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A research paper detailing the economic benefits of Marcellus Shale drilling in Northern Pennsylvania

A research paper detailing the economic benefits of Marcellus Shale drilling in Northern Pennsylvania

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  • 1. 1|Ruckno
  • 2. Introduction: About the Marcellus Shale Region The Marcellus Shale region is the largest natural gas play in the United States,and the second-largest in the world. It spans 95,000 square miles in Pennsylvania, NewYork and West Virginia, along with parts of Maryland, Ohio and Virginia (Considine2010). Conversely, the Barnett natural gas field in Texas spans 5,000 square miles.Currently, the Barnett field is the most productive natural gas region in the United States(Considine 2010). It is estimated that the Marcellus Shale region has 489 trillion cubic feet ofrecoverable natural gas, and only a fraction of that, or 14 trillion cubic feet, will berecovered by 2015. By 2020, it is estimated that about 28 trillion cubic feet of natural gaswill be recovered from the Marcellus Shale region, making it a viable resource forgenerations to come (Considine 2010). Natural gas development has exploded in recent years, most notably in WestVirginia and Pennsylvania. Production in Pennsylvania increased dramatically since2007, while production in West Virginia has begun to slow. West Virginia lawmakers have imposed a severance tax on natural gasproduction, but no such taxes are currently in place in Pennsylvania. The state legislaturehas been debating that issue for quite some time, but newly elected governor TomCorbett (R) remains adamantly opposed to a severance tax. The governor’s proposed2011-12 budget calls for massive cuts in education funding, while levying no new taxeson natural gas production. Corbett contends the natural gas industry will generate enoughrevenue through other sources, such as earned income and mercantile taxes, so there is no 2|Ruckno
  • 3. need to tax it further (Burke 2011). His goal is to turn Pennsylvania into the “Texas” ofnatural gas production. Bradford County in the Northern Tier of Pennsylvania is in the heart of theMarcellus Shale boom, along with the other Northern Tier counties of Susquehanna,Tioga, Sullivan and Wyoming (Mullin & Lonergan Associates 2010). If developed fully,that area has the potential to be the second-largest natural gas field in the world (Mullin& Lonergan Associates 2010). In 2009, 113 natural gas wells were drilled in BradfordCounty, with 242 more drilled in 2010, according to the Pennsylvania Department ofEnvironmental Protection (Mocarsky 2010). The map below provides a detailed look atactive and permitted natural gas wells within that county.Source: Northeast Driller 3|Ruckno
  • 4. Bradford, Tioga and Susquehanna counties produced more than a third ofMarcellus Shale gas in the state during the second half of 2010 (New data showsMarcellus Shale’s promise, growth 2011). All three of those counties are the border ofPennsylvania and New York, where a moratorium on drilling in that state’s MarcellusShale region has halted production. Economists estimate the legislative decision will costthat New York $11 billion in lost revenue between now and 2020 (Considine 2010). Types of Jobs Required The extraction of natural gas from underneath the Marcellus Shale involves aprocess called hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as “fracking.” Duringfracking, millions of gallons of chemically treated water are blasted thousands of feetunderground. The pressure cracks the shale, releasing the natural gas (Wastewater facilitynot welcomed in neighborhood 2011). Gas industry experts have known for years that the Marcellus Shale deposits inNorthern Pennsylvania contained natural gas, but energy companies felt it was tooexpensive to extract it from the ground (Considine 2010). Fracking has made the processmuch more cost effective. The Marcellus Shale Education & Training Center, a joint venture between PennCollege of Technology in Williamsport and the Penn State Cooperative Extension,recently conducted a needs assessment study to determine the types of jobs required toextract natural gas. The findings indicated that 47% of the jobs created would be bluecollar jobs. An additional 20% would be general office jobs, and 33% of MarcellusShale-related jobs would require a specific skill set (Marcellus Shale Education & 4|Ruckno
  • 5. Training Center 2009). The graphic below illustrates the breakdown of the necessaryoccupations.Source: Marcellus Shale Education and Training Center The MSETC study also determined that many educational institutions in theMarcellus Shale region already offer programs that closely match specific gas-relatedoccupations, but few are currently offering courses directly related to the natural gasindustry. Penn College of Technology offers some courses directly related to drilling, asdoes Lackawanna College. The study also determined that many schools in the CentralPennsylvania and Northern Tier Workforce Development regions do offer programs that 5|Ruckno
  • 6. directly match the skilled occupations that the natural gas industry needs (MarcellusShale Education & Training Center 2009). Direct Economic Impacts The MSETC needs assessment study determined that natural gas drilling industrywill directly create 8,000 jobs in the next five years – in Central Pennsylvania and theNorthern Tier alone. It takes about 410 individuals, working at 150 different occupationsin order to drill one well, and an average of 20 to 30 contract companies will be utilizedin the process (Marcellus Shale Education & Training Center 2009). However, there is a fine line between productive and unproductive wells inNorthern Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale region. Geologists are still working todetermine where that line is, and that is why so many gas companies have spent billionsto enter into leases with landowners to drill exploratory wells (Disappointing Marcelluswells help define the play’s promise 2011). Market prices can range from hundreds ofdollars per acre to thousands of dollars per acre, and state law mandates that landownersmust be paid a minimum royalty of 12.5% in the event gas is found (TalismanUSA.com2011). Some of these royalties have resulted significant income for many NorthernPennsylvania property owners (Considine 2010). Executives at the P & G Mehoopany Federal Credit Union, headquartered inTunkhannock, Wyoming County, have seen many landowners approach them aboutmaking large deposits into their accounts (Stanziale 2011). Employees there frequentlyhave to explain that the financial institution can only insure assets up to $250,000. 6|Ruckno
  • 7. Beyond that, the credit union has no means to protect their customers from potentiallosses. Preliminary drilling seems to indicate that gas wells in Luzerne, Columbia,southern Wyoming and northern Lackawanna counties are not as productive as the gascompanies have originally hoped (Disappointing Marcellus wells help define the play’spromise 2011), but drilling companies are still interested in exploring the region.Williams Production Appalachia recently announced plans to drill exploratory wells atthe border of Luzerne and Columbia counties, despite the fact that Encana EnergyCorporation decided to abandon drilling operations just a few miles away (Drilling rig toreturn to Columbia/Luzerne border 2011). EXCO Holding PA, a subsidiary of Texas-based EXCO Resources, also plans to drill exploratory wells in that area (Drilling rig toreturn to Columbia/Luzerne border 2011). Gas-related construction projects are also moving forward all over the region.There is a proposal on the table to build a compressor station in Dallas Township,Luzerne County (Pipeline planned for familiar site 2011), and another company hasexpressed interest in building a treatment center for well water at the Wyoming ValleySanitary Authority complex in Hanover Township, near Wilkes-Barre (Wastewaterfacility not welcomed in neighborhood 2011). In addition, many energy companies are opening corporate offices in the region.Oklahoma-based Williams recently announced plans to open offices in WyomingCounty, near Tunkhannock. The expansion is expected to create 100 new jobs by 2013(Gas firm plans 100 new jobs 2011). Haliburton also has a presence in Pennsylvania, andexpects to be in the state for 30 to 40 years (Mahon 2011). Haliburton employees 7|Ruckno
  • 8. working in and around the natural gas industry receive a starting wage between $45,000and $55,000, which is higher than the wages of most Pennsylvanians (Mahon 2011). In a 2010 report presented to the American Petroleum Institute, author Timothy J.Considine, Ph.D., of Natural Resources Economics Inc., said the economic benefitswould be far reaching. “The development of the Marcellus Shale will have significant economic impactsfor the economy of the Marcellus region,” Considine wrote. “Leasing, exploring, drillingand developing these natural gas reserves will directly generate thousands of high-payingjobs and indirectly create many others as employment is stimulated in support industriesas workers spend these wages and households spend royalty income.” Considine believes that natural gas drilling could substantially increase theregion’s gross domestic product, income, and ultimately tax revenue. Long-term, theMarcellus Shale region could evolve into a major exporter of natural gas to easternCanada and the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States (Considine2010). “A larger industry in the long run will be a far greater generator of governmenttax revenue than an industry stunted by high taxes and excessive regulations,” Considineadded (Considine 2010). The region’s close proximity to the Transco pipeline, a 10,000-mile network ofgas lines constructed or the last 60 years, only makes it easier to move the gas to market.The Transco line, which is owned by the Williams Energy Corporation, supplies gas tomajor markets on the East Coast, from New York City to Atlanta (Transco updateincludes increased horsepower 2011). In addition, the quality of the gas that is extracted 8|Ruckno
  • 9. from Marcellus Shale needs very little processing before it can be sold (Transco updateincludes increased horsepower 2011). The graphic below, provided to The Citizens’ Voice by Williams Energy, depictsthe planned upgrades to the Transco pipeline in the Northern Tier. The green dotted linedepicts the area where the upgrades will be made. A closer look at Employment Data For statistical purposes, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industryclassifies natural gas drillers as miners. The mining and logging industry saw 100 newjobs created in December 2010 alone (Center for Workforce Information and Analysis2011). The mining industry itself has seen an 80-percent increase in job growth since2009, and there is more to come. Bradford County leads the state in new job openings forminers, with 24. Lycoming County has nine openings for miners, while Tioga County hasfour (Center for Workforce Information and Analysis 2011). 9|Ruckno
  • 10. The statewide unemployment rate is at 8.5%, and is projected to fall steadily.Many Northern Tier counties, however, already enjoy unemployment rates that are muchlower than that. Currently, the unemployment rate in Bradford County is 6.9%. TiogaCounty is at 7%, while Sullivan and Wyoming Counties boast 7.5% and 7.8%unemployment rates respectively. Meanwhile, the unemployment rates in Lycoming andSusquehanna Counties are at 9%, slightly above the state average (Center for WorkforceInformation and Analysis 2011). Contrast that with the more urbanized areas of Lackawanna and LuzerneCounties, where unemployment is at near record highs. Lackawanna County’s currentunemployment rate is at 9.4%, while Luzerne County’s unemployment rate is at 10.1%(Center for Workforce Information and Analysis 2011). As of July 2010, the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton metro area had the highest unemployment rate in the state (Lynott 2010). Residual Economic Impacts Other industries are also reaping the benefits of natural gas drilling. Themanagement industry is exploding, while manufacturing and government are seeingmodest gains (Center for Workforce Information and Analysis 2011). Since 2009,management has seen a 30% increase in job growth. Manufacturing jobs have increasedby 8%, and government jobs have seen a 4% increase since 2009 (Center for WorkforceInformation and Analysis 2011). The Pennsylvania Department of Labor also noted gainsin temporary employment, the hotel and motel industry – excluding casino hotels – andnon-residential plumbing and heating employment (Center for Workforce Information 10 | R u c k n o
  • 11. and Analysis 2011). In addition, more corporate regional offices are also moving into thestate (Center for Workforce Information and Analysis 2011). Pennsylvania Department of Labor statistics indicate that leisure and hospitality isthe fastest-growing industry in the state, seeing a net gain of 5,753 jobs between July andDecember 2010 (Center for Workforce Information and Analysis 2011). A more long-range view indicates that the arts, entertainment and recreation industry has gained 7,300jobs since 2007, up 8.5%. Education, meanwhile, is up 5.79% since 2007. The industryhas seen 15,000 new jobs since that time (Center for Workforce Information and Analysis2010). Northern Tier chambers of commerce are singing the praises of the gas boom andwhat it has done for businesses in their service areas. Maureen Dispenza, executivedirector of the Wyoming County Chamber of Commerce, can’t believe what hashappened in her quiet neighborhood. Small retailers are thriving in the county seat ofTunkhannock, especially those retailers who cater to the growing natural gas industry.Restaurants, hotels, and small business owners are all reaping the benefits, she said(Dispenza 2011). Bill Kelley, owner of Taylor Rental in Montrose, has seen his business explode inthe past three years. He started as a small business that rented primarily construction andparty equipment, but now he has expanded operations into Tunkhannock. The natural gasboom has inspired him to launch a spinoff business called BX3 Oil Field Supply(Wyoming chamber gets boost from gas companies 2011). Right now, nearly 70% of the natural gas workforce is imported from out-of-state(Mahon 2011), largely because local workers are not adequately trained to work at active 11 | R u c k n o
  • 12. drilling sites. Penn College of Technology in Williamsport is looking to change that, so itopened the Marcellus Shale Workforce Resource Center in 2010. The school is in theprocess of doing a study to determine how much of the Marcellus Shale workforce islocal (Mahon 2011). Meanwhile, all those out-of-town workers need places to eat, sleep,and, ultimately, live. Housing The influx of workers has added to an existing shortage of accessible, modernrental properties in the Northern Tier. Units that were once renting for $375 or $400 permonth are now renting for $800 to $1,200 per month. The region’s price floor for a twobedroom unit has gone from $600 per month to $1,200 to $1,500 per month. Landlordsare withdrawing from the Section 8 program, and opting not to renew leases with goodtenants in order to raise their prices (Mullin & Lonergan Associates 2010). Housing issues aside, Bradford County boasts one of the lowest unemploymentrates in the state, down to around 7% from 10.0%, and it leads Pennsylvania in new jobcreation (Mullin & Lonergan Associates 2010). In addition, Bradford, Susquehanna, andTioga counties account for 56% of the state’s total natural gas production (Mullin &Lonergan Associates 2010), surpassing production in the western part of the state. Education In October of 2010, The Times Leader reported that enrollment was on the rise inBradford County schools, specifically the Wyalusing Area School District. At WyalusingArea, the majority of those students were directly associated with the gas industry, 12 | R u c k n o
  • 13. superintendent Ray Fleming said (Mocarsky 2010). Elk Lake school district inSusquehanna County has also seen enrollment declines slow, as has the Northern Tiogaschool district in Tioga County (Mocarsky 2010). “The student enrollments in Bradford County schools have been declining almostacross the board until last year. In the 2009-2010 school year, we received 57 newstudents and the majority of those students were associated with the gas industry,” saidFleming. “That doesn’t seem like much, but it was a major impact on our school districtbecause we were expecting a little further decline again. We had to hire additionalteachers and had to do a few other things to get that working (Mocarsky 2010).” The enrollment increase at Wyalusing Area resulted in the hiring of three newteachers, six or seven aides, and a custodian (Mocarsky 2010). Futhermore, theemployment market is booming. Fleming cannot find substitute custodians, cafeteriaworkers or secretaries because they’re all working for the gas companies (Mocarsky2010). He believes the impact would be greater, were it not for a shortage of availablehousing (Mocarsky 2010). The Dark Side The natural gas industry has been heavily criticized by environmental advocateswho believe the fracking process contaminates the drinking water supply. In 2009, thePennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection cited Cabot Oil and Gas forviolating a variety of environmental regulations, resulting in a settlement that left Caboton the hook for more than $120,000 in fines (Dimock Twp. Property Owners Sue GasDriller Cabot 2009). Fifteen residents of Dimock Township, Susquehanna County, 13 | R u c k n o
  • 14. subsequently sued Cabot in Federal court, claiming that the Houston-based driller causedproperty damage, created health hazards, and manipulated them into signing unfaircontracts (Dimock Twp. Property Owners Sue Gas Driller Cabot 2009). Many Northeastern Pennsylvania lawmakers, including State Rep. Phyllis Mundy,D-Kingston, have publicly advocated for a moratorium on gas drilling while stateregulators scramble to catch up to the ever-increasing need for their services. ThePennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection has continually expanded itsregulatory force over the last few years, but even the government has trouble recruitingand retaining qualified employees. Many of them are leaving the public sector for morelucrative opportunities with private sector energy companies (DEP losing staff to gasdrilling industry 2011). In addition, a recent New York Times expose revealed that Pennsylvania naturalgas frack water, which is extremely salty, had high concentrations of naturally occurringradioactive materials in it. Frack water can contain hazardous materials such as barium,strontium, and other radioactive elements, which can ultimately reach the Earth’s surface.Between 10 and 40 percent of the water used in fracking will resurface during the firstfew weeks of gas drilling (Urbina 2011). In a subsequent article, the newspaper slammeddrillers for not recycling enough “frack” water, and further alleged that recycling it doesnot eliminate all of its contaminants (Urbina 2011). The story also stated that somedrillers are selling that brine for use as a road de-icer in the winter. When the ice melts oris washed away by rain, the runoff can end up in the water supply (Urbina 2011). The New York Times series fueled the collective fire of the anti-drillingcontingent, and prompted U.S. Sen. Robert P. Casey Jr., D-PA, to call for increased 14 | R u c k n o
  • 15. testing of public water supplies in the Marcellus Shale region (Casey calls for watertesting 2011). John Hanger, the former secretary of the Pennsylvania Department ofEnvironmental Protection, recently wrote on his blog that DEP “should order today allpublic systems to test immediately for radioactive pollutants” (Casey calls for watertesting 2011). The issue is also haunting Hanger’s successor, Michael Krancer. Theacting director, whose confirmation is pending, was recently asked to respond to the NewYork Times allegations, and he said DEP was considering increased testing (Swift 2011). Krancer disputed several claims in the article (Swift 2011), and his predecessor,Hanger, criticized the New York Times for not detailing the stricter regulations, increasedstaff and more frequent inspections of well sites that have been adopted in the past threeyears. Hanger believes one of his administration’s greatest achievements is the enhancedenforcement of Marcellus Shale drilling regulations (Swift 2011). In a related move, theDelaware River Basin Commission approved a 30-day extension on the public commentperiod for its proposed natural gas drilling regulations (River basin commission adds 30days to drilling comment period 2011). Concerned citizens groups have organized anti-drilling campaigns, and peopleliving near proposed gas-related project sites have been increasingly vocal about theirdisapproval of such projects. Amidst community outcry, Chief Energy has to scramble tofind an alternate site for a proposed natural gas compressor station near the Dallas AreaSchool District Campus (Chief abandons controversial site 2011), and Hanover Townshipresidents have protested plans to construct a wastewater treatment facility near theWyoming Valley Sanitary Authority campus (Wastewater facility not welcomed inneighborhood 2011). Common complaints include noise and road damage from increased 15 | R u c k n o
  • 16. truck traffic, and concerns about safety and hazardous materials that can have an adverseeffect on one’s health. State and industry regulators insist they are doing all they can to address thoseconcerns, and pro-drilling organizations like the Marcellus Shale Coalition continue tolaud the economic benefits of this industry, stating that the benefits outweigh the risks. Conclusion A common misconception among opponents of natural gas drilling is that theindustry only benefits a select few people in rural areas – those who have enough land tolease. The data clearly indicates that this is not the case. Everyone benefits. TheMarcellus Shale boom is creating thousands of jobs for people who live in both rural andurban areas, and who work in a variety of disciplines. The Marcellus Shale coalition has repeatedly cited a Penn State University studythat indicated that as of 2010, 88,588 jobs were directly or indirectly created by naturalgas drilling. The industry also added $8.04 billion in value to the regional economy, andgenerated an estimated $785 million in tax revenue. The study estimates that by 2020, theMarcellus Shale industry will create almost 212,000 jobs and generate $18.85 billion invalue for the regional economy (Jobs, Revenue and Opportunity for the Commonwealth2010). “We have already in the transportation industry seen a pickup in business relatedto the Marcellus Shale,” said John Vargo, executive vice president of PGT Trucking, acompany with a strong presence in the Eastern United States. “And with thoseproductions – 2,000-plus wells that will be new and operational each year, transportation 16 | R u c k n o
  • 17. of the pipe, drill heads, rigging, and other equipment supplies – not just for flatbedtrucking, but for all phases of the trucking industry, is going to be a phenomenal thing(Jobs, Revenue and Opportunity for the Commonwealth 2010).” While the exact economic impact is hard to quantify, it is clear that energycompanies are continuing to make significant investments in the Marcellus Shale region.Regional chambers of commerce have seen first-hand what it the natural gas industry hasdone, and housing prices in the Northern Tier have soared. Anecdotal evidence of growth can easily be seen on a road trip through theNorthern Tier. Equipment dealers are selling tanker trucks for both freshwater and brinewater, and once-deserted rural motels have full parking lots, full of trucks with out-of-state tags. Cars parked in front of local businesses don Texas and Oklahoma licenseplates, while drilling rigs adorn the expansive rural landscape. In terms of economic benefit, it is important to look at this issue in broad context.While it is very unlikely that a gas company will approach me about leasing my suburbanback yard, it is not out of the realm of possibility that I could work for an energycompany and be paid a salary that would allow me to maintain my suburban home. It isalso possible, perhaps likely, that I could eat fresh produce grown by a local farmer whomight have sold his land if he didn’t get a gas lease. In the middle of a country road trip, Imight also stop at a rural diner that might have gone out of business without theadditional customers the natural gas industry has created. Whether we like it or not, the natural gas industry is here. The energy companiesare likely to stick around, and they will need staff members to keep their operationsafloat. Both Chesapeake Energy and Cabot Oil and Gas are making a conscious effort to 17 | R u c k n o
  • 18. hire local workers, and Williams Energy is following suit. Company executives recentlyconfirmed those intentions at a Business-to-Business forum in Tunkhannock. Ifprojections of massive growth are accurate, the energy companies will not be unable tocontinue to import workers. 18 | R u c k n o
  • 19. Works CitedBaker, Robert. “Gas firm plans 100 new jobs.” [Article] February 11, 2011, The Citizens’Voice.Baker, Robert. “Wyoming chamber gets boost from gas companies.” [Article] April 7,2011, The Citizens’ Voice.Bradford County Office of Planning and Grants and Pennsylvania Department ofEnvironmental Protection. “Active and Permitted Marcellus Gas Wells in BradfordCounty.” [Map] Northeast Driller, February 24, 2011.Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Economy at a Glance: Pennsylvania.” [Table]. RetrievedMarch 29, 2011 from http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag/pa.htm.Burke, Marisa. “Governor Corbett’s Interview.” [Television Interview] March 2011,www.wnep.com.Center for Workforce Information and Analysis, Pennsylvania Department of Labor andIndustry. “Pennsylvania’s Employment Situation: January 2011.” Retrieved February 15,2011 from http://www.paworkstats.state.pa.us/default.asp.Considine, Timothy J., Ph.D. “The Economic Impacts of the Marcellus Shale:Implications for New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.” [A report to The AmericanPetroleum Institute] July 14, 2010.“Dimock Twp. property owners sue gas driller Cabot.” [Article] November 21, 2009, TheTimes Leader. Retrieved March 2, 2011 fromhttp://www.timesleader.com/news/Dimock_Twp__property_owners_sue_gas_driller_Cabot_11-21-2009.html.Dispenza, Maureen; Executive Director, Wyoming County Chamber of Commerce.[Telephone Interview]. January 21, 2011.Legere, Laura. “Casey calls for water testing.” [Article] March 2, 2011, The Citizens’Voice.Legere, Laura. “DEP losing staff to gas drilling industry.” [Article] January 24, 2011, TheTimes-Tribune.Legere, Laura. “Disappointing Marcellus wells help define the play’s promise.” [Article].February 24,, 2011, Northeast Driller.Legere, Laura. “New data shows Marcellus Shale’s promise, growth.” [Article] February24, 2011, Northeast Driller. 19 | R u c k n o
  • 20. Legere, Laura. “River basin commission adds 30 days to drilling comment period.”[Article] March 3, 2011, The Citizens’ Voice.Lynott, Jerry. “NEPA unemployment rate still Pa.’s highest.” [Article] The Times Leader,July 28, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2011 fromhttp://www.timesleader.com/news/NEPA-unemployment-rate-still-Pas-highest.html.Mahon, Ed. “Workers finding a future in gas drilling.” The Centre Daily Times.Published February 24, 2011 in Northeast Driller.Marcellus Shale Coalition. “Jobs, Revenue and Opportunity for the Commonwealth.”[Fact Sheet] June 2, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2011 fromhttp://marcelluscoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/msc-jobs-revenue-opportunity.pdf.Marcellus Shale Coalition. “The Marcellus Multiplier.” [PowerPoint presentation]October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2010 fromhttp://www.scrantonchamber.com/uploads/press/ShalePresentationPart11287772770.pdf.Marcellus Shale Education & Training Center. “Marcellus Shale Workforce NeedsAssessment Review.” [PowerPoint Presentation]. June 2009.Mocarsky, Steve. “Enrollment up rise in Shale area schools.” [Article]. October 29, 2010,The Times Leader. Retrieved January 14, 2011 fromhttp://www.timesleader.com/news/hottopics/shale/Student_enrollment_on_the_increase_in_Shale_area_schools_09-17-2010.html?searchterm=enrollment+up+rise+in+shale+area+schools.Mullin & Longeran Associates, Inc. “The Effects of Marcellus Shale Drilling on Housingin the Northern Tier. [Legal Brief] November 5, 2010.Skrapits, Elizabeth. “Chief abandons controversial site.” [Article] February 24, 2011, TheCitizens’ Voice.Skrapits, Elizabeth. “Drilling rig to return to Columbia/Luzerne border.” [Article] March1, 2011, The Citizens’ Voice.Skrapits, Elizabeth. “Pipeline planned for familiar site.” [Article] February 14, 2011, TheCitizens’ Voice.Skrapits, Elizabeth. “Transco upgrade includes increased horsepower.” [Article] March13, 2011, The Citizens’ Voice.Skrapits, Elizabeth. “Wastewater facility not welcomed in neighborhood.” [Article]February 14, 2011, The Citizens’ Voice. 20 | R u c k n o
  • 21. Stanziale, Kathy, Vice President of Human Resources/Compliance, P & G MehoopanyEmployees Federal Credit Union. [Personal Interview] March 17, 2011.Swift, Robert. “DEP hopeful weighs need for more testing.” [Article] March 3, 2011, TheCitizens’ Voice.TalismanUSA.com. “Landowners: Royalties.” [Web site]. Retrieved April 6, 2011 fromhttp://www.talismanusa.com/landowners/royalties.html.Urbina, Ian. “Wastewater Recycling No Cure-All in Gas Process.” [Article] March 1,2011, New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2011 fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/02/us/02gas.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Wastewater%20Recycling%20No%20Cure-All%20in%20Gas%20Process&st=cse. 21 | R u c k n o

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