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Indias Nuclear Option

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  • 1. INDIA'S NUCLEAR OPTION
    DeepaKylasamIyer
  • 2. OUR NUCLEAR STORY
    The Nehruvian Era (1947-1964)- J. Nehru, HomiJehangirBhabha, Dr. BrahmPrakash
    The second phase (1964-1974)- Indira Gandhi, Vikram Sarabhai, Dr. Raja Ramanna, P.K. Iyengar, Dr. R. Chidambaram, Dr. Sethna
    The third phase (1987-1998)- Rajiv Gandhi, NarasimhaRao, AtalBihari Vajpayee, Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Dr. R. Chidambaram, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Dr. K. Santhanam
  • 3. INDIA’S NUCLEAR TRIPOD
  • 4. OUR NUCLEAR STORY THROUGH THE YEARS
  • 5. INDIA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE
    Universal, comprehensive, non discriminatory compliance
    No first use
    Minimum credible deterrance
  • 6. THE NEHRUVIAN ERA
    1948- Atomic energy for peaceful purposes
    1954- Standstill agreement
    1959- Suspension of nuke and thermo nuke tests in UN agenda
    1964- Non proliferation of nuke weapons in UN agenda
    35000 nuke warheads
  • 7. SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS
    “The application of science is inevitable and unavoidable for all countries and people today. But something more that its application is necessary. It is the scientific approach, the adventurous and yet the critical temper of science, the capacity to change previous conclusions in the face of new evidence, the reliance on observed fact and not on pre-conceived theory - all this is necessary not merely for the application of science, but for life itself and the solution of its many problems”
    J. Nehru, 1946
  • 8. "As long as the world is constituted as it is, every county will have to devise and use the latest scientific devices for its protection. I have no doubt that India will develop her scientific researches and I hope Indian scientists will use the atomic force for constructive purposes. But if India is threatened she will inevitably try to defend herself by all means at her disposal”
    J. Nehru, 1946
  • 9. “Apart from building power stations and developing electricity there is always a built-in advantage of defense use if the need should arise”
    J. Nehru in a reply to Bhabha
    "There was never a discussion among us over whether we shouldn't make the bomb. How to do it was more important. For us it was a matter of prestige that would justify our ancient past. The question of deterrence came much later. Also, as Indian scientists we were keen to show our Western counterparts, who thought little of us those days, that we too could do it.“
    Dr. Raja Ramanna
  • 10. THE TRUE NUCLEAR STORY
    1944- Bhabha’s request- TIFR (1945)
    15 April, 1948- Atomic Energy Act- IAEC
    3 January, 1954- Atomic Energy Est., Trombay
    3 August, 1954- DAE- Answered directly to PM
    1955- 1 MW Apsara (British)
    1955- Canada India Research Reactor (14 MW), US heavy water
    1958- Phoenix
    1960-61- Tarapur (nuclear power plant)
  • 11. 1959- India China tension
    1961- China’s nuke operations begin
    1962- High level meeting at TIFR
    1962- Nehru passes revised Atomic Energy Act (scarcely mentioning civilian application)
    27 May, 1964- Nehru passes away
  • 12. THE ARCHITECTS OF INDIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM
  • 13. Nehru with Dr. Bhabha
  • 14. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
  • 15.
  • 16. Dr. R. Chidambaram
  • 17. Dr. P. K. Iyengar
  • 18. Dr. HomiSethna
  • 19.
  • 20. Dr. BrahmPrakash
  • 21.
  • 22. Dr. Santhanam