Be prepared

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How much do you know about the most prevalent diseases that affect us as Americans everyday? Do you know how to prevent them? How about what actions to take when you see someone suffereing from one, like a stroke of a heart attack? You don't need to be a doctor to know that these diseases are important and knowing some basic medical information can be nothing but beneficial.

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  • Sources: www.heart.orghttp://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm
  • .
  • Source: Deaths: Final Data for 2007, tables B, D, 7, 30
  • Picture sources : http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-high-blood-pressurehttp://www.kentuckymedicalresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Diabetes-and-heart.www.heart.org
  • http://www.toadspad.net/ems/cpr-riskof-heart.htmlResults from fatty plaque build up on walls of arteries of heart that eventually rupture and form a blood clot that blocks the artery and deprives the heart of oxygen and nutrients.
  • Even though all cancer is genetic, just a small portion--perhaps 5 or 10 percent--is inherited.Most cancers come from random mutations that develop in body cells during one's lifetime--either as a mistake when cells are going through cell division or in response to injuries from environmental agents such as radiation or chemicals. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/genetesting/page27Source Pictures: Jacquie Mercer
  • http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/WarningSigns/Warning-Signs_UCM_308528_SubHomePage.jsp
  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease/DS01120
  • http://www.womenheart.org/resources/mythstruths.cfm [Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Brown T,. et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2010 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2010;121:e1-e170]http://www.womenheart.org/resources/upload/Women-and-Heart-Disease-FINAL-2011.pdf [Roger V L, Go A S, Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R J,. et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2011 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2011; 121:e1-e192.]http://www.womenheart.org/resources/upload/Women-and-Heart-Disease-FINAL-2011.pdf [Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Brown T,. et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2010 Update: A Report from the American Heart Associat ion Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2010;121:e1-e170.]
  • http://www.predisease.com/diabetehttp://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/cvd/hbppatient.htms_how_to_screen.phphttp://www.lipitor.com/aboutCholesterol/whatIsCholesterol.aspxhttp://howtolosebellyfatsoon.com/how-to-help-your-kid-to-lose-weight-avoid-childhood-obesity.html
  • Bad cholesterol is what sticks to the walls of your arteries and can lead to blockages HDL “good” Carries “bad” LDL cholesterol away from walls of arteries
  • http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/What-is-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_301759_Article.jsp
  • http://www.bloodpressurechart.me
  • http://www.diabetesandrelatedhealthissues.com/http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/pre-diabetes/how-to-tell-if-you-have.html--info on prediabetes testshttp://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/what-is-prediabetes-or-borderline-diabeteshttp://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/
  • http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Nutrition-Center_UCM_001188_SubHomePage.jsp
  • http://www.accessrx.com/blog/current-health-news/obesity-decreases-quality-of-life-a803
  • http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/QuitSmoking/Quit-Smoking_UCM_001085_SubHomePage.jsp
  • Those affected often wait too long to get help because they aren’t sure what’s going on
  • http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/neuropathic/referred-pain-vsorigin-pain-pathologyhttp://prashant-uikey.blogspot.com/2011/09/what-should-we-do-in-case-of-heart.htmlhttp://www.hearthealthywomen.org/signs-symptoms/featured/heart-disease-signs.html
  • http://www.topnews.in/health/http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack/diseases/heart-attack?page=1
  • Carcinoma - cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and myeloma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system cancers - cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.
  • http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/genetesting/page28http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002267/
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001740/http://www.stroke.org/site/PageNavigator/HOME
  • National Stroke Association. The Complete Guide to Stroke. 2003. At: http://www.stroke.org/site/DocServer/NSA_complete_guide.pdf?docID=341
  • http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=explainingstroke
  • http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=explainingstroke
  • http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=explainingstroke
  • http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=myth
  • Be prepared

    1. 1. How much do you know about the most prevalent diseases that affect us as Americans everyday? Do you know how to prevent them? How about whatactions to take when you see someone suffering from one, like a stroke or a heartattack? You don’t need to be a doctor to know that these diseases are important and how knowing some basic medical information can be nothing but beneficial. Research shows that our lack of preparation and knowledge can harm us or the ones we love. Did you know that 80% of strokes are preventable and 73% of participants in a published CDC survey were unaware of all major heart attacks symptoms or knew to call 9-1-1 when someone was having a heart attack? Statistics like these show us that we need totake action to educate ourselves not only to protect our own life but also the lives of the ones we love.
    2. 2. In March 2011, I set out to gather data on the quality of basic medicalknowledge the general public possesses in my hometown of Grand Forks, ND. Usingsome popular outdoor city events and by walking door-to-door in randomneighborhoods, I collected information from 300 members of the public. I created asurvey based on a few similar published studies done around the world. The surveyassessed the general public’s knowledge of the important risks factors and preventativeactions of the three leading causes of death in the United States. The survey itself possesses a large margin of error that a survey preparedover a longer time range might have eliminated. The style of questioning was a fill-in-the-blank method. Although this method leaves room for error through interpretation, Ifelt it would force participants to actually know the answers and eliminate guesswork. Ialso chose this method because the smaller pool size would give me the time toindividually interpret the answers.
    3. 3. One of the most beneficial goals for this project, and perhaps later projects, isto create an understanding and desire in these participants, where they can come torealize the importance and the need to seek additional information on these prevalentdiseases. I hope to create a platform from which they can actively start their search formore information. My assumption is that the general public will not correctly answer a majorityof the questions because they do not actively search this information until they areaffected by one or more of these diseases (either directly or through a loved one). I alsoassume that those with self reported medical education have either been exposed to thisinformation or has an increased opportunity or skill at acquiring this knowledge. Ifurther assume that those who have self reported medical education or who answered"yes" to question 4 (Have you or a loved one been affected?) will have a higherpercentage of correct answers.
    4. 4. I started the survey by asking forage and medical education. I onlywanted to include those over the age of 18 because I assume those under the age of 18 generally do not actively seek information as they most likely would have aguardian seeking the information for them. I asked for medical education to compare the answers of the self reported medically educatedparticipants to the non medicallyeducated. My assumption is that the self reported medicallyeducated participants will have a higher percentage of correct answers compared to the non medically educated. The next question involves ranking the leading three causesof death in the US. I listed the top 10 and had the participants rank what they thought to be the top three.
    5. 5. What are the three most common causes of death in the United States?
    6. 6. Top 10 leading Causes of Death in the U.S.: 1. Heart disease: 616,067 2. Cancer: 562,875 3. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 135,952 4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 127,924 5. Accidents (unintentional injuries): 123,706 6. Alzheimers disease: 74,632 7. Diabetes: 71,382 8. Influenza and Pneumonia: 52,717 9. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis: 46,448 10. Septicemia: 34,828Source: Deaths: Final Data for 2007, tables B, D, 7, 30
    7. 7. 5. What are the seven leading controllable risk factors for Heart Disease? 1. High Cholesterol 2. High Blood Pressure 3. Diabetes 4. Physical Inactivity 5. Lack of a Healthy Diet 6. Obesity 7. Tobacco Use Build up of fatty cholesterol on theartery walls, limiting the blood flow Source:
    8. 8. 6. What are the three most common symptoms of a heart attack? 1. Chest Discomfort 2. Radiating Pain (referred pain) 3. Shortness of Breath • Medical name for a heart attack is myocardial infarction • If blood supply is not restored within a few minutes, the affected muscle cells can suffer permanent damage or die.
    9. 9. 7. A person with most of the risk factors for developing cancer will definitely develop some form of cancer. True False• Cancer research still has many uncertainties as to an exact cause, but research shows that certain risk factors increase the chance that a person will develop cancer• Some people can have one or more risk factors and never develop cancer
    10. 10. 8. What are five warning signs of a stroke? 1. Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body 2. Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding 3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes 4. Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination 5. Sudden severe headache with no known cause Up to 80% of strokes are preventable
    11. 11. Survey Data• All 300 Participants listed they were at least 18 years old.• 51% of participants reported no previous medical knowledge• 49% of participants reported some sort of previous medical knowledge − Of those 148 participants, 26 listed more than one education source − 36% listed nurse − 3% listed Physician − 4% listed Physiotherapist − 28% listed First Aid Course − 46% listed Miscellaneous
    12. 12. Question 3: What are the three leading causes of death in the United States? (Please number 1-3)General:• 16/300 (5.3%) were Correct − 100% of these had self-reported medical knowledge • 5 listed Physiotherapist • 11 listed first aid course• 74/300 (25%) listed the correct top three but had them in the wrong order − 64% of these had self-reported medical knowledge • 11 listed first aid course • 21 listed nurse • 5 listed physician • 11 listed miscellaneous• 158/300 (53%) had one or more answers incorrect − 50% of these had self-reported medical knowledge* • 59 listed nurse • 98 listed miscellaneous • 40 listed first aid course• 47/300 (16%) selected answers but didn’t number their answers − 11% had self-reported medical knowledge • 2 listed first aid course • 3 listed miscellaneous• 5/300 (1.7%) no answer − None had self-reported medical knowledge*Some participants listed more than one source of medical education background
    13. 13. Specific:(Statistics out of 248 participants)• Heart Disease • Diabetes − 248/248 (100%) listed in Top 3 − 77/248 (31%) listed in Top 3 ∙ 171/248 (69%) listed as #1 ∙ 5/248 (2%) listed as #1 ∙ 52/248 (21%) listed as #2 ∙ 29/248 (12%) listed as #2 ∙ 25/248 (10%) listed as #3 ∙ 43/248 (17%) listed as #3• Cancer • Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases − 229/248 (92%) listed in Top 3 − 4/248 (1.6%) listed in Top 3 ∙ 53/248 (21%) listed as #1 ∙ 1/248 (0.4%) listed at #2 ∙ 87/248 (35%) listed as #2 ∙ 3/248 (1.2%) listed as #3 ∙ 89/248 (36%) listed as #3• Stroke − 97/248 (39%) listed in Top 3 ∙ 5/248 (2%) listed as #1 ∙ 52/248 (21%) listed as #2 ∙ 40/248 (16%) listed as #3• Accidents − 89/248 (36%) listed in Top 3 ∙ 10/248 (4%) listed as #1 ∙ 20/248 (8%) listed as #2 ∙ 59/248 (24%) listed as #3
    14. 14. Question 4: Have you or a loved one been affected by one of these three conditions:Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease), Heart Disease, or Cancer?• 126 (85%) of those with self-reported medical knowledge also answered ―yes‖ to having been affected by one of the three leading conditions either directly or indirectly. − 22 (15%) reported ―no‖• 142 (93%) of those with no self-reported medical knowledge answered ―yes‖ to having been affected by one of the three leading conditions either directly or indirectly. − 10 (7%) reported ―no‖• A total of 268 (89%) reported ―yes‖ to having been affected by one of the three leading conditions either directly or indirectly.
    15. 15. Question 5: What are the seven leading controllable risk factors for Heart Disease (nospecific order)? • Of those with self-reported medical education: − 7.4% answered 2/7 correct − 14.8% answered 3/7 correct − 29.6% answered 4/7 correct − 18.5% answered 5/7 correct − 22.2% answered 6/7 correct − 7.4% answered 7/7 correct  78% answered more than half correctly • Of those without self-reported medical education: − 6.7% answered 0/7 correct − 1.3% answered 2/7 correct − 33% answered 3/7 correct − 26.7% answered 4/7 correct − 10% answered 5/7 correct − 6.7% answered 6/7 correct − 3.3% answered 7/7 correct  48% answered more than half correctly
    16. 16. Question 6: What are the three most common symptoms of a heart attack? • Of those with self-reported medical education: − 4.1% answered 1/3 correct − 55.6% answered 2/3 correct − 40.7% answered 3/3 correct • Of those without self-reported medical education: − 3.3% answered 0/3 correct − 1.3% answered 1/3 correct − 40% answered 2/3 correct − 43% answered 3/3 correctQuestion 7: A person with most of the risk factors for developing cancer willdefinitely develop some form of cancer. True False • Of those with self-reported medical education: − 88.9% answered correct • Of those without self-reported medical education: − 83.3% answered correct
    17. 17. Question 8: What are five warning signs of a stroke? • Of those with self-reported medical education: − 4.1% answered 0/5 correct − 7.4% answered 1/5 correct − 14.8% answered 2/5 correct − 18.5% answered 3/5 correct − 18.5% answered 4/5 correct − 37% answered 5/5 correct  74% answered more than half correct • Of those without self-reported medical education: − 10% answered 0/5 correct − 26.7% answered 1/5 correct − 1.7% answered 2/5 correct − 26.7% answered 3/5 correct − 1.3% answered 4/5 correct − 6.7% answered 5/5 correct  48% answered more than half correct
    18. 18. Question 9: Did this study encourage you to actively seek more information onany of these leading conditions? • Of those with self-reported medical education: − 77.8% answered yes − 22.2% answered no • Of those without self-reported medical education: − 97% answered yes − 3% answered no
    19. 19. Conclusions Regardless of whether the participant had simply taken a first aid course, worked in ahospital environment, or had no previous medical experience, this survey shows that thisinformation needs to be actively sought out. Even though previous medical knowledge may havehelped score higher than those without it, no participants were able to answer all the questionscorrectly. Having previous medical knowledge seemed to be minimally beneficial in correctlyanswering question three which asked participants to identify and number the three leadingcauses of death in the United States. Although only those with previous medical knowledge wereable to correctly label and number the three leading causes of death (5.3% correct total), over half(53%) of the participants answered incorrectly with 50% of those participants having self-reported medical knowledge. A quarter (25%) of participants were able to identify the top threebut were unable list their correct order. Of these participants, 64% had reported medicalknowledge. A majority of participants both with self-reported medical knowledge and without wereable to identify both cancer and heart disease as part of the top three leading causes of death inthe US (92% and 100% respectively). However, only 69% were able to correctly identify heartdisease as the number one killer and only 35% could label cancer as the second deadliest. 39% of participants were able to place stroke in the top three, however only a measly16% were able to correctly label stroke as the third leading cause of death in the US. Accidentswere listed in the top three 36% of the time, and 24% misplaced accidents as the third leadingcause of death in place of stroke.
    20. 20. Previous medical knowledge seemed to help participants through both questions fiveand eight where 74% and 78% of those with previous medical knowledge answered more thenhalf of the questions correct. Question five, asking for the seven controllable risk factors of heart disease, seemedparticularly difficult for both groups—both groups having less than 10% correctly identify allseven (7.4% with medical education and 3.3% without). The results of question six, asking for the three most common symptoms of a heartattack, were fairly universal. Roughly 95% of both groups were able to identify at least twosymptoms. Question seven was fairly surprising. I expected less than 5% to answer incorrectly.Although roughly 89% of either group were able to answer correctly, that leaves an outstanding11% unaware that a cancer diagnosis is not a 100% guarantee even with all the risk factors. Question eight, which pertained to stroke, was the most difficult to answer for thosewithout medical education. Only 6.7% were able to identify all five warning signs of a stroke.Over half (52%) of participants without medical education were unable to identify more than 2warning signs. Those with medical education did substantially better on question 8. with 37%correctly identifying all 5 warning signs of a stroke and 74% correctly identifying 3 or morewarning signs.
    21. 21. Overall, only 5.3% of participants were able to correctly identify and order theleading three causes of death in the US, less than 10% of either group were able to correctlyidentify all parts of question 5, less than half of either group were able to correctly identify allparts of question six, and only 37% of those with medical education and 6.7% of thosewithout were able to correctly identify all parts of question 8. This shows that even with an assumed higher exposure to this information, we needto actively search and pursue this information to prepare and educate ourselves. .
    22. 22. I feel I have achieved my goal of creating a platform for others to start their quest toeducate themselves, as 77.8% of the group with medical education and 97% of the groupwithout medical education answered yes to question 9—asking whether the survey inspiredthem to seek out additional information. After participants finished the survey, I handed them a copy of the answer sheet witha list of websites they could visit for more information. Many people asked me for answersbefore I was even able to hand them the paper. A majority of participants also startedconversations with me to discuss the answers and facts on these diseases. Inspiring thesepeople to educate themselves and start talking about these diseases marks a huge success. I feel that with the proper time, tools, and resources, another survey based on thefindings here, could be conducted to represent a larger portion of the population and repeatedin other states and give us even more accurate and specific data on our progress of educatingourselves. Knowing where we stand will help us take another step forward. Research has to start somewhere. This survey has proven its cause and has shownthere is more information to be found. Organizations have started their attempts at educatingthe public through television advertising, but research like this shows that passive learning isnot enough. The public needs to take an active role in their health and education to helpprevent these deadly diseases
    23. 23. Additional information on risk factors anddiseases pertaining to the three leading causes of death in the United States
    24. 24. What is Heart Disease?• A broad term describing a range of diseases that affect your heart and its blood vessels• Used interchangeably with ―Cardiovascular Disease‖ and ―Coronary Artery Disease‖• Common heart diseases • Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) • Heart infections • Heart defects you’re born with (congenital heart defects)• Cardiovascular disease is caused by narrowed, blocked or stiffened blood vessels that prevent your heart, brain or other parts of your body from receiving enough blood • leads to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke.• In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 34 seconds. Each minute, someone in the United States dies from a heart disease-related event. **Check out this site for an overview on how the heart and the circulatory system works!! • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/circulatory-system/MM00636
    25. 25. Statistics for Heart Disease in Women• Heart disease is the leading cause of death of women in the U.S. Almost everyminute, a woman in the U.S. dies from heart disease. Nearly five times as manywomen (200,000) will die from heart attacks alone this year than will die frombreast cancer. [1]• Since 1984, more women than men have died of heart disease each year.Women have a 28% increased risk of dying as compared to men to die withinthe first year after a heart attack.[1]• 42.7 million women are currently living with some form of cardiovasculardisease (CVD). [2]• 23% of women and 18% of men will die within one year of a first recognizedheart attack; 22-32% of women and 15-27% of men heart attack survivors willdie within five years. [3]• CVD caused 1 death per minute among women in 2007. That represents morefemale lives than were claimed by cancer, Alzheimer disease, and accidentscombined. [2]
    26. 26. 7 Important Risk Factors that can lead to Heart Disease1. High cholesterol2. High blood pressure3. Diabetes4. Lack of Physical Activity5. Lack of Healthy Diet6. Obesity7. Tobacco Use
    27. 27. What is Cholesterol? It may surprise you to know that cholesterol itself isnt bad. In fact,cholesterol is just one of the many substances created and used by our bodies to keepus healthy. Some of the cholesterol we need is produced naturally (and can be affectedby your family health history), while some of it comes from the food we eat. When too much LDL (bad) cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowlybuild up in the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain. Together withother substances, it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can narrow the arteriesand make them less flexible. This condition is known as atherosclerosis. If a clot formsand blocks a narrowed artery, a heart attack or stroke can result. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/About-Cholesterol_UCM_001220_Article.jsp Copyright 2006-2011 Pfizer Inc. All rights reserved
    28. 28. Cholesterol• There are two types of cholesterol: HDL "good" and LDL "bad.―• LDL cholesterol is affected by diet. Knowing which fats raise LDL cholesterol and which ones dont is the first step in lowering your risk of heart disease. Check out this website to learn more facts about the fats: • http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/PreventionTreatmentofHighCholest erol/Know-Your-Fats_UCM_305628_Article.jsp
    29. 29. High Blood Pressure Blood pressure measures the force pushing outwards on your arterial walls. High blood pressure, also known as HBP or hypertension, is a widely misunderstood medical condition. Some people think that those with hypertension are tense, nervous or hyperactive, but hypertension has nothing to do with personality traits. The truth is, you can be a calm, relaxed person and still have HBP.By keeping your blood pressure in the healthy range,you are: • Reducing your risk of your vascular walls becoming overstretched and injured • Reducing your risk of your heart having to pump harder to compensate for blockages • Protecting your entire body so that your tissue receives regular supplies of blood that is rich in the oxygen it needs
    30. 30. **Check out this website for more information on how high blood pressure works andhow to understand your numbers: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/What-is-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_301759_Article.jsp
    31. 31. • Adults with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to have heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes• Insulin resistance or diabetes plus other CVD risk factors (like obesity, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol) greatly increases the risk of heart disease and stroke• Diabetes causes nerve damage in the heart which can make a heart attack painless or ―silent‖• Diabetes increases LDL ―bad‖ cholesterol and decreases HDL ―good‖ cholesterol• Heart attacks are more likely to be fatal in diabetics
    32. 32. Lack of Physical Activity• Regular Physical Activity Helps: − lower blood pressure − increase HDL ―good‖ cholesterol in your blood − control blood sugar by improving how your body uses insulin − reduce feelings of stress − control body weight.• AHA recommends at least 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise or 75 minutes per week of vigorous exercise.• Nearly 70% of Americans do not get the physical activity they need.**Check out this website for more information on physical activity and exerciseideas: − http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/Physical- Activity_UCM_001080_SubHomePage.jsp
    33. 33. Lack of a Healthy Diet A healthy diet and lifestyle are your best weapons in the fight against heart disease. Contrary to what some believe, just eating more vegetables won’t cut it. Your diet is all about balance. Use this website to find the balance that works for you. Also find tips for dining out! − http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/ NutritionCenter/Nutrition- Center_UCM_001188_SubHomePage.jsp**Check out this link to The Dictionary of Nutrition. This dictionary hasloads of information on commonly hear nutrition terms. − http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/He althyDietGoals/Dictionary-of-Nutrition_UCM_305856_Article.jsp
    34. 34. Obesity− About 12 million (16.9%) of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 are obese.− Nearly one in three (31.7%) U.S. children (23,500,000) ages 2 to 19 are overweight or obese.− Over one-third (33.7%) of U.S. adults are obese (nearly 75 million adults). When your weight is in a healthy range: − Your body more effectively circulates blood − Your fluid levels are more easily managed − You are less likely to develop diabetes, heart disease, certain cancers and sleep apnea.
    35. 35. Smoking • Decreases tolerance for physical activity • increases tendency for blood to clot • decreases HDL ―good‖ cholesterol • increases risk for peripheral artery disease and aortic aneurysm Smoking is the most important preventable cause of premature death in the United States**Check out this website for Resources and tips to help you quit:http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/QuitSmoking/QuittingResources/Resources-for-Quitting-Smoking_UCM_307934_Article.jsp
    36. 36. The Heart Attack • Some heart attacks are sudden and intense—―movie heart attacks‖—but most start slowly with mild chest pain or discomfort. − Here are three main ―signs‖ of a heart attack: 1. Chest Discomfort: discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like an uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. 2. Discomfort in other areas of the upper body: Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach 3. Shortness of Breath: with or without chest discomfort − Some other signs may include: breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea, or lightheadedness**Can you recognize a heart attack? Follow this website to take a quiz and see what youknow!http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/HeartAttackToolsResources/Can-You-Recognize-a-Heart-Attack-Quiz_UCM_303942_Article.jsp
    37. 37. Referred pain − Pain perceived at a site with a different nerve supply than the site where the injury has occurred. Radiating pain − Pain that radiates from the site of injury to other adjacent locations that share the same nerve supply as the initial injury site. Other common symptoms of heart attack:  Back, neck, or jaw pain  Nausea  Vomiting  Indigestion  Weakness  Fatigue  Dizziness  Lightheadedness women are more than twice as likely as men to A dermatome map shows which areas of the bodyexperience nausea, vomiting, or indigestion as heart have the same origin of nerve supply http://catalog.nucleusinc.com/generateexhibit.php?ID=4941 attack symptoms
    38. 38. Calling 9-1-1 is almost always the fastest way toget lifesaving treatment. Emergency medical services (EMS)staff can begin treatment when they arrive — up to an hoursooner than if someone gets to the hospital by car. EMS staff are also trained to revive someonewhose heart has stopped. Patients with chest pain who arriveby ambulance usually receive faster treatment at the hospital,too. It is best to call EMS for rapid transport to theemergency room.**Check out this cardiac glossary for help defining some heart-related terms:http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/HeartAttackToolsResources/Cardiac-Glossary_UCM_303945_Article.jsp
    39. 39. Check your heart healthFollow this website to see how the seven previously discussed risk factors are affecting your heart. http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Default.aspx
    40. 40. What is Cancer? • Cancer is a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. • Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. • Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. • The main categories of cancer include: -Carcinoma -Sarcoma -Leukemia -Lymphoma and myeloma -Central nervous system cancers**Check out this site for tons of up-to-date cancer resources and information
    41. 41. An accurate gene test can tell if amutation is present, but that findingdoes not guarantee that disease will Cancer and Geneticsdevelop.For example, women with theBRCA1 breast cancer susceptibilitygene have an 80 percent chance ofdeveloping breast cancer by the ageof 65. The risk is high but notabsolute. Family members who testnegative for the BRCA1 mutation arenot exempt from breast cancer risk;over time, they can acquire breastcancer-associated genetic changes atthe same rate as the generalpopulation.Most cancers come from randommutations that develop in body cellsduring ones lifetime--either as amistake when cells are going throughcell division or in response to injuries Even though all cancer is genetic, just a small portion--from environmental agents such as perhaps 5 or 10 percent--is inherited.radiation or chemicals.
    42. 42. What is a stroke?− Blocked blood vessel in the brain, leading to lack of blood supply and tissue damage or death much like in heart diseases− There are two major types of stroke: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke − Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain is blocked by a blood clot. − May be caused by clogged arteries. Fat, cholesterol, and other substances collect on the artery walls, forming a sticky substance called plaque. − Embolic stroke occurs when the embolism (clot) is formed elsewhere in the body and travels to the brain where it blocks the blood flow − A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in part of the brain becomes weak and bursts open, causing blood to leak into the brain. − Aneurysm
    43. 43. Summary of types of strokes:
    44. 44. Use F.A.S.T. to remember the warning Every 40 seconds signs of stroke someone suffers a stroke, every four minutes someone F=FACE Ask them to smile. Does one side of the face dies from a stroke droop? A=ARMS Ask the person to raise their arms. Does one arm Stroke is a leading drift downward? cause of serious, S=SPEECH Ask to repeat a simple phrase. Is speech slurred long-term adult disability or strange? T=TIME If you observe any of these signs, call 9-1-1 immediately
    45. 45. Stroke Myths:Myth: Stroke is unpreventableReality: Stroke is largely preventableMyth: Stroke cannot be treatedReality: Stroke requires emergency treatmentMyth: Stroke only strikes the elderlyReality: Stroke can happen to anyoneMyth: Stroke happens to the heartReality: Stroke is a "Brain Attack"Myth: Stroke recovery only happens for a few months following a strokeReality: Stroke recovery continues throughout life
    46. 46. ReferencesPictures: http://www.precisionnutrition.com/all-about-high-blood-pressure http://www.kentuckymedicalresearch.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Diabetes-and-heart www.heart.org http://www.toadspad.net/ems/cpr-riskof-heart.html http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/genetesting/page27 http://www.cancer.gov http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/WarningSigns/Warning- Signs_UCM_308528_SubHomePage.jsp http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease/DS01120 http://www.predisease.com/diabete http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/cvd/hbppatient.htms_how_to_screen.php http://www.lipitor.com/aboutCholesterol/whatIsCholesterol.aspx http://howtolosebellyfatsoon.com/how-to-help-your-kid-to-lose-weight-avoid-childhood- obesity.html http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/ What-is-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_301759_Article.jsp http://www.bloodpressurechart.me http://www.diabetesandrelatedhealthissues.com http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Nutrition- Center_UCM_001188_SubHomePage.jsp http://www.accessrx.com/blog/current-health-news/obesity-decreases-quality-of-life-a803
    47. 47. Picture references continued http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/QuitSmoking/Quit- Smoking_UCM_001085_SubHomePage.jsp http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/neuropathic/referred-pain-vsorigin-pain- pathology http://prashant-uikey.blogspot.com/2011/09/what-should-we-do-in-case-of-heart.html http://www.topnews.in/health/ http://mylifecheck.heart.org/Default.aspx http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/genetesting/page28 http://www.cancer.gov http://www.stroke.org/site/PageNavigator/HOME http://www.stroke.org/site/DocServer/NSA_complete_guide.pdf?docID=341 http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=explainingstroke http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=mythOther website references: http://www.cdc.gov http://www.lipitor.com http://mylifecheck.heart.org http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/circulatory-system/MM00636 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease/DS01120
    48. 48. References cont’d: http://www.womenheart.org/resources/upload/Women-and-Heart-Disease-FINAL-2011.pdf Roger V L, Go A S, Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R J,. et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2011 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2011; 121:e1-e192. Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Brown T,. et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2010 Update: A Report from the American Heart Associat ion Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2010;121:e1-e170. Men and Cardiovascular Diseases – Statistics: American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1261005858761FS07MN10.pdf http://www.predisease.com/diabetes_how_to_screen.php http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/About- Cholesterol_UCM_001220_Article.jsp http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/ What-is-High-Blood-Pressure_UCM_301759_Article.jsp http://bloodpressurechartme.com http://www.diabetesandrelatedhealthissues.com/ http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/pre-diabetes/how-to-tell-if-you-have.html- -info on prediabetes tests http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/what-is-prediabetes-or-borderline-diabetes http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/ http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyDietGoals/Diction ary-of-Nutrition_UCM_305856_Article.jsp
    49. 49. References continued http://www.accessrx.com/blog/current-health-news/obesity-decreases-quality-of-life-a803 http://www.womenheart.org/resources/mythstruths.cfm http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/cvd/hbppatient.htms_how_to_screen.php http://www.lipitor.com/aboutCholesterol/whatIsCholesterol.aspx http://howtolosebellyfatsoon.com/how-to-help-your-kid-to-lose-weight-avoid-childhood- obesity.html http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/neuropathic/referred-pain-vsorigin-pain- pathology http://prashant-uikey.blogspot.com/2011/09/what-should-we-do-in-case-of-heart.html http://www.hearthealthywomen.org/signs-symptoms/featured/heart-disease-signs.html http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/Physical- Activity_UCM_001080_SubHomePage.jsp http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Nutrition- Center_UCM_001188_SubHomePage.jsp

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