Presentation 2 General


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Presentation 2 General

  2. 2. Initial Assessment, consider the following: <ul><li>1. Safety - Determine if the area is safe </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mechanism of injury - Determine the extent of the illness or injury and how it happened </li></ul><ul><li>3. Medical information devices - Examine the casualty for a MEDIC ALERT (Fig.) necklace, bracelet, or identification card </li></ul><ul><li>4. Number of casualties - Look beyond the first casualty, you may find others </li></ul><ul><li>5. Bystanders - Ask bystanders to help you find out what happened </li></ul><ul><li>6. Introduce yourself - Inform the casualty and bystanders who you are and that you know first aid. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Life Support <ul><li>Is maintenance of the ABCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open airway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore circulation </li></ul></ul>Universal Distress Signal
  4. 4. Abdominal Thrust <ul><li>. Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich Maneuver) </li></ul><ul><li>a. Stand behind the casualty. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Place your arms around the (Fig. 2-2) casualties waist. </li></ul><ul><li>c. With your fist, place the thumb side against the middle of the abdomen, above the navel and below the tip (xiphoid process) of the (sternum) breastbone. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Grasp your fist with your other hand. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Keeping your elbows out, press your fist (Fig. 2-3) into the abdomen with a quick upward thrust. </li></ul>Fig. 2-2 Fig. 2-3
  5. 5. Self-Help for Airway Obstruction
  6. 6. Open airway (Head-tilt/Chin-lift) <ul><li>Place the fingers of your other hand under the (Fig. 2-4) bony part of the chin </li></ul><ul><li>Place your fingers behind the angle of the jaw or hook your fingers under the jaw, bring (Fig. 2-5) jaw forward </li></ul>Fig. 2-4 Fig. 2-5
  7. 7. Rescue Breathing <ul><li>1. Check unresponsiveness - Tap or gently shake the casualty, shout, &quot;Are you OK?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Shout, &quot;Help&quot; - If there is no response from casualty </li></ul><ul><li>3. Position casualty - Kneel midway between his or her hips and shoulders facing the casualty </li></ul><ul><li>4. Open airway (Head-tilt/Chin lift or Jaw thrust) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Give breaths - Pinch nose, open your mouth, take a deep breath, and make an air-tight seal around the casualty's mouth </li></ul><ul><li>6. Check pulse - While maintaining an open airway </li></ul><ul><li>7. Request medical assistance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bleeding <ul><li>Capillaries are very small blood vessels that carry blood to all parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries are large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart </li></ul>
  9. 9. External Bleeding <ul><li>Direct pressure is the first and most effective method to control bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Raising (elevation) of an injured arm or leg (extremity) above the level of the heart will help control bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Pressure In cases of severe bleeding when direct pressure and elevation are not controlling the bleeding, indirect pressure must be used. Bleeding from an artery can be controlled by applying pressure to the appropriate pressure point </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pressure Points for Control of Bleeding
  11. 11. Applying a Tourniquet
  12. 12. Signs of internal bleeding <ul><li>1. Anxiety and restlessness. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Excessive thirst (polydipsia). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nausea and vomiting. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cool, moist, and pale skin (cold and clammy). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rapid breathing (tachypnea). </li></ul><ul><li>6. Rapid, weak pulse (tachycardia). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Bruising or discoloration at site of injury (contusion). </li></ul>
  13. 13. If you suspect internal bleeding <ul><li>1. Bruise (contusion) - Apply ice or cold pack, with cloth to prevent damage to the skin, to reduce pain and (edema) swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Severe internal bleeding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Call local emergency or medical personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Treat for shock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Place casualty in most comfortable position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. Maintain normal body temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f. Reassure casualty </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Shock is the failure of the heart and blood vessels (circulatory system) <ul><li>1. Anxiety, restlessness and fainting. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nausea and vomiting. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Excessive thirst (polydipsia). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Eyes are vacant, dull (lackluster), large (dilated) pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Shallow, rapid (tachypnea), and irregular breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Pale, cold, moist (clammy) skin. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Weak, rapid (tachycardia), or absent pulse. </li></ul>