Another look at NSF's R&D data
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Another look at NSF's R&D data

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Another look at NSF's R&D data Another look at NSF's R&D data Presentation Transcript

  • Another  look  at  NSF’s  R&D  data   Prepared  by  David  Hochman   dh@tbed.org   Summer  2012  
  • Each  year  •  The  annual  R&D  expenditures  survey  adds  another   year  to  60+  years  of  data  •  And  there’s  a  lot  of  data:   –  7  funding  sectors   –  5  performing  sectors   –  3  stages  of  character  of  work  •  It’s  almost  impossible  to  figure  out  what’s  going  on   from  the  data  tables   –  But  NSF  gives  us  only  5  pie  charts  in  SEI,  with  liTle   interpretaUon  •  We  can  do  beTer:  more  charts,  more  interpretaUon  
  • Caveats  •  DefiniUons,  abbreviaUons  at   hTp://www.nsf.gov/staUsUcs/nsf11313/  •  Considering  1  year  only:  2009  poured  into  an  Excel  pivot   table  and  worked  over  in  different  ways  •  No  spurious  precision:  rounded  to  the  nearest  whole  %  and   whole  billion  $  •  Including  only  breakdowns  interesUng  to  me,  out  of  many,   many  possible  cross-­‐cuts  •  No  grand  conclusions,  just  my  observaUons,  and  these  may   not  be  the  same  comparisons  you  would  make,  yourself  •  Did  I  err  anywhere?  Want  another  comparison?  Need  to   see  my  pivot  table?  Email  me:  dh@tbed.org  
  • Insights  by  stage  (character)  of  research  
  • Most  of  the  enUre  $400b  R&D  enterprise  is  development-­‐stage   Applied   18%   Basic   Development   19%   63%  
  • Most  of  that  $253b  in  development  is  performed  by  industry   Other  nonprofit   U&C   U&C  FFRDC   Industry  FFRDC   1%   Federal   1%   1%   1%   7%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   0%   Industry   89%  
  • Most  of  that  $227b  in  development  performed  by  industry  is  self-­‐funded   Federal   13%   Industry   87%  
  • Industry  itself  performs  essenUally  all  the  $197b  in  development  that  it  funds   Other  nonprofit   0%   U&C   0%   Industry   100%  
  • The  $54b  in  development  funded  by  the  feds  is  performed  by  diverse  sectors   Nonprofit   Other   U&C   U&C  FFRDC   FFRDC   nonprofit   1%   3%   2%   1%   Industry  FFRDC   4%   Federal   32%   Industry   57%  
  • The  $2b  in  development  performed  by  universiUes  is  funded  more  by  the  feds  than  by  industry;  some  is  self-­‐funded   U&C   30%   Federal   39%   Other   nonprofit   12%   Industry   9%   Other   government   10%  
  • The  $71b  in  applied  research  performed  in  all  sectors  is  funded  mainly  by  industry  and  the  feds   U&C   Other   Other  nonprofit   4%   government   5%   1%   Federal   42%   Industry   48%  
  • That  $71b  in  applied  research  is  performed  diversely,  but  heavily  by  industry   U&C  FFRDC   2%   Federal   U&C   11%   17%   Other  nonprofit   8%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   2%   Industry  FFRDC   Industry   3%   57%  
  • That  $41b  in  applied  research  performed  by  industry  is  mostly  self  funded  by  industry   Federal   19%   Industry   81%  
  • Industry  itself  performs  virtually  all  the  $34b  in  applied  research  that  it  funds   U&C   Other  nonprofit   1%   2%   Industry   97%  
  • The  $30b  in  applied  research  funded  by  the  feds  is  performed  diversely,  with  some  role  for  universiUes   U&C  FFRDC   4%   U&C   Federal   22%   27%   Other   nonprofit   10%   Industry   26%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   Industry  FFRDC   5%   6%  
  • The  $12b  in  applied  research  performed  by  universiUes  is  mostly  federally  funded,  liTle  by  industry   U&C   23%   Other  nonprofit   9%   Federal   55%   Other   government   7%   Industry   6%  
  • The  $76b  in  basic  research  performed  in  all  sectors  is  funded  diversely  but  mainly  by  the  feds   U&C   11%   Other   nonprofit   Other   11%   government   3%   Federal   53%   Industry   22%  
  • That  $76b  in  basic  research  funded  by  all  sectors  is  performed  diversely  but  heavily  by  universiUes   U&C  FFRDC   3%   Federal   7%   Industry   20%   U&C   Industry  FFRDC   53%   3%   Other   nonprofit   Nonprofit   12%   FFRDC   2%  
  • The  $41b  in  basic  research  performed  by  universiUes  is  mainly  federally  or  self-­‐funded,  liTle  by  industry   U&C   20%   Other  nonprofit   8%   Other   Federal   government   60%   6%   Industry   6%  
  • The  $15b  in  basic  research  performed  by  industry  is  mainly  self-­‐funded,  some  by  the  feds   Federal   9%   Industry   91%  
  • The  $41b  in  basic  research  funded  by  the  feds  is  performed  mainly  by  universiUes   U&C  FFRDC   4%   Federal   Industry   14%   3%   Industry  FFRDC   6%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   4%   U&C   Other  nonprofit   60%   9%  
  • The  $16b  in  basic  research  funded  by  industry  is  performed  mainly  by  industry;  a  small  share  by  universiUes   Other  nonprofit   U&C   4%   14%   Industry   82%  
  • Comparisons  across  the  character  (stage)  of  research  
  • As  the  R&D  gets  later  stage,  the  feds  and  industry  perform  more  of  it,  universiUes  less   U&C   Federal   U&C   Nonprofit   Other   U&C   U&C  FFRDC   7%   FFRDC   FFRDC   nonprofit   1%   FFRDC   3%   4%   2%   1%   3%   Industry   U&C   Federal   FFRDC   Federal   Industry   22%   27%   4%   32%   20%   Industry   FFRDC   U&C   3%   Other   53%   Nonprofit   nonprofit   Industry   Nonprofit   Industry   FFRDC   10%   57%   FFRDC   26%   2%   5%  Industry   Other   nonprofit   FFRDC   12%   6%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • As  R&D  gets  later  stage,  industry’s   funding  share  goes  up,  feds’  share   down   Other   U&C   Other   Other   U&C   nonprofit   4%   nonprofit   governme 0%   Other   5%   1%   nt   nonprofit   U&C   11%   Other   0%   11%   Federal   governme 21%   Other   nt  governme 1%   Federal   nt   42%   3%   Federal   Industry   53%   Industry   22%   48%   Industry   78%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • Very  liTle  industry-­‐funded  R&D  ‘leaks’   to  other  performers  at  any  stage   U&C   Other   Other   U&C   2%   nonprofit   Other   nonprofit   0%   0%  nonprofit   U&C   1%   4%   14%   Industry   Industry   Industry   82%   100%   97%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • But  federally  funded  R&D  is  diversely  performed,  shihing  toward  industry  in  later  stages   U&C   U&C   Nonprofit   Other   U&C   U&C   Industry   FFRDC   nonprofit  FFRDC   FFRDC   1%   FFRDC   3%   2%   3%   4%   4%   1%   Federal   Industry   14%   FFRDC   Industry   U&C   Federal   6%   FFRDC   Federal   22%   27%   4%   32%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   4%   Other   U&C   Other   nonprofit   Industry   Industry   60%   nonprofit   10%   26%   57%   9%   Nonprofit   Industry   FFRDC   FFRDC   5%   6%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • Industry-­‐performed  R&D  is  significantly  dependent  on  federal  funding  at  all  stages   Federal   Federal   Federal   9%   13%   19%   Industry   Industry   Industry   81%   87%   91%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • University-­‐performed  R&D  is  heavily   dependent  on  federal  funding,  liTle  on   industry,  at  all  stages   U&C   U&C   20%   23%   U&C   30%   Other   Federal  nonprofit   Other   39%   8%   nonprofit   Federal   Other   Federal   9%   Other   55%   nonprofit   60%  governme 12%   nt   Other   Other   6%   Industry   governme governme 6%   nt   Industry   nt   Industry   7%   6%   10%   9%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • Insights  by  performing  sector  
  • Industry  performs  a  majority  of  all  $400b  in  R&D,  because  it  dominates  the  largest  stage  (development)   U&C  FFRDC   Other  nonprofit   1%   4%   Nonprofit   U&C   Federal   FFRDC   14%   8%   1%   Industry  FFRDC   2%   Industry   70%  
  • Of  that  $282b  in  industry-­‐performed  R&D,  development  stage  dominates   Applied   15%   Basic   5%   Development   80%   The % breakdown is stable across funding sources (remember: that is dominantly industry itself, secondarily the feds)
  • Of  the  $54b  in  university-­‐performed  R&D,  the  basic  stage  predominates   Development   3%   Applied   22%   Basic   75%   The % breakdown is remarkably stable across funding sources, whether federal (large amount) or industry (small)
  • Of  the  $31b  in  federally  performed  R&D  (all  self-­‐funded),  all  stages  are  represented   Applied   26%   Development   56%   Basic   18%  
  • Most  of  the  $54b  in  university-­‐performed  research  is  funded  by  the  feds,  followed  by  internal  resources   U&C   21%   Other  nonprofit   8%   Federal   Other   58%   government   7%   Industry   6%   The % breakdown is very stable across the larger stages (basic & applied) and not very different in development (small amount)
  • Comparisons  across  performing  sectors  
  • As  a  research  performer,  the  feds  are  more  like  industry  than  universiUes,  in  terms  of  stage/character  of  work   Developm ent   3%   Applied   Basic   Applied   15%   Applied   5%   22%   26%   Developm Developm ent   Basic   ent   Basic   56%   18%   80%   75%   Industry - University - Federal (l. to r.)
  • The  $282b  in  industry-­‐performed  R&D  is  mainly  funded  by  industry;  the  $54b  in  university-­‐performed  R&D  is  funded  mainly  by  the  feds     Federal   U&C   14%   21%   Other   nonprofit   8%   Federal   Other   58%   government   Industry   7%   86%   Industry   6%   Industry (l.) - University (r.) Feds omitted since they fund 100% of their own performance
  • Insights  by  funding  sector  
  • Industry  funds  a  majority  of  all  $400b  in  R&D,  because  so  much  is  development  (which  it  funds  heavily)   Other   Other  nonprofit   U&C   government   3%   3%   1%   Federal   31%   Industry   62%  
  • Of  that  $247b  in  R&D  funded  by  industry,  it  performs  nearly  all  itself   Other  nonprofit   U&C   1%   1%   Industry   98%   The % breakdown is very stable across all stages/characters (vast majority of resources in development)
  • OF  the  $124b  in  R&D  funded  by  the  feds,  the  performers  are  diverse   U&C  FFRDC   4%   Federal   U&C   25%   25%   Other  nonprofit   6%   Industry   Nonprofit   32%   FFRDC   3%   Industry  FFRDC   5%  
  • But  who  performs  federally  funded  research  varies  dramaUcally  by  stage   U&C   U&C   Nonprofit   Other   U&C   U&C   Industry   nonprofit  1%   FFRDC  FFRDC   FFRDC   FFRDC   3%   1%   3%   4%   4%   2%   Industry   Federal   Industry   FFRDC   14%   FFRDC   U&C   Federal   4%   6%   Federal   22%   27%   32%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   4%   Other   U&C   Other   nonprofit   Industry   Industry   60%   nonprofit   10%   26%   57%   9%   Nonprofit   Industry   FFRDC   FFRDC   5%   6%   Basic -> Applied -> Development (l. to r.)
  • The  breakdown  by  stage  of  the  $124b  in  R&D  funded  by  the  feds  is  diverse,  and  very  different  from  the  $247b  that  is  industry-­‐funded   Applied   Applied   14%   Basic   24%   7%   Development   43%   Development   79%   Basic   33%   Federal (l.) – Industry (r.)
  • As  performers  of  federally  funded  R&D,  industry  ($40b)  and  the  feds  themselves  ($31b)  are  focused  on  different  stages  than  universiUes  ($32b)   Developm ent   2%   Applied   Applied   20%   21%   Applied   Basic   26%   3%   Developm Developm ent   Basic   ent   Basic   56%   18%   77%   77%   Industry -> University -> Federal (l. to r.)
  • Comparisons  across  funding  sectors  
  • UniversiUes  perform  more  of  the  $16b  of  industry-­‐ funded  basic  research  than  one  might  expect,  but   far  less  than  of  the  $40b  that  is  federally  funded   U&C  FFRDC   4%  Other  nonprofit   U&C   Federal   Industry   4%   14%   14%   3%   Industry  FFRDC   6%   Nonprofit   FFRDC   4%   U&C   Other  nonprofit   Industry   60%   9%   82%   Industry (l.) – University (r.)