an attempt to increase heat dissipation, sometimes leading to swollen lips. An inability to cool the body through perspiration causes the skin to feel dry. The dehydration associated with heat stroke can produce nausea vomiting, headaches and low blood pressure. Tachycardia and Tachipnea (IST CRE 47
  48. 48. INTOXICATION WAYS OF TOXIC ENTRY: Oral or Digestive Respiratory Cutáneous (Skin and Mucosa)IST CRE 48
  49. 49. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNSWeaknessAbdominal painNauseaVomitingBreathing DifficultyCyanosisBurns in the mouth and throatAltered consciousness.SeizuresIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 49
  50. 50. First AidIdentify the type of poisonGeneral treatmentDecontaminationTreatment asymptomatic.Specific antidote.Activated charcoal, 50 g. in 300 cc. Waterin adults. Weight 1 g / kg orally.IST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 50
  51. 51. DIGESTIVE DECONTAMINATIONInduce vomiting, administer albuminous water (1 lt. In water + 6egg whites).Do not induce vomiting in:Strong acidsStrong alkalisPetroleumBurns in the mouth and throatUnconsciousnessseizures IST CRE 51
  52. 52. RESPIRATORY AND SKINDECONTAMINATION-Ventilate the area-Wash the site of contact with soap andwater-Remove clothing and place in plastic bagIST CRE 52
  53. 53. SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENTManage airwayClean discharge.Treat shockTry breathing difficulty.Treat seizures.DO NOT allow them to sleepIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 53
  54. 54. Specific Antidote TOXIC ANTIDOTE Methyl Alcohol Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Alcohol Tiamin Walfarin (rat poison) K Vitamin Organophosphorus Atropin Snake Bites AntivenomIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 54
  55. 55. PRECAUCIONES: NO utilice agua si el toxico es fósforo blanco (diablillos) NO utilice leche si el toxico es DDT u otro derivado clorado. NO utilice carbón activado si el toxico es un acido fuerte, álcali fuerte o derivado del petróleo, ejem. Sosa cáustica, potasa cáustica, gasolina, etc.
  56. 56. DEHYDRATION AND DIARRHEALDISEASES They are produced by the introduction through the mouth (usually food) from germs in the stool. The are the cause of diarrhea because of the lack of hygiene and clean drinking waterIST CRE Jesús Pico Cedeño (INSTRUCTOR) 56
  57. 57. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS Irritability Liquid and more frequent stools than usual. Thirst Sunken eyes Crying without tears. Dry lips and oral mucosa. Vomiting. Fold mark Signs and symptoms of ShockIST CRE 57
  58. 58. IST CRE 58
  59. 59. TREATMENTHydrateUse rehydration salts1 liter of boiled water and cold8 teaspoons sugar1 teaspoon saltA pinch of baking soda From 2-3 kg of weight - 1 cup (200 cc) in 4 to 6 hours From 4-5 kg of weight - 2 cups (400 ml) in 4 to 6 hours From 6-7 kg of weight - three cups (600 cc) of 4 to 6 hoursIST CRE 59
  60. 60. ENVIRONMENTALEMERGENCIESHEAT EXHAUSTIONCold, clammy pale skin.Profuse sweatingHeadacheDehydrationMuscle crampsNauseaShockvomitingIST CRE 60
  61. 61. HEAT STROKEHot red and dry skinElevated temperature (> 40 º C)No sweat (anhidrosisPupils contractedHeadacheDehydrationMuscle crampsDisturbance of consciousnessShockIST CRE 61
  62. 62. TRAUMAPolytraumaCoexistence of two or more injuries caused by the same accidentand have at least one life-threatening conditionIST CRE 62
  63. 63. TEC- Craneo-Encephalic TRAUMASIGNS ANDSYMPTOMSHead or neck painOtorraquia orotorrhagiaRinorraquía or Cervical collar do not immobilizes it only limites the movement of the spinerinorragíaIST CRE 63
  64. 64. OSTEOARTICULAR INJUERIESIST CRE 64
  65. 65. SPRAIN AND DISLOCATION SPRAIN DISLOCATIONIST CRE 65
  66. 66. OSTEOMUSCULAR BANDAJEIST CRE 66
  67. 67. BITESWITHIN THIS GROUP IS: It can transmit rabies.DogsCatsHorses.MonkeyMan

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