INDIA&apos;S NUCLEAR OPTION<br />DeepaKylasamIyer<br />
OUR NUCLEAR STORY<br />The Nehruvian Era (1947-1964)- J. Nehru, HomiJehangirBhabha, Dr. BrahmPrakash<br />The second phase...
INDIA’S  NUCLEAR TRIPOD<br />
OUR NUCLEAR STORY THROUGH THE YEARS<br />
INDIA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE<br />Universal, comprehensive, non discriminatory compliance<br />No first use<br />Minimum credi...
THE NEHRUVIAN ERA<br />1948- Atomic energy for peaceful purposes<br />1954- Standstill agreement<br />1959- Suspension of ...
SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS<br />“The application of science is inevitable and unavoidable for all countries and people ...
&quot;As long as the world is constituted as it is, every county will have to devise and use the latest scientific devices...
“Apart from building power stations and developing electricity there is always a built-in advantage of defense use if the ...
THE TRUE NUCLEAR STORY<br />1944- Bhabha’s request- TIFR (1945)<br />15 April, 1948- Atomic Energy Act- IAEC<br />3 Januar...
1959- India China tension<br />1961- China’s nuke operations begin<br />1962- High level meeting at TIFR<br />1962- Nehru ...
THE ARCHITECTS OF INDIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM<br />
Nehru with Dr. Bhabha<br />
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai<br />
Dr. R. Chidambaram<br />
Dr. P. K. Iyengar<br />
Dr. HomiSethna<br />
Dr. BrahmPrakash<br />
          Dr. Santhanam<br />
Indias Nuclear Option
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Indias Nuclear Option

  1. 1. INDIA&apos;S NUCLEAR OPTION<br />DeepaKylasamIyer<br />
  2. 2. OUR NUCLEAR STORY<br />The Nehruvian Era (1947-1964)- J. Nehru, HomiJehangirBhabha, Dr. BrahmPrakash<br />The second phase (1964-1974)- Indira Gandhi, Vikram Sarabhai, Dr. Raja Ramanna, P.K. Iyengar, Dr. R. Chidambaram, Dr. Sethna<br />The third phase (1987-1998)- Rajiv Gandhi, NarasimhaRao, AtalBihari Vajpayee, Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Dr. R. Chidambaram, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Dr. K. Santhanam<br />
  3. 3. INDIA’S NUCLEAR TRIPOD<br />
  4. 4. OUR NUCLEAR STORY THROUGH THE YEARS<br />
  5. 5. INDIA’S NUCLEAR DOCTRINE<br />Universal, comprehensive, non discriminatory compliance<br />No first use<br />Minimum credible deterrance<br />
  6. 6. THE NEHRUVIAN ERA<br />1948- Atomic energy for peaceful purposes<br />1954- Standstill agreement<br />1959- Suspension of nuke and thermo nuke tests in UN agenda<br />1964- Non proliferation of nuke weapons in UN agenda<br />35000 nuke warheads<br />
  7. 7. SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS<br />“The application of science is inevitable and unavoidable for all countries and people today. But something more that its application is necessary. It is the scientific approach, the adventurous and yet the critical temper of science, the capacity to change previous conclusions in the face of new evidence, the reliance on observed fact and not on pre-conceived theory - all this is necessary not merely for the application of science, but for life itself and the solution of its many problems”<br /> J. Nehru, 1946<br />
  8. 8. &quot;As long as the world is constituted as it is, every county will have to devise and use the latest scientific devices for its protection. I have no doubt that India will develop her scientific researches and I hope Indian scientists will use the atomic force for constructive purposes. But if India is threatened she will inevitably try to defend herself by all means at her disposal”<br /> J. Nehru, 1946<br />
  9. 9. “Apart from building power stations and developing electricity there is always a built-in advantage of defense use if the need should arise”<br /> J. Nehru in a reply to Bhabha<br />&quot;There was never a discussion among us over whether we shouldn&apos;t make the bomb. How to do it was more important. For us it was a matter of prestige that would justify our ancient past. The question of deterrence came much later. Also, as Indian scientists we were keen to show our Western counterparts, who thought little of us those days, that we too could do it.“<br /> Dr. Raja Ramanna<br />
  10. 10. THE TRUE NUCLEAR STORY<br />1944- Bhabha’s request- TIFR (1945)<br />15 April, 1948- Atomic Energy Act- IAEC<br />3 January, 1954- Atomic Energy Est., Trombay<br />3 August, 1954- DAE- Answered directly to PM<br />1955- 1 MW Apsara (British)<br />1955- Canada India Research Reactor (14 MW), US heavy water<br />1958- Phoenix<br />1960-61- Tarapur (nuclear power plant)<br />
  11. 11. 1959- India China tension<br />1961- China’s nuke operations begin<br />1962- High level meeting at TIFR<br />1962- Nehru passes revised Atomic Energy Act (scarcely mentioning civilian application)<br />27 May, 1964- Nehru passes away <br />
  12. 12. THE ARCHITECTS OF INDIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM<br />
  13. 13. Nehru with Dr. Bhabha<br />
  14. 14. Dr. Vikram Sarabhai<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Dr. R. Chidambaram<br />
  17. 17. Dr. P. K. Iyengar<br />
  18. 18. Dr. HomiSethna<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Dr. BrahmPrakash<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Dr. Santhanam<br />
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